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which represents two lanterns B and L, the slides will never be injured by friction, arranged for exhibiting the dissolving and as the expense is trifling, compared views.

with the frequent outlay for new slides, To use the Magic-lantern.—Light the its general adoption cannot be too strongly lamp, polish the reflector with a dry cloth, urged. and also carefully wipe the lenses to re- The most amusing objects for the slides move any moisture, then place the lamp are grotesque figures ; sudden transformain the focus of the reflector, close the tions, such as a cabbage turning into a door of the lantern, and place it upon a tailor, or a basket of eggs into a nest of table ready for use. Suspend a wet sheet birds; and moving figures, and objects, from a line stretched across the room, or such as a cobbler at work, a tight-rope have a screen made of calico, stretched dancer, a storm coming on at sea, in which tightly upon a frame; in the event of not the ship appears to be struck by lightusing either of them, you must reflect the ning and consumed, the eruption of images upon a smooth white-washed wall. Vesuvius, or a railroad with the train Slip in a slide with the figures, and other passing along. The movements of the subjects, inverted or upside down,—then figures and objects are obtained by paintadvance or recede with the lantern, and ing the subject upon two glasses, which by moving the tube in front of the slide, are fixed in the same frame, and so aryou will be enabled to adjust the focus, ranged that when one is drawn aside, or and obtain a magnified image of the paint moved upwards or downwards, the first deing upon the slide, reflected upon the sign is concealed, or else another one is screen, sheet, or wall. When the room is added to it. large enough, it is better to place the Sometimes several figures are contained screen between the spectators and the lan- in the same slide, and when the subjects tern, as it renders the deception more are distinct, such as objects of natural complete.

history, or small interior views, &c., the The Magic-lantern Slides * may be formed slide is made of mahogany or deal, with of long strips of glass, cut of sufficient width to pass freely in and out of the slit in the tube of the lantern, and the designs are not valuable, the edges of the slides may be simply bordered with paper to prevent them injuring the tube.

Fig. 2. circular pieces cut out in such a manner as to leave a rabbet on one side ; the paintings, protected by a plain piece of glass, are then dropped into the holes, and confined by small brads or a thin piece of wood turned to fit in the hole, and each painting numbered or labelled, so as to prevent mistakes, and for the convenience

of reference. Fig. 1.

DISSOLVING Views are well known to If, on the contrary, the paintings are the frequenters of the Royal Polytechnic good and worth preserving, the glass Institution, London, and have even been should be placed in a wooden frame, exhibited on a large scale in many prosimilar to that shown in the above figure, vincial towns. There is not any difficulty each slide being numbered or labelled, in producing this pleasing and extraorand the painted surface protected by an- dinary process; and at this festive season, other slip of glass placed over it, and the subject is so appropriate, that we have fixed in the frame ; by adopting this plan, entered fully into the details, in order to

enable our readers to operate for them* For the method of painting these slides see

selves. D. 53, Vol. IV. of the old Series of the Family

We have already seen that when a

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magic lantern is used, that a view painted upon the slide employed, may be produced in a magnified form upon a screen, sheet, or wall. Now if we employ two lanterns instead of one, it necessarily follows that we shall have two views distinctly thrown upon the screen. Practice will soon enable you to observe, that by altering the focus of the lens after the clear image has been reflected upon the screen, the view becomes dim, and gradually dissolves if the focus is still further altered. If the lens of the second lantern, which is supplied with another view, is gradually brought up to the proper focus, the first view may then be said to have dissolved, and assumed the form of the second. The second view then dissolves, and a third takes its place, and so on. This is the principle of the dissolving views first used by the German, Philipstall, and afterwards by Mr. Child, at the Theatre Royal Adelphi. The chief object being to show a view which is made to fade gradually, and blend with a second view, which then becomes clear and bright, and fades, in its turn, to blend with a third.

