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quirer. He concludes this portion of his work with the following remarks.

Notwithstanding that we have taken so much pains to shew that the books called Apocrypha, are not Canonical, we wish to avoid the opposite extreme of regarding them as useless or injurious. Some of these books are important for the historical information which they contain ; and, especially, as the facts recorded in them are, in some instances, the fulfilment of remarkable prophecies.

Others of them are replete with sacred, moral, and prudential maxims, very useful to aid in the regulation of life and manners; but even with these, are interspersed sentiments which are not perfectly accordant with the Word of God. In short, these books are of very different value; but in the best of them, there is so much error and imperfection, as to convince us that they are human productions, and should be used as such ; not as an infallible rule, but as useful helps in the attainment of knowledge, and in the practice of virtue. Therefore, when we would exclude them from a place in the Bible, we would not proscribe them as unfit to be read; but we would have them published in a separate volume, and studied much more carefully than they commonly have been.

• And while we would dissent from the practice of reading lessons from these books, as Scriptural Lessons are read in the church, we would cordially recommend the frequent perusal, in private, of the first of Maccabees, the Wisdom of Solomon, and, above all, Ecclesiasticus. • It is a dishonour to God, and a disparagement of his

word, to place other books, in any respect, on a level with the Divine Oracles; but it is a privilege to be permitted to have access to the writings of men eminent for their wisdom and piety. And it is also a matter of curious instruction, to learn what were the opinions of men in ages long past, and in countries far remote.' pp. 86, 87.

In the second part of the Work, there is a valuable section, refuting the objections raised by Michaelis against the canonical authority of the Gospels of Mark and Luke. Dr. A. also adverts to the attempt of the same erudite but rash critic, to • lessen the authority' of the Epistle to the Hebrews : but he does not seem to be aware of the real state of the question; and it is singular that he should make no reference to the excellent work of his learned countryman, Professor Stuart. Upon the whole, we can cordially unite with the much-respected Editor of this Volume, and with the Rev. Mr. Horne, in recommending it as 'a well-timed effort in defence of the truth', -an able and most useful compendium, for which every theological student with scanty resources, ought to be sincerely grateful. We cannot, however, forbear to add, that it reflects no credit on English theology, that this every way respectable performance of the New Jersey Professor, should be the best, or at least the most complete work upon the subject, in our literature. With regard to the Canon of the New Testament, a masterly outline of the argument, supported by a vast quantity of learned and curious information, will be found in Dr. Pye Smith's · Answer' and Rejoinder' to Robert Taylor, published by the Society for promoting Christian Instruction. (8vo, pp. 92, price 1s. 6d.) This tract ought to be in the hands of all our readers; and we most earnestly recommend it to their attention. It deserves the widest possible circulation, as a triumphant exposure of the ignorance and dishonesty of Deistical assailants.

Art. VIII. 1. Principles of Geology, being an Attempt to explain

the former Changes of the Earth's Surface, by Reference to Causes now in Operation. By Charles Lyell, Esq., F.R.S. Vol. I. 8vo.

pp. 526. Price 158. London, 1830. 2. A new System of Geology, in which the great Revolutions of the

Earth and animated Nature, are reconciled at once to modern
Science and Sacred History. By Andrew Ure, M.D. F.R.S. 8vo.

pp. 676. London, 1829. 3. Geological Notes. By Henry Thomas de la Beche, F.R.S. F.G.S.

8vo. pp. 111. Price 6s. London, 1830. 4. Sections and Views, illustrative of Geological Phænomena, by H.

T. de la Beche. 4to. pp. 79. Price 21. 2s. London, 1830. 5. Outlines of Oryctology. An Introduction to the Study of Fossil

Organic Remains; especially of those found in the British Strata. Second Edition, with the Author's latest Corrections. By James

Parkinson. sm. 8vo. pp. 360. Price 12s. London, 1830. GE EOLOGY is, comparatively, a new science; and, if we

mistake not, its professors are still, as was the case in its mere infancy, eagerly distancing, in their deductions and inferences, the slow advance of genuine discovery. Something, however, has been learned from the precipitancy of the earlier makers of systems. The science of facts has made much progress of late, and the necessity for a range of inspection at once extensive and minutely investigated, is distinctly acknowledged. It will no longer be tolerated, that a theorist shall build up a world on the circumstances of a district; nor that he shall frame a cosmogony from casual contortions or accidental supra-positions. A large induction, or complicated system of collation and comparison, is now required as an indispensable preliminary to all attempts at generalization; and if Werner were to revisit earth, he would find himself no longer permitted to establish the law of geological relations, on an imperfect survey of the localities of Freyberg. In this matter, as in other pursuits, men have to surmount so much of prejudice and impulse,

so much of inherent infirmity, that geologists may well be excused for an occasional transgression of due and discretional limits. If they err, they at least supply the means of detecting their errors: and if they are too prompt in hastening to conclusions, we obtain the means of rectifying the effects of their rashness, from the results of their own accurate observation, widely extended and liberally communicated.

For a long season, the Romish Hierarchy forbade the conveyance of sound astronomical instruction, by absolutely prohibiting the adoption of the Copernican system as the basis of academical institution. Compelled at length to make some concession to increasing knowledge, it was permitted to be taught, not as the system of the universe, nor even as the theory of Copernicus, but under the more guarded phrase of his hypothesis. Something of this sort seems to have suggested itself to our professors of geology. The large phraseology of a former day seems to have been dismissed. We no longer hear of theories of the earth; nor are systems of creation built up with the rapidity which distinguished the speculators of those imaginative times. A more specious term, a phrase more insinuating, and less likely to stir suspicion, has been taken up; and the scheme which might have startled us under the oldfashioned names, passes current as a 'splendid generalization : It behooves scientific men to be on their guard against this besetting sin. Very little is gained by the mere shifting of a title ; and the change becomes positively mischievous, when it is used as a pretext for the perpetuation of error.

