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and feeling conveyed. All expletives, all the common-place phrases of poetical art and the impertinence of paraphrase, must be rigidly excluded. The brevity and abruptness of the Hebrew cannot be transferred to a translation without producing harshness and obscurity; nor is it of consequence how many words are employed in rendering a phrase, provided that none appear to be superfluous in order to express the full idea with perspicuity and force. Every unnecessary word is an inelegance; and in metre, it is peculiarly difficult to avoid this fault, which is the more glaring and unpleasing, in proportion to the simplicity of the original composition. It is remarkable that Sandys, who often succeeds so well in giving the spirit of the Psalms, has wholly failed in the xxijd, which he has most miserably paraphrased. Some of his lines are almost travestie. We shall now select a psalm of a mixed character, in which the pathetic record of personal feeling and experience conveys a lesson of heavenly wisdom, and the didactic is combined with the highest strain of devotion. We shall first give the Psalm as rendered by the present Translators, and then subjoin a metrical version, in order to shew that it is not impossible to preserve equal simplicity and closeness under the embarrassments of rhyme. Whether the psalm gains any thing from its rhythmical dress, we leave our readers to determine according to their own taste and judgement.

• Psalm LXXIII.

• Doubtless, God is good unto Israel
Unto the pure in heart.
But as for me, my feet had well nigh swerved,
My steps had all but slipped ;
When I was envious against the arrogant,
And saw the prosperity of the wicked.
Truly, they have no pangs until their death,
But their bodies are sleek.
They fall not into the sorrows of mortals,
Nor are they afflicted as other men.
Therefore pride decketh them as a chain,
Violence covereth them as a robe.
Their eyes are prominent from fatness,
The imaginations of their hearts exceed all bounds.
They scoff and speak wickedly,
They speak oppressively from on high.
They place their mouth in the heavens,
And their tongue rangeth through the earth.
Therefore do His people turn hither,
And copious waters are sucked up by them.
They say also: “How doth God know ? "
And “ Hlow is there knowledge in the Most High ? "

Behold! these are wicked,
Yet are they continually at peace,
They increase their substance !
Surely, then, in vain have I purified my heart,
And washed my hands in innocency ;
For I am afflicted all the day long,
And am chastened every morning.
If I should say: I will calculate thus ;
Behold! I should deal treacherously by Thy faithful servants.
Therefore I studied to comprehend this;
But it was difficult in mine eyes,
Until I went unto the sanctuary of God
Until I discerned what afterwards befalleth them.
Surely, in slippery paths dost Thou set them,
Thou castest them into places of destruction.
How suddenly do they become a desolation !
They are consumed, they come to an end from terror!
When Thou, Lord, arisest, they are as a dream to one awaking !
Thou holdest in contempt their shadowy form!
When my heart was soured,
And I was exasperated in my inmost soul ;
Then was I ignorant and without understanding-
I was as the beasts before Thee !
For, as to me, I am continually in Thy presence,
Thou holdest me by my right hand.
By Thy counsel Thou leadest me,
And hereafter Thou wilt receive me to glory.
Whom have I in heaven but Thee ?
I delight in no one upon earth equally with Thee.
Though my flesh and my heart should fail,
Yet God is the rock of my heart, and my portion for ever.
For behold! those who depart from Thee, perish;
Thou destroyest all those who desert Thee for other gods !
But, as for me, to be near unto God is my happiness,
I have fixed my place of refuge in the Lord JEHOVAH,
I will recount all Thy works.

PSALM LXXIII.
Truly the Lord is good,-base doubts, depart-
Is good to all who are of upright heart.
But, as for me, I had almost declined
From virtue; sceptic thoughts o'erspread my mind. .
For I grew envious of the proud and vain,
Seeing the wicked prosper. No such pain
And sore disease, I said, their days attend :
In vigorous health their joyous life they spend.
As if exempted from the common lot,
The cares and ills of life they suffer not.

Hence, like a chain of gold, their pride they bear,
And bold oppression is the robe they wear.
Voluptuous ease is in their looks; their fond
And towering wishes they have gone beyond.
Corrupted by excess, they spurn restraint,
Oppress the lowly, and contemn the saint.
Their haughty blasphemies the heaven defy;
And their tongue preys on all beneath the sky.
The good are turned aside, and, forced to drain
The cup of bitterness, they thus complain :
“ Doth God concern himself with things below?
Or can it be the Most High doth not know?
See, how the impious prosper-sinners these,
Who grow in wealth, and live in splendid ease.
Then where is virtue's gain, where the defence
Of honest worth, the meed of innocence ?
My days with constant sorrows have been fraught,
And every morn has some fresh trial brought.”
-Should I such language hold, Lord, I should be
A traitor to thine Israel and Thee.
Yet still, the mystery my mind revolved,
Remained too hard to be by reason solved:
Till in the house of God I sought relief,
And into self-reproach was turned my grief.
There was I taught their end. I saw them stand
On slippery heights, a yawning gulf at hand.
How in a moment are the proud cast down,
Consumed beneath the terror of Thy frown!
E'en as a dream the cheated mind forsakes
On waking, when, O Lord, thy wrath awakes,
So shall the pageant of their greatness seem
Shadowy and vain, a scarce-remembered dream.
Thus was I troubled: I was sick at heart
Through my own folly: till Thou didst impart
A better mind, I lay beneath the rod,
E'en like the brutes who cannot know their God.
Yet, still Thy gracious presence did enfold me,
And by my right hand, Lord, thou didst uphold me.
Through this dark world Thy word shall be my guide,
Till in Thy glory I am satisfied.
For whom have I in heaven, or who can now
Be on this earth my trust, my joy, but Thou?
What though my flesh, and heart, and life decay ;
God is my strength, my all-sufficient stay,
A portion that shall never fade away.
The base apostates who their God forsake,
Thy righteous vengeance shall at length o'ertake.
But be it mine near Thee, my God, to dwell,

