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professor of the practice of medicine, which he taught with reputation for nine years. From thence, invited by Echtius, professor in medicine there, he went to Cologne, where he was admitted member of the college of physicians, and received a considerable pension from the government. This he retained to the time of his death, in 1574. He was author of several useful works. His “ De Compositione Medicamentorum,” 1555, fol. contains many valuable observations and improvements on the formula used in his time. “De Peste, commentarius, preservatio, et curatio,” Col. 1564, 4to. He speaks of a leathern jacket, which had passed into the hands of twenty-five persons, who had received the infection from it, and been destroyed, before the cause was discovered. He wrote also in defence of the ancient medicine, and against the practice introduced by Paracelsus.'
DESTOUCHES (PHILIP NERICAULT), an eminent French dramatic writer, was born at Tours, in 1680, of a reputable family, which he left early in life, apparently from being thwarted in his youthful pursuits. This, however, has been contradicted; and it is said that after having passed through the rudiments of a literary education at Tours, he went, with the full concurrence of his father, to Paris,
order to complete bis studies; that being lodged with a bookseller in the capital, he fell in love at sixteen with a young person, the relation of his landlord, the consequences of which amour were such, that young Destouches, afraid to face them, enlisted as a common soldier in a regiment under orders for Spain; that he was present at the siege of Barcelona, where he narrowly escaped the fate of almost the whole company to which be belonged, who were buried under a mine sprung by the besieged. What became of him afterwards, to the time of his being noticed by the marquis de Puysieulx, is not certainly known, but the common opinion was, that he had appeared as a player on the stage; and having for a long time dragged his wretchedness from town to town, was at length manager of a company of comedians at Soleure, when the marquis de Puysieulx, ambassador from France to Switzerland, obtained some knowledge of him by means of an harangue which the young actor made him at the head of his comrades. The marquis, habituated by his diplomatic function to discern and appreciate characters, 1 Moreri.---Foppen Bibl. Belg.--Rees's Cyclopædia.-Haller Bibl. Med. Pract.
judged that one who could speak so well
, was destined by nature to something better than the representation of French comedies in the centre of Switzerland. He requested a conference with Destouches, sounded him on various topics, and attached him to his person. It was in Switzerland that his talent for theatrical productions first displayed itself; and his “ Curieux lmpertinent" was eshibited there with applause. His dramatic productions made him known to the regent, who sent him to London in 1717, to assist, in his political capacity, at the negociations then on foot, and while resident here, he had a singular negociation to manage for cardinal Dubois, to whom, indeed, he was indebted for his post. That minister directed him to engage king George I. to ask for him the archbishopric of Cambray, from the regent duke of Orleans. The king, who was treating with the regent on affairs of great consequence, and whom it was the interest of the latter to oblige, could not help viewing this request in a ridiculous light. “How!" said he to Destouches, “ would you have a protestant prince interfere in making a French archbishop? The regent will only laugh at it, and certainly will pay no regard to such an application."
“ Pardon me, sire," replied Destouches,," he will laugh, indeed, but he will do what you desire." He then presented to the king a very pressing letter, ready for signature. “ With all my heart, then," said the king, and signed the letter; and Dubois became archbishop of Cambray. He spent seven years in London, married there, and returned to his country; where the dramatist and negociator were well received. The regent had a just sense of his services, and promised him great things; but dying soon afier, left Destouches the meagre comfort of reflecting how well he should have been provided for if the regent had lived. Having lost his patron, he retired to Fortoiseau, near Melun, as the properest situation to make him forget the caprices of fortune. He purchased the place; and cultivating agriculture, philosophy, and the muses, abode there as long as he lived. Cardinal Fleury would fain have sent him ambassador to Petersburg; but Destouches chose rather to attend his lands and his woods, to correct with his pen the manners of his own countrymen; and to write, which he did with considerable effect, against the infidels of France. He died in 1754, leaving a daughter and a son; the latter, by order of Lewis XV. published at the Louvre an edition of bis father's works, in 4 vols. 4to. Destouches had not the gaiety of Regnard, nor the strong warm colouring of Moliere ; but he is always polite, tender, and natural, and has been thought worthy of ranking next to these authors. He desertes more praise by surpassing them in the morality and decorum of his pieces, and he had also the art of attaining the pathetic without losing the vis comica, which is the essential character of this species of composition. In the various connections of domestic life, he maintained a truly respectable character, and in early life he gave evidence of his filial duty, by sending 40,000 livres out of his savings to his father, who was burthened with a large family."