After all, it appears exceedingly absurd, that, in the present stage of inquiry concerning the changes and component substances of the globe, anything should be put forward in the shape of system, or even of generalization. Among the 'Sec* tions and Views' of Mr. de la Beche's valuable publication, he has given an expressive diagram, shewing the proportion which the depth hitherto explored of the earth's bulk, bears to the whole. The loftiest mountains are like grains of sand scattered on a smooth surface; and a concentric line drawn at the interval of one hundred miles from the exterior, makes the portion above it shew like the rind of an orange. Now, when this is the case, -when we have not even turned up a furrow on this immense mass,—when, in reality, we have only scratched the epidermis of this vast sphere; it does, in sober truth, seem rather too early for an exhibition of skill in generalizing. Nor are we sufficiently advanced, even in this mere surface knowledge, to afford a justification of this inferential process. Our facts are, as yet, too few: they may be contradicted or mo.. dified, so far as our views of their circumstances and relations are concerned, by other facts not yet ascertained. We are yet acquainted', observes Mr. de la Beche, in his Geological Notes, with so small a portion of the real structure of the ' earth's exposed surface, that all general classifications of rocks ' are premature.' And in the preface to his volume of Sections, he emphatically urges, that the progress of science has led to * new views, and that the consequences that can be deduced • from the knowledge of a hundred facts, may be very different * from those deducible from five. It is also possible that the facts first known, may be the exceptions to a rule, and not the rule itself; and generalizations from these first-known facts, though useful at the time, may be highly mischievous, and impede the progress of the science, if retained when it has made some advance.'

These considerations become of immense importance when applied to the great question concerning the origin of the world. We can have no fears on the score of facts, but we must acknowledge that we are exceedingly sensitive about generalizations. We are told, (and, with some restriction, we admit the distinction, that there is no connexion between geology and cosmogony: but at the same time, we are disposed to consider the Mosaic history as an element of inquiry; and we are quite convinced that its judicious application to ascertained facts, may go far in aiding correct investigation, and in restraining undue speculation. On this subject, we shall probably gratify our readers by citing a paragraph or two from the eloquent speech of Professor Sedgwick, on resigning the presidency of the Geological Society.

• Are then the facts of our science opposed to the sacred records ? and do we deny the reality of a historic deluge? I utterly reject such an inference. Moral and physical truth may partake of a common essence, but, as far as we are concerned, their foundations are independent, and have not one common element. And in the narrations of a great fatal catastrophe, handed down to us, not in our sacred books only, but in the traditions of all nations, there is not a word to justify us in looking to any mere physical monuments, as the intelligible records of that event: such monuments, at least, have not yet been found, and it is not perhaps intended that they ever should be found. If, however, we should hereafter discover the skeletons of ancient tribes, and the works of ancient art, buried in the superficial detritus of any large region of the earth ; then, and not till then, we may speculate about their stature, and their manners, and their numbers, as we now speculate among the disinterred ruins of an ancient city.

We might, I think, rest content with such a general answer as this. But we may advance one step further. History is a continued record of passions and events unconnected with the enduring laws of mere material agents. The progress of physical induction, on the contrary, leads us on to discoveries, of which the mere light of history would not indicate a single trace. But the facts recorded in history



may sometimes, without confounding the nature of moral and physical truth, be brought into a general accordance with the known phænomena of nature; and such general accordance I affirm there is between our historical traditions and the phænomena of geology. Both tell us in a language easily understood, though written in far different characters, that man is a recent sojourner on the surface of the earth. Again, though we have not yet found the certain traces of any great diluvian catastrophe which we can affirm to be within the human period ; we have, at least, shewn, that paraxoysms of internal energy, accompanied by the elevation of mountain chains, and followed by mighty waves desolating whole regions of the earth, were a part of the mechanism of nature. And what has happened, again and again, from the most ancient, up to the most modern periods in the natural history of the earth, may have happened once during the few thousand years that man has been living on its surface. We have therefore taken

away all anterior incredibility from the fact of a recent deluge ; and we have prepared the mind, doubting about the truth of things of which it knows not either the origin or the end, for the adoption of this fact on the weight of historic testimony.'

The address, from which we have taken this extract, and from which we shall, before quitting our present subject, have to make further citation, was delivered at the Society's Anniversary, February 18, 1831, and is printed in the 20th number of the Proceedings. It contains a great variety of admirably condensed matter, and exhibits a general view of what has been recently done in the way of geological investigation*.

Although we have felt it expedient to make these remarks in connexion with an important subject, they are not to be considered as prefatory to any thing in the shape either of general discussion, or of special analysis. We have placed at the head of this article, the titles of certain works which have appeared rather recently on the subject of geology, and which seem to us likely to convey useful information to such of our readers as may feel interested in these matters. Were we to undertake even a slight survey of their contents, we should trespass inost inconveniently both on our limits, and on the forbearance of

* In the previous delivery of the Wollaston medal, the President had taken opportunity to recapitulate the high claims of the individual to whom that prize was, for the first time since the death of its illustrious institutor, awarded. The Resolution stated, that it was 'given • to Mr. William Smith, in consideration of his being a great original

discoverer in English Geology ; and especially for his having been ' the first, in this country, to discover and to teach the identification of

strata, and to determine their succession by means of their imbedded · fossils. We have adverted to this circumstance, merely that we might direct attention to the very extraordinary merits of this profound, though self-taught geologist.

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