And, as I trust in Thee, of all Thy works to tell.
The object of the present Translators, we have already re-

marked, is very different from that which has been aimed at in these metrical versions. The principles of translation which they have adopted, has led them scrupulously to retain all such Hebraisms as are either not liable in themselves to be understood, or have been rendered intelligible by familiar use. With regard to those principles, they have not fully explained their views.

Upon the laws of grammatical interpretation, they say, the Translators cannot now enlarge, without losing sight of their immediate object. Of the extreme importance of those laws, they are fully aware. In fact, at the commencement of their labours, they contemplated adding a regular series of philological notes. But this idea was afterwards abandoned ; and these notes will

, probably, form, at some future time, the substance of a separate publication.' p. vi.

We shall await that publication with considerable interest; and in the mean time, we have felt it right to abstain from minute philological criticism on these Translations, and to reserve our observations upon the system of translation to which they are conformed. The merit of the work must be judged of in relation to what its Authors have purposed. They have not aimed at producing an elegant, idiomatic version, or such as might compete with the Authorized Version in the collocation and modulation of its periods; but they have furnished the Biblical student with a translation valuable as being independent and original, fresh drawn from the Hebrew, the result of much assiduous study and extensive learning, and one which will, therefore, be of great use in illustrating the text, and, compared with other versions, in fixing its true import. It is by the multiplication of such contributions to Sacred Literature, and the humblest efforts of the kind are entitled to the thanks of the Christian world,—that we may hope at length to obtain a Public Version as unexceptionable in point of fidelity as in propriety of expression.

We must, however, contend that, whether in prose or in verse, an English translation of the Scriptures ought to be pure English; that nothing is gained by that sort of halftranslation, which, under the idea of literal fidelity, presents to us something which is neither English nor Hebrew,-renderings so uncouth, and phrases so remote from the conventional idiom, that a school-boy who should so translate Homer or Xenophon would be turned down in disgrace. It is very remarkable, how rarely learned critics have proved themselves competent translators. Profoundly versed in Greek, Hebrew, or Latin, they have seemed strangers to the art of English composition, and have discovered a singular awkwardness in conveying the results of their acutest philological investigations. Learning and judgement are the prime requisites in a Biblical critic; but to these, the translator must add eloquence and purity of taste, or he will fail to do justice to either his text or his readers. The beauty and sublimity of the sacred writings, the qualities which, apart from their inspiration, raise the compositions of Moses, of David, and of Isaiah, above all Roman and all Grecian fame, are, we need not be reminded, of inferior consideration, compared with the matter of Revelation, the awful burden of prophecy, and the saving knowledge which the word of life communicates. Still, they form a characteristic feature of the Book of God, and a portion of that internal evidence by which its Divine inspiration is attested; and this species of evidence, let it be remembered, becomes proportionably obscured and weakened by a mode of translation which sacrifices perspicuity to a spurious fidelity, and dignity of expression to philological precision. While, then, we would protest against placing Biblical criticism, on the one hand, under the ban of the Church, on the charge of neologistical tendencies, we must also raise our voice on behalf of the Hebrew Muse, the eldestborn of Poetry, the handmaid of Devotion, the sister of Prophecy, who appears to us to have suffered cruel injustice at the hands both of learned and of unlearned translators. We know, indeed, that to speak of the Psalms and other portions of the Hebrew Scriptures as poetry, will sound in the ears of some persons like the language of Neology: as if to exalt their merit as compositions, was to lower their inspiration. Pity that these watch-dogs of orthodoxy cannot distinguish a friend from a foe; but they must bark on. We shall close this article with one more specimen of the sacred poetry of the Hebrews'-no matter whence obtained-in which, we venture to hope that the sentiments and spirit of the original will be thought to have been preserved with as much fidelity as in the most literal prose version, or in the most diffuse and ornate paraphrase.

Psalms XLII, XLIII. As for the distant water pants the desert's fleet gazelle, So longs my heart for Thee, O God !within Thy courts to dwell. Like her I thirst, but thirst for thee, the source of life and joy. O when among Thy saints again shall praise my tongue employ? But here my tears have been my drink, my solace night and day, While, Where is now thy God? I hear the taunting heathen say. I think

upon the happy days, and mourn the Sabbaths fled,
When to the house of God with songs the joyous train I led.
Yet why dejected, O my soul? Why faint beneath the rod ?
Hope on, for I shall praise Him still, my Helper and my

God.
But, O my God, the thought of Thee with grief my bosom fills,
Here, beyond Jordan's fountains, amid Hermon's rocky hills.
Around the gathering waters roar, and glen to glen replies:
But deeper waters whelm my soul, and Hoods of trouble rise.

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