DEVARIUS (MATTHEW), a learned Greek scholar of the sixteenth century, was born in the island of Corfou, of a catholic family. At the age of eight he was taken to Rome by John Lascaris, and placed with other eastern youths in the Greek college, which had been just established. Having made great progress in this language,
. cardinal Rodolphi gave him the care of his library, which office he held for fifteen years, and in that time he compiled an index to Eustathius's commentary on Homer, for which pope Paul III. gave him a pension; and Paul IV. who continued this pension, made him corrector of the Greek MSS. in the Vatican. On the death of cardinal Rodolphi, Marc-Antony Colonna, who was afterwards cardinal, became scholar to Devarius for three years in the Greek language. He was afterwards patronized by the cardinal Farnese ; and died in his service, about the end of the sixteenth century, in the seventieth year of his age. By order of pope Pius V. be translated the catechism of the council of Trent into Greek ; but the work for which he is best known is entitled “ De Particulis Græcæ linguæ liber particularis," of which there have been many editions, the first published by his nephew, Peter Devarius, at Rome, in 1558, 4to, and reprinted at London, 1657, 12mo; Amsterdam, 1700 and 1718, &c. &c.?
DEVAUX (JOHN), an eminent surgeon of Paris, in which city he was born January 27, 1649, was the son of John Devaux, a man of eminence in the same profession, He became provost and warden of the surgeons' company,
Eloge by d'Alembert, -Dict. Hist. . Moreri. ---Morhof Polyhist. Fabric. Bibl. Græc.--Saxii Onomast.
and was universally esteemed for his skill and his writings. He died May 2, 1729, at Paris. His works are, “ Le Medecio de soi même," 12mo.; “ L'art de faire des rapports en Chirurgie,” 12mo; “ Index funereus Chirurgo
rum Parisiensiun, ab anno 1315 ad annum 1714," 12mo, with several others; and translations of many excellent works on physic and surgery, particularly Allen's “ Synopsis Medicinæ practicæ,” Harris's “ De morbis infantum, Cockburne “ De Gonorrhæa ;" Freind's “ Emmenologia,” &c. &c.?
DEVENTER (HENRY), a celebrated man-midwife, was born at Deventer, in the province of Over-Yssel, in Holland, towards the end of the seventeenth century. Though skilled in every branch of medicine, and honoured with the dignity of doctor in that faculty, he was principally employed in surgery, and in the latter part of his life he almost entirely confined bimself to the practice of midwifery, in which art be made considerable improvements. He acquired also no small share of fame by his various mechanical inventions for assisting in preventing and curing deformities of the body in young subjects. In that capacity he was repeatedly sent for to Denmark, whence he drew a considerable revenue. His knowledge of mechanics did not, however, prevent his observing that much mischief was done by the too frequent use of instruments in midwifery; and he introduced such improvements in the art, as gave him a decided preference over Mauriceau, his almost immediate precursor. Satisfied with the principles on which his practice was founded, be published in 1701, “ Operationes Chirurgicæ novum lumen exhibentes obstetricantibus," Leyden, 4to, which had been published in 1696, in his native language. This was followed by a second part, in 1724, 4to, “ Ulterius examen partuum difficilium, Lapis Lydius obstetricum, et de necessaria cadaverum incisione." The two parts were published together, much improved, in 1733, but the work had already been translated and published in most of the countries in Europe. How long the author continued to live after the publication of this improved edition is not known.
He had often, he says, been required to let the world know, by advertisement, what kind of defects in the form of the body he was able to cure or relieve, but had not
thought it expedient to do so ; these he has enumerated and described at the end of the work. They are twentytwo in number; among them are the following: when the head, from a contraction of the tendons, fell on one of the shoulders, he enabled the party to hold his head erect. On the other hand, wben a child came into the world clubfooted, so that it could only touch the ground with its ancles, he completely, he says, cured the delect, and be was so sure of his principles, that he required no part of bis stipulated pay until the cure was effected. Some time after his death, viz. in 1739, a posthumous work was published on the rickets, in his native language. Haller speaks favourably of it, and has given a brief analysis of its contents, by which it appears to contain some useful practical observations.
DEVEREUX (WALTER), the first earl of Essex of this name and family, a general equally distinguished for his courage and conduct, and a nobleman not more illustrious by his titles than by his birth, was descended from a most ancient and noble family, being the son of sir Richard Devereux, knight, by Dorothy, daughter of George earl of Huntingdou, and grandson of Walter viscount of Hereford, so created by king Edward the Sixth. He was born about 1540, at his grandfather's castle in Carmarthenshire, and during his education applied bimself to his studies with great diligence and success. He succeeded to the titles of viscount Hereford and lord Ferrers of Chartley, in the nineteenth year of his age, and being early distinguished for his modesty, learning, and loyalty, stood in high savour with his sovereign, queen Elizabeth. In 1569, upon the breaking out of the rebellion in the north, under the earls of Northumberland and Westmoreland, he raised a considerable body of forces, which joining those belonging to the lord admiral and the earl of Lincoln, he was declared marshal of the army, and obliged the rebels to disperse. This so highly recommended him to the queen, that in 1572 she honoured him with the garter, and on the 4th of May, the same year, created him earl of Essex, as being descended by his great grandmother from the noble family of Bourchier, long before honoured with the same title. In the month of January following, he was one of the peers that sat in judgment upon the duke of Norfolk.
| Dict. Hist. Rees's Cyclopædia.-Haller Bibl. Chir.