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which represents two lanterns B and L, the slides will never be injured by friction, arranged for exhibiting the dissolving and as the expense is trifling, compared views.

with the frequent outlay for new slides, To use the Magic-lantern.—Light the its general adoption cannot be too strongly lamp, polish the reflector with a dry cloth, urged. and also carefully wipe the lenses to re- The most amusing objects for the slides move any moisture, then place the lamp are grotesque figures ; sudden transformain the focus of the reflector, close the tions, such as a cabbage turning into a door of the lantern, and place it upon a tailor, or a basket of eggs into a nest of table ready for use. Suspend a wet sheet birds; and moving figures, and objects, from a line stretched across the room, or such as a cobbler at work, a tight-rope have a screen made of calico, stretched dancer, a storm coming on at sea, in which tightly upon a frame; in the event of not the ship appears to be struck by lightusing either of them, you must reflect the ning and consumed, the eruption of images upon a smooth white-washed wall. Vesuvius, or a railroad with the train Slip in a slide with the figures, and other passing along. The movements of the subjects, inverted or upside down,—then figures and objects are obtained by paintadvance or recede with the lantern, and ing the subject upon two glasses, which by moving the tube in front of the slide, are fixed in the same frame, and so aryou will be enabled to adjust the focus, ranged that when one is drawn aside, or and obtain a magnified image of the paint moved upwards or downwards, the first deing upon the slide, reflected upon the sign is concealed, or else another one is screen, sheet, or wall. When the room is added to it. large enough, it is better to place the Sometimes several figures are contained screen between the spectators and the lan- in the same slide, and when the subjects tern, as it renders the deception more are distinct, such as objects of natural complete.

history, or small interior views, &c., the The Magic-lantern Slides * may be formed slide is made of mahogany or dea), with of long strips of glass, cut of sufficient width to pass freely in and out of the slit

2 in the tube of the lantern, and if the designs are not valuable, the edges of the slides may be simply bordered with paper to prevent them injuring the tube.

Fig. 2. circular pieces cut out in such a manner as to leave a rabbet on one side; the paintings, protected by a plain piece of glass, are then dropped into the holes, and confined by small brads or a thin piece of wood turned to fit in the hole, and each painting numbered or labelled, so as to prevent mistakes, and for the convenience

of reference. Fig. 1.

DISSOLVING Views are well known to If, on the contrary, the paintings are the frequenters of the Royal Polytechnic good and worth preserving, the glass Institution, London, and have even been should be placed in a wooden frame, exhibited on a large scale in many prosimilar to that shown in the above figure, vincial towns. There is not any difficulty each slide being numbered or labelled, in producing this pleasing and extraorand the painted surface protected by an- dinary process; and at this festive season, other slip of glass placed over it, and the subject is so appropriate, that we have fixed in the frame ; by adopting this plan, entered fully into the details, in order to

enable our readers to operate for them* For the method of painting these slides see

selves. p. 53, Vol. IV. of the Old Series of the Family Friend.

We have already seen that when a

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magic lantern is used, that a view painted the outside, so that the one fan obscures upon the slide employed, may be produced the light of one lantern, while the light of in a magnified form upon a screen, sheet, the other is displayed. By pulling or or wall. Now if we employ two lanterns pushing the wood in which the fans are instead of one, it necessarily follows that fixed, before the nozzles of the lanterns, we shall have two views distinctly thrown the views will be dissolved easily and upon the screen. Practice will soon enable gradually in such a manner, that one view you to observe, that by altering the focus will merge into another so slowly, that the of the lens after the clear image has been change will appear almost supernatural, reflected upon the screen, the view becomes producing an effect peculiarly beautiful dim, and gradually dissolves if the focus and attractive. is still further altered. If the lens of the We have had three diagrams engraved second lantern, which is supplied with of the apparatus necessary for producing another view, is gradually brought up to dissolving views on a large scale suitthe proper focus, the first view may then able for a lecture-room or exhibition of be said to have dissolved, and assumed the any kind. form of the second. The second view Our first figure (Fig. 4,) represents the then dissolves, and a third takes its place, form of lantern used at the Royal Polyand so on. This is the principle of the dissolving views first used by the German, Philipstall, and afterwards by Mr. Child, at the Theatre Royal Adelphi. The chief object being to show a view which is made to fade gradually, and blend with a second view, which then becomes clear and bright, and fades, in its turn, to blend with a third.

