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During the emission of the silken material, the worm gradually contracts in bulk, and becomes wrinkled. Its task being finished, it rests awhile, and then throws off its caterpillar garb. If the cocoon be now opened, its inhabitant will be found in the state of a chrysalis or aurelia, in shape somewhat resembling a kidney bean, but pointed at one end, having a smooth brown skin. Its former covering will be found lying beside it. In this state it remains for a period varying, according to the temperature of the climate or season, from fifteen to thirty days. It then throws off its leathery shroud, having become, in the interval, transformed into a large greyish moth, furnished with four wings, two eyes, and two black, feathery antlers. If left until this period within the cocoon, the moth takes immediate measures for her emancipation, and without saw or centre-bit,

she makes her way through the shell, the silk, and the floss.' Having first, by means of a fluid discharged from its mouth, lessened the adhesiveness of the gum with which it had lined the interior surface of its chamber, the moth extends its antennæ, together with its head and feet, towards the point of the cone, and gradually loosens, without breaking, the texture of the ball: then, using its hooked feet, it pushes aside the filaments, and having sufficiently enlarged the opening, issues forth into light, leaving at the bottom of the cone the relics of its caterpillar form.

The length of the unbroken thread in a cocoon, varies from 600 to 1000 feet; and as it is all spun double by the insect, it will amount to nearly 2000 feet of silk, the whole of which does not weigh above three grains and a half. Five pounds of silk from 10,000 cocoons, is considered as above the usual average. The moth enjoys its liberty for a very brief term. Its first employment is to seek its mate; after which the female deposits her eggs; and both, in the course of two or three days after, terminate their being. The number of eggs produced by the female moth, varies from 250 to 400, or even 500.

This one specimen of insect architecture, insect manufacture, and insect metamorphosis, will serve, we hope, as well as multiplied extracts from these entomological varieties, to recommend the volumes and the study to any of our readers who have hitherto neglected this branch of entertaining and more than entertaining knowledge. The wise man sends the slothful to learn diligence of the ant. Might not the unproductive idler, clad, perhaps, in the produce of an insect, be sent to school to the silk-worm? But all nature is full of varied lessons of wisdom and piety, to those who can decipher the sacred characters.

the tender and pulpy body, which is still further protected by the glutinous secretion or fat. It is probable, too, that the absorption of this fat produces a thickening of the inner skin, preparatory to its becoming the outer covering,

At length, the silk-worm has attained its full growth, and is a slender caterpillar from two and a half to three inches in length. During about ten days from its fourth moulting, it devours its food most voraciously; but, on attaining its full dimensions, its desire for food begins to abate, and it soon ceases even to touch the leaves. It now appears restless, erecting its head, and moving from side to side in quest of a place where it may commence its labour of spinning. In twenty-four hours from the time of its abstaining from food, the material for forming its silk will be digested in its reservoirs; its green colour will disappear; and before it is quite prepared to spin, its body will have acquired a degree of glossiness and greater firmness at the expense of some diminution of size. We transcribe from the Treatise on Silk in the Cabinet Cyclopædia, (reviewed in our last Number,) the account of the subsequent process.

• The substance of which the silk is composed, is secreted, in the form of a fine yellow transparent gum, in two separate vessels of slender dimensions, which are wound, as it were, on two spindles in the stomach: if unfolded, these vessels would be about ten inches in length. When the worm has fixed upon some angle or hollow place, whose dimensions agree with the size of its intended silken ball or cocoon, it begins its labour by spinning thin and irregular threads, which are intended to support its future dwelling. During the first day, the insect forms upon these a loose structure of an oval shape, which is called floss silk, and within which covering, in the three following days, it forms the firm and consistent yellow ball; the labourer, of course, always remaining on the inside of the sphere which it is forming

The silky material, which, when drawn out, appears to be one thread, is composed of two fibres, extracted through two minute orifices just below the jaw; and these fibres are brought together by means of two hooks placed within the silk-worm's mouth for the purpose. The worm, in spinning, rests on its lower extremity throughout the operation, and employs its mouth and front legs in the task of directing and fastening the thread. The filament is not spun in regular concentric circles round the interior surface of the ball, but in spots, going backwards and forwards with a sort of wavy motion. This apparently irregular manner of proceeding is plainly perceptible when the silk is wound off the ball, which does not make more than one or two entire revolutions while ten or twelve yards of silk are being transferred to the reel. At the end of the third or fourth day, the worm will have completed its task, and formed its cocoon.'