The dissolving process may be effected in several ways; 1st. By altering the focusa plan that succeeds for exhibitions on a small scale. 2nd. By placing the hand gradually over the nozzle of the lantern, and thus obscuring the view by degrees, while a second slide is introduced, and by gradually withdrawing the hand from before the nozzle, the second view is seen developing itself slowly and perfectly. These two plans are applicable for either single or double small lanterns. The best method of dissolving is undoubtedly that employed in all large apparatus; viz., by means of dissolvers or fans, which may be shaped like the one (F) in Fig. 4, (D) in Fig. 7, or else like the one in the margin. The first kind will be explained when describing the apparatus required for the oxyhydrogen lanterns; the last are simply Fig. 3. two pieces of cardboard or tin mounted upon metal stems (), which are fixed in a piece of wood at such a distance from each other, and with the part A turned to

the outside, so that the one fan obscures the light of one lantern, while the light of the other is displayed. By pulling or pushing the wood in which the fans are fixed, before the nozzles of the lanterns, the views will be dissolved easily and gradually in such a manner, that one view will merge into another so slowly, that the change will appear almost supernatural, producing an effect peculiarly beautiful and attractive.

We have had three diagrams engraved of the apparatus necessary for producing dissolving views on a large scale suitable for a lecture-room or exhibition of any kind.

Our first figure (Fig. 4,) represents the form of lantern used at the Royal Poly

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technic Institution, London. It consists of a box (A) with a projecting part (B), having an opening (0) between the back part and the condensers of the two lanterns contained in the box. The painted slides are inserted at (o), and thus pass between the light and the condensers or lenses. In this apparatus, the lenses are made of the best glass, so as to avoid achromatic refraction. The top of the box is fitted with two chimneys (GG) made of japanned iron, to allow the smoke and heat to escape. In front of the box we observe the barrels of the lanterns (E E), with the rack work which regulates the focus by means of a screw (c) placed above them. The box containing the two lanterns is placed upon a firm stand (DD) having a slide passing underneath, which is fitted at one end with an upright piece having the dissolving fans placed on either side of a central point (F). By this arrangement the fans can be raised or

depressed at the will of the exhibitor, and retained in their position by means of the screw (H), and they may also be made to advance or recede from the nozzles of the lanterns by means of the slide which passes under the table.

In shutting off the light it is necessary to pay attention to the following observations:- When the light is thrown from one lantern, we obtain a large circle or disc of light thrown upon the screen; and our object in exhibiting is always to have a disk of this size, or nearly so, reflected upon the screen; therefore in shutting off the light, it will be necessary to adjust the fans so that the under part of one lens is only obscured as much as the upper part of the other is displayed. By this means we are enabled to preserve the brilliancy of the views and prevent the disc being irregular and dusky at the upper and lower parts. As it is sometimes necessary to use both lanterns at the same time, the fans or dissolvers are movable.

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The light used in these lanterns is supplied by the combustion of oxygen and hydrogen gases in a combined state, the flame being thrown upon a cylinder of lime, so as to produce the Drummond Light; and in order that the manner in which this is done may be perfectly understood, we have had a diagram engraved. R

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Fig. 5.

It represents the interior of the box and the back part of the condensers (B B). About 8 inches from the condensers are cylinders of lime placed upon a pivot which has a small cog-wheel at the lower part of it, and which is connected with another wheel at the lower part of the key (K), used to wind up the machinery. The object of employing this machinery, is to cause the lime cylinders to revolve slowly upon their axes, so as to expose a