The dissolving process may be effected in several ways; 1st. By altering the focus, a plan that succeeds for exhibitions on a small scale. 2nd. By placing the hand gradually over the nozzle of the lantern, and thus obscuring the view by degrees, while a

Fig. 4. second slide is introduced, and by gradu- technic Institution, London. It consists ally withdrawing the band from before the of a box (A) with a projecting part (B), nozzle, the second view is seen developing having an opening (o) between the back itself slowly and perfectly. These two plans part and the condensers of the two lanare applicable for either single or double terns contained in the box. The painted small lanterns. The best method of dis- slides are inserted at (o), and thus pass solving is undoubtedly that employed in between the light and the condensers or all large apparatus; viz., by means of lenses. In this apparatus, the lenses are dissolvers or fans, which may be shaped made of the best glass, so as to avoid like the one (F) in Fig. 4, (D) in Fig. 7, achromatic refraction. The top of the

or else like the one box is fitted with two chimneys (GG)

in the margin. The made of japanned iron, to allow the smoke A

first kind will be ex- and heat to escape. In front of the box plained when describ- we observe the barrels of the lanterns ing the apparatus re- (E E), with the rack work which regulates quired for the oxy. the focus by means of a screw (c) placed hydrogen lanterns; above them. The box containing the two

the last are simply lanterns is placed upon a firm stand (D D) Fig. 3. two pieces of card- having a slide passing underneath, which

board or tin mounted is fitted at one end with an upright piece upon metal stems (1), which are fixed in a having the dissolving fans placed on either piece of wood at such a distance from side of a central point (F). By this each other, and with the part A turned to arrangement the fans can be raised or

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depressed at the will of the exhibitor, and fresh surface to the action of the flame, retained in their position by means of the which is so intense that it will even melt screw (H), and they may also be made to a diamond. Close to the lime cylinders advance or recede from the nozzles of the you will see the blow-pipes by which the lanterns by means of the slide which gases are thrown upon the lime; these passes under the table.

issue from the receivers (D D), where the In skutting off the light it is necessary gases are mixed after being supplied by to pay attention to the following obser- the pipes (E E) connected with large vations :- When the light is thrown from caoutchouc bags (Fig. 7, F,) placed beone lantern, we obtain a large circle or tween press-boards, which are loaded with disc of light thrown upon the screen ; and weights to force the gas out of the bags. our object in exhibiting is always to have After the gases have been mixed, they may a disk of this size, or nearly so, reflected be safely ignited at the end of the blow-pipe upon the screen ; therefore in shutting off and the fame allowed to play upon the the light, it will be necessary to adjust the cylinder ; but you should be careful not fans so that the under part of one lens is to allow a flame to approach these gases only obscured as much as the upper part in a mixed state without they are conof the other is displayed. By this means nected with a receiver or a Hemming's we are enabled to preserve the brilliancy safety tube, for if this precaution is negof the views and prevent the disc being lected, a very dangerous explosion will irregular and dusky at the upper and

It is the method now generally lower parts. As it is sometimes necessary employed to prevent accidents of this to use both lanterns at the same time, the kind, and one that is extremely simple and fans or dissolvers are movable.

valuable. A square receiver of brass (R) The light used in these lanterns is sup- is filled with fine brass wire which is plied by the coinbustion of oxygen and pressed tightly together, so that when the hydrogen gases in a combined state, the gases enter the receiver by the tubes (O flame being thrown upon a cylinder of

and H), which are conlime, so as to produce the Drummond

B

nected with the caoutLight ; and in order that the manner in

chouc bags containing which this is done may be perfectly under

the oxygen and hydrostood, we have had a diagram engraved.