Lardner's Cab. Cycl. Vol. XXII. pp. 111, 12.

During the emission of the silken material, the worm gradually contracts in bulk, and becomes wrinkled. Its task being finished, it rests awhile, and then throws off its caterpillar garb. If the cocoon be now opened, its inhabitant will be found in the state of a chrysalis or aurelia, in shape somewhat resembling a kidney bean, but pointed at one end, having a smooth brown skin. Its former covering will be found lying beside it. In this state it remains for a period varying, according to the temperature of the climate or season, from fifteen to thirty days. It then throws off its leathery shroud, having become, in the interval, transformed into a large greyish moth, furnished with four wings, two eyes, and two black, feathery antlers. If left until this period within the cocoon, the moth takes immediate measures for her emancipation, and without saw or centre-bit,

she makes her way through the shell, the silk, and the floss.' Having first, by means of a fluid discharged from its mouth, lessened the adhesiveness of the gum with which it had lined the interior surface of its chamber, the moth extends its antennæ, together with its head and feet, towards the point of the cone, and gradually loosens, without breaking, the texture of the ball: then, using its hooked feet, it pushes aside the filaments, and having sufficiently enlarged the opening, issues forth into light, leaving at the bottom of the cone the relics of its caterpillar form.

The length of the unbroken thread in a cocoon, varies from 600 to 1000 feet; and as it is all spun double by the insect, it will amount to nearly 2000 feet of silk, the whole of which does not weigh above three grains and a half. Five pounds of silk from 10,000 cocoons, is considered as above the usual average. The moth enjoys its liberty for a very brief term. Its first employment is to seek its mate; after which the female deposits her

eggs; and both, in the course of two or three days after, terminate their being. The number of eggs produced by the female moth, varies from 250 to 400, or even 500.

This one specimen of insect architecture, insect manufacture, and insect metamorphosis, will serve, we hope, as well as multiplied extracts from these entomological varieties, to recommend the volumes and the study to any of our readers who have hitherto neglected this branch of entertaining and more than entertaining knowledge. The wise man sends the slothful to learn diligence of the ant. Might not the unproductive idler, clad, perhaps, in the produce of an insect, be sent to school to the silk-worm ? But all nature is full of varied lessons of wisdom and piety, to those who can decipher the sacred characters.

Art. IV. I. Heath's Picturesque Annual for 1832. Travelling

Sketches in the North of Italy, the Tyrol, and on the Rhine ; with Twenty-six beautifully finished Engravings from Drawings by Clarkson Stanfield, Esq. By Leitch Ritchie, Esq., Author of the “ Romance of French History,” &c. 8vo. pp. 256. Price 21s.

in Morocco. 2. The Continental Annual, and Romantic Cabinet for 1832; with

Illustrations by Samuel Prout, Esq. F.S.A. Edited by William Kennedy, Esq. 8vo. pp. 313.

pp. 313. Thirteen Plates. Price 14s. in Silk. 3. The Keepsake for MDCCCXXXII. Edited by Frederick Mansel Reynolds. 8vo.

PP.

320. Seventeen Plates. Price 21s. in Silk. 4. The Literary Souvenir. Edited by Alaric A. Watts. pp. 344.

Twelve Plates. Price 12s. in Morocco. 5. The Forget-me-not; a Christmas, New Year's, and Birthday Pre

sent for MDCCCXXXII. Edited by Frederick Shoberl. Twelve

Plates. Price 12s. in Silk. 6. The New Year's Gift; and Juvenile Souvenir. Edited by Mrs.