fresh surface to the action of the flame, which is so intense that it will even melt a diamond. Close to the lime cylinders you will see the blow-pipes by which the gases are thrown upon the lime; these issue from the receivers (D D), where the gases are mixed after being supplied by the pipes (E E) connected with largecaoutchouc bags (Fig. 7, F,) placed between press-boards, which are loaded with weights to force the gas out of the bags. After the gases have been mixed, they may be safely ignited at the end of the blow-pipe and the flame allowed to play upon the cylinder; but you should be careful not to allow a flame to approach these gases in a mixed state without they are connected with a receiver or a Hemming's safety tube, for if this precaution is neglected, a very dangerous explosion will ensue. It is the method now generally employed to prevent accidents of this kind, and one that is extremely simple and valuable. A square receiver of brass (R) is filled with fine brass wire which is pressed tightly together, so that when the gases enter the receiver by the tubes (O and H), which are connected with the caoutchouc bags containing the oxygen and hydrogen gases, they then pass through the spaces between the brass wires, which are now, in fact, narrow tubes. After the gases have been mixed, Fig. 6. they pass out of the receiver and through the blow-pipe (B), to be thrown upon the lime cylinder and thus produce a most intense, pure, and beautiful light, well-known as the Drummond Light. We have been particular in entering into the details connected with this light, because it is our intention to notice it again upon another occasion, when we shall perform some experiments with it.

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The lime cylinders should be wrapt up in paper singly, and the whole kept in bottles with well-greased stoppers.

To make the lime cylinders, procure a piece of chalk or limestone, and cut it into pieces about 1 inch long, and inch in diameter, and as round as you can; then drill a hole through the centre of

each, in the long axis, and having placed them in a crucible in the centre of a good fire, keep them red hot for about four hours. Cool them gradually, and wrap in paper as soon as possible.

A convenient form of dissolving apparatus for a private exhibition, and also for lecturers who have to travel from town to town, is that shown in Fig. 7. It con

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Fig. 7.

sists of a stand (A) with folding tripod legs (E,E,E,E), and having a slide underneath, and, as in the former one, supplied with dissolvers, or fans (D.) The lanterns (B.L) are made of mahogany with japanned iron tops, having a place (S) for the reception of the slides, before which are the movable tubes (C) with the necessary lenses. A caoutchouc bag (F) fitted with a stop-cock, and flexible or vulcanized India-rubber tube (O) unions, and press-boards, is filled with oxygen gas, the boards are loaded with weights (W) to maintain an equal pressure of the gas, and another similar bag (G) filled with hydrogen gas is also loaded with weights, and connected with the apparatus by a flexible tube (H.) This apparatus is so constructed that it may be packed away with the tubes, pressure - boards, lanterns, slides, &c., into a comparatively small space, and as it may be exhibited with as much ease as an ordinary lantern, it is extremely useful for the general purposes of schools, lecturers, and families.

The small magic lanterns may be proeured of almost any optician, and vary in price from 5s. to £5. The apparatus shown in Fig. 4 would cost about £120, and that in Fig. 7, from £42 to £100,

including all the necessary tubes, gasbags, apparatus for generating the gases, &c., but exclusive of slides in every case. The slides vary in price from 1s. to 30s., each, according to the size, design, mechanical arrangement, and style.

In another number we shall describe the method of obtaining the gases used, together with other scientific recreations.

EXCITEMENTS INJURIOUS TO

CHILDREN.

STRONG excitements have an unfavourable effect upon the nerves of young children. We know this to be the case with ourselves; but are apt to forget that things, which are common to us, may be new and striking to them. My child was, on a certain evening, carried into a large room brilliantly lighted, and filled with company. He gazed around with an expression of admiration and delight not unmixed with perplexity; the latter, however, soon vanished, and he laughed and shouted with great glee; and, as he saw that he was observed, exerted himself still farther to be amusing. He was then carried into a room where were music and dancing; this was entirely new, and he was agitated with a variety of emotions,— fear, wonder, admiration, and joy, seemed to prevail by turns. As the scene became familiar, he again enjoyed it without any mixture of unpleasant feelings.

But the effect of these excitements was apparent, when he was taken to his bed-room; his face was flushed as in a fever, his nervous system disturbed, and his sleep was interrupted by screams. He had witnessed scenes as new and almost as strange, as to us would be the apparition of a dance of fairies at moonlight. His imagination had made a powerful effort to grasp and comprehend what his senses had discovered. He knew not who or what were the beings and the sounds which had thus appeared in places usually so quiet; and the strange motions of these beings must also have greatly increased the wonder.