R

gen gases, they then pass through the spaces between the brass wires, which are now, in fact, narrow tubes. After the

gases have been mixed, Fig. 6.

they pass out of the receiver and through the blow-pipe (B), to be thrown upon the lime cylinder and

thus produce a most intense, pure, and 40

beautiful light, well-known as the Drummond Light. We have been particular

in entering into the details connected Fig. 5.

with this light, because it is our intenIt represents the interior of the box and tion to notice it again upon another occathe back part of the condensers (BB). sion, when we shall perform some experiAbout 8 inches from the condensers are ments with it. cylinders of lime placed upon a pivot The lime cylinders should be wrapt up which has a small cog-wheel at the lower in paper singly, and the whole kept in part of it, and which is connected with botiles with well-greased stoppers. another wheel at the lower part of the To make the lime cylinders, procure a key (K), used to wind up the machinery. piece of chalk or limestone, and cut it The object of employing this machinery, into pieces about 11 inch long, and $ inch is to cause the lime cylinders to revolve in diameter, and as round as you can; slowly upon their axes, so as to expose a then drill a hole through the centre of

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eacb, in the long axis, and having placed including all the necessary tubes, gasthem in a crucible in the centre of a bags, apparatus for generating the gases, good fire, keep them red hot for about &c., but exclusive of slides in every case. four hours. Cool them gradually, and The slides vary in price from 1s. to 30s., wrap in paper as soon as possible. each, according to the size, design,

A convenient form of dissolving appa- mechanical arrangement, and style, ratus for a private exhibition, and also for In another number we shall describe lecturers who have to travel from town to the method of obtaining the gases used, town, is that shown in Fig. 7. It con- together with other scientific recreations.

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EXCITEMENTS INJURIOUS TO

CHILDREN. STRONG excitements have an unfavourable effect upon the nerves of young children. We know this to be the case with ourselves; but are apt to forget that things, which are common to us, may be new and striking to them. My child was, on a certain evening, carried into a large room brilliantly lighted, and filled with

company. He gazed around with an ex. Fig. 7.

pression of admiration and delight not

unmixed with perplexity ; the latter, howsists of a stand (A) with folding tripod ever, soon vanished, and he laughed and legs (E,E,E,E), and having a slide under- shouted with great glee; and, as he saw neath, and, as in the former one, supplied that he was observed, exerted himself still with dissolvers, or fans (D.) The lan- farther to be amusing. He was then carterns (B.L) are made of mahogany with ried into a room where were music and japanned iron tops, having a place (S) for dancing ; this was entirely new, and he the reception of the slides, before which was agitated with a variety of emotions,

the movable tubes (C) with the fear, wonder, admiration, and joy, seemed necessary lenses. A caoutchouc bag (F) to prevail by turns. As the scene became fitted with a stop-cock, and flexible or familiar, he again enjoyed it without any vulcanized India-rubber tube (O) unions, mixture of unpleasant feelings. and press-boards, is filled with oxygen But the effect of these excitements gas, the boards are loaded with weights was apparent, when he was taken to his (W) to maintain an equal pressure of the bed-room; his face was flushed as in a gas, and another similar bag (G) filled fever, his nervous system disturbed, and with hydrogen gas is also loaded with his sleep was interrupted by screams. He weights, and connected with the apparatus had witnessed scenes as new and almost as by a flexible tube (H.) This apparatus is strange, as to us would be the apparition so constructed that it may be packed of a dance of fairies at moonlight. His away with the tubes, pressure - boards, imagination had made a powerful effort to lanterns, slides, &c., into a comparatively grasp and comprehend what his senses had small space, and as it may be exhibited discovered. He knew not who or what with as much ease as an ordinary lantern, were the beings and the sounds which had it is extremely useful for the general thus appeared in places usually so quiet; purposes of schools, lecturers, and fami- and the strange motions of these beings Jies.

must also have greatly increased the The small magic lanterns may be pro- wonder. cured of almost any optician, and vary in price from 5s. to £5. The apparatus

CONFIDANT.-Make not a servant a conshown in Fig. 4 would cost about £120, fidant; for if he find out that you dare not and that in Fig. 7, from £42 to £100, displease him, he will dare to displease you.