Alaric Watts. 18mo. pp. 240. Eight Plates. Price 8s. half

bound. 7. Ackermann's Juvenile Forget-me-not. Edited by Frederick Sho

berl. 18mo. pp. 248. Ten Plates. Price 8s. 8. The Humourist : a Companion for the Christmas Fireside. By

W. H. Harrison. Embellished by Eighty (Wood) Engravings.

12mo. Price 12s. bound. 9. The Amethyst: or Christian's Annual for MDCCCXXXII. Edited

by Richard Huie, M.D. and Robert Kaye Greville, LL.D. 12mo.

pp. 360. Price 8s. Edinburgh, 1832. THE above list, in addition to the five noticed in our last

Number, a small publication called the Gem, which has not fallen in our way, and some two or three Comic (or would-be Comic) Annuals, comprises, we believe, the whole of this year's display. The Iris and the Bijou have been discontinued. The Iris deserved, for its praise-worthy design, a better fate; but it was not well cast for popularity. It is no disparagement to the talents, the classical erudition, or the theological attainments of the accomplished Editor, to say, that he did not understand how to get up an Annual.

Mr. Heath seems to understand this business thoroughly; and his Picturesque Annual is one of the happiest combinations of the joint labours of pen, pencil, and graver that we have

He has been fortunate alike in his artist and his editor. Of Mr. Stanfield's drawings, we shall speak hereafter. Mr.

seen.

Leitch Ritchie, from whose “Game of Life" we augured a future display of vigorous and versatile talent, has here presented to us ' a set of bona fide travelling sketches', the result of impressions made upon his mind on the spot, interwoven with stories, comic or romantic, and observations historical and sentimental,--for the introduction of which is pleaded, 'the neces

sities of the ANNUAL;-a plant which, having been reared in 'an atmosphere of poetry and fiction, would, perhaps, run

some risk of drooping, if suddenly transplanted.' By this ingenious apology for availing himself of romantic licence, the Author contrives to make Mr. Heath and the public answerable for all that stern criticism might object against the lighter parts of the book, while he takes credit for the more solid matter. We will allow him, in our clemency, all the benefit of this plea, in consideration of the information and entertainment which his very pleasant Sketches have yielded to us.

The only fault we feel compelled to notice, regards certain levities of expression and profane exclamations, which no usage can render tolerable.

The volume comprehends a journey through the North of Italy, the Tyrol, and the Banks of the Rhine as far as Strasbourg; which is to be continued, in the next volume, down the Rhine to the Sea. The subjects of the sketches are, the Valley of the Rhone, the Simplon, the Lago Maggiore, Milan, Venice, the Brenner Pass, Innsbruck and the Valley of the Inn, Constance, Strasbourgh;-a delightful tour, and Mr. Ritchie is an admirable travelling companion. Of his eye and feeling for scenery, and his excellent style of description, the descent of the Jura affords occasion for a happy specimen.

• On beginning to descend the Jura, our first sensation, as Lake Leman burst upon the view, was that of disappointment. So far is this from being an affectation of singularity, that we feel convinced that the same impression is, and must be made upon every traveller, in spite of the cuckoo-song which it is the fashion to repeat. The immense expanse of the Pays de Vaud at our feet, although in reality diversified by swelling hills, looks as level as the distant sea, when only the white specks on its bosom tell of waves and storms. At the extremity of this seeming plain lies the plain of waters; only different from the former in colour, the indentations of its margin lost in the distance, and the whole presenting an appearance of tameness and uniformity, which contrasts disagreeably with the ideal picture we carry within us. Even the mountains of Savoy, on the opposite shore, seem to have been exaggerated by our imagination ; and with a vain attempt to work ourselves up to the conventional point of admiration, we descend Mount Jura.

* And yet, as we descend, a kind of wonder, more absorbing than feeling which attends the gratification of mere taste, begins to rise in

any

VOL. VI.--N.S.

3 F

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