CONFIDANT.-Make not a servant a confidant; for if he find out that you dare not displease him, he will dare to displease you.

of the beginning of the year. Strenua was a goddess among the Romans, of an opposite character to the goddess Sloth, and who had a temple at Rome. Anciently a a pound of gold was given to the emperors every New Year's-day, by way of Strena.

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To the Romans we owe the ceremony of wishing a happy new year." "A time," says Lord Chesterfield, "when the kindest and warmest wishes are exchanged, without the least meaning; and the most lying day in the whole year"'-an assertion in which we do not altogether coincide with his lordship.

ORIGINS AND INVENTIONS.

COCK-CROWING AT CHRISTMAS-EVE.-It was formerly a belief that cocks crowed all Christmas-eve, which doubtless originated

from the circumstance that the weather is
then usually cloudy and dark, and cocks,
during such weather, often crow nearly all
day and all night. Shakspere alludes to
this superstition in Hamlet:

Some say that ever 'gainst that hallowed season,
At which our Saviour's birth is celebrated,
The Bird of Dawning croweth all night long.
The nights are wholesome, and no mildew falls;
No planet strikes, nor spirits walk abroad;
No fairy takes nor witch hath power to charm,
So gracious and so hallowed is the time.

The ancient Christians divided the night into four watches, called the evening, midnight, and two morning cock-crowings. Their connection with the belief in walking spirits will be remembered:

The cock crows, and the morn grows on,
When 'tis decreed I must begone.-Butler.

-The tale

Of horrid apparition, tall and ghastly,
That walks at dead of night, or takes his stand
O'er some new-opened grave; and strange to
tell,

Evanishes at crowing of the cock.-Blair.

Who can ever forget the night-watches proclaimed by the cock in that scene in Comus, where the two brothers, in search of their sister, are benighted in a forest? -Might we but hear

The folded flocks, penned in their wattled cotes,
Or sound of pastoral reed with oaten stops,
Or whistle from the lodge, or village cock
Count the night-watches to his feathery dames.
Twould be some solace yet, some little cheering,
In this close dungeon of innumerous boughs.

Dr. Forster observes-"There is this remarkable circumstance about the crowing of cocks-they seem to keep nightwatches, or to have general crowingmatches, at certain periods-as, soon after twelve, at two, and again at day-break."

ORIGIN OF NEW YEAR'S GIFTS.-The ancients made presents out of respect on the New Year's Day, as a happy augury for the ensuing year, which were called Strena. Symmachus adds, that the use of them was first introduced by king Tatius, Romulus's colleague,who received branches of vervain, gathered in the sacred grove of the goddess Strenua, as a happy presage

BOROUGH.-The word, in its original signification, meant a company, consisting of ten families, which were bound together as each other's pledge. Afterwards borough came to signify a town, having a wall or some kind of enclosure round. And all

places that in old time had the name of borough, it is said, were fortified, or fenced, in some shape or other.

ORIGIN OF THE TERMS ATTORNEY AND SOLICITOR. "In the time of our Saxon ancestors," says a work entitled, 'Heraldic Anomalies,' "the freemen in every shire met twice a year, under the precedency of the shire, reeve or sheriff; and this meeting was called the Sheriff's Torn. By degrees, the freemen declined giving their personal attendance, and a freeman who did attend, carried with him the proxies of such of his friends as could not appear. He who actually went to the Sheriff's Torn, was said, according to the old Saxon, to go at the Torn, and hence came the word attorney, which signified one that went to the Torn for others, for those who employed him. I do not carrying with him a power to act or vote that the attorney has any right to call conceive," continues the writer, "that business in a court of equity. himself a solicitor, but where he has If he chose to act more upon the principles of equity than of law, let him be a solicitor by all means, but not otherwise; for law and equity are very different things; neither of them very good, as overwhelmed with forms and technicalities; but, upon the whole, equity is surely the best, if it were but for the name of the thing." An opinion which we believe will find general adhesion.

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