-The tale

of the beginning of the year.

Strenua was ORIGINS AND INVENTIONS. a goddess among the Romans, of an oppo

site character to the goddess Sloth, and COCK-CROWING AT CHRISTMAS-Eve.- It who had a temple at Rome. Anciently a was formerly a belief that cocks crowed all

a pound of gold was given to the emperors Christmas-eve, which doubtless originated from the circumstance that the weather is every New Year’s-day, by way of Strena.

To the Romans we owe the ceremony of then usually cloudy and dark, and cocks, wishing“ a happy new year."

“A time,” during such weather, often crow nearly all

says Lord Chesterfield, “ when the kindest day and all night. Shakspere alludes to

and warmest wishes are exchanged, without this superstition in Hamlet :

the least meaning; and the most lying day Some say that ever 'gainst that hallowed season,

in the whole year”-an assertion in which At which our Saviour's birth is celebrated, we do not altogether coincide with his The Bird of Dawning croweth all night long.

lordship. The nights are wholesome, and no mildew falls; No planet strikes, nor spirits walk abroad;

Borough.— The word, in its original No fairy takes nor witch hath power to charm, So gracious and so hallowed is the time.

signification, meant a company, consisting

of ten families, which were bound together The ancient Christians divided the night

as each other's pledge. Afterwards borough into four watches, called the evening, mid

came to signify a town, having a wall or night, and two morning cock-crowings. some kind of enclosure round. And all Their connection with the belief in walking places that in old time had the name of spirits will be remembered :

borough, it is said, were fortified, or fenced, The cock crows, and the morn grows on,

in some shape or other. When 'tis decreed I must begone.-Butler.

ORIGIN OF THE TERMS ATTORNEY

AND Solicitor. -" In the time of our Of horrid apparition, tall and ghastly,

Saxon ancestors,” says a work entitled, That walks at dead of night, or takes his stand O'er some new-opened grave; and strange to

• Heraldic Anomalies,' “the freemen in tell,

every shire met twice a year, under the Evanishes at crowing of the cock.-Blair.

precedency of the shire, reeve or sheriff'; Who can ever forget the night-watches and this meeting was called the Sheriff's proclaimed by the cock in that scene in Torn. By degrees, the freemen declined Comus, where the two brothers, in search giving their personal attendance, and a of their sister, are benighted in a forest ? freeman who did attend, carried with him

the proxies of such of his friends as -Might we but hear The folded flocks, penned in their wattled cotes,

could not appear. He who actually went Or sound of pastoral reed with oaten stops, to the Sheriff's Torn, was said, according Or whistle from the lodge, or village cock to the old Saxon, to go at the Torn, and Count the night-watches to his feathery dames, Twould be some solace yet, some little cheering,

hence came the word attorney, which sigIn this close dungeon of innumerous boughs.

nified one that went to the Torn for others, Dr. Forster observes _“There is this carrying with him a power to act or vote

for those who employed him. I do not remarkable circumstance about the crowing of cocks—they seem to keep night that the attorney has any right to call

conceive,” continues the writer, “ that watches, or

to have general crowing. himself matches, at certain periods—as, soon after business in a court of equity.

a solicitor, but where he has

If he twelve, at two, and again at day-break.”

chose to act more upon the principles of ORIGIN OF New Year's Gifts.—The equity than of law, let him be a solicitor ancients made presents out of respect on by all means, but not otherwise ; for law the New Year's Day, as a happy augury and equity are very different things; neifor the ensuing year, which were called ther of them very good, as overwhelmed Strena. Symmachus adds, that the use of with forms and technicalities; but, upon them was first introduced by king Tatius, the whole, equity is surely the best, if it Romulus's colleague,who received branches were but for the name of the thing." An of vervain, gathered in the sacred grove opinion which we believe will find general of the goddess Strenua, as a happy presage I adhesion.

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