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Testament, a stumbling-block and an eye-sore to the infidels, learned and vulgar, of the nineteenth century. Before we proceed to notice a few of the misrepresentations which Mr. Ellis has argumentatively refuted, and which find in the Journal of the English Deputation, so triumphant an exposure, we must place the qualifications and character of the Russian Captain in their proper light.

In the Missionary Journal kept by the late Mr. Tyerman, the following notices occur under the date of March 27, 1824.

· March 27. The Russian ship, Enterprise, Captain Kotzebue, came to anchor in Matavai Bay.

He and several of his officers came on shore, and visited the Missionaries, by whom they were hospitably entertained.

March 29. We paid a morning visit to Captain Kotzebue, on board his ship. ..:. Mr. Nott had a long conversation with the Captain, concerning the relation in which these islands stand towards England; Russia apparently coveting the petty, but merely nominal distinction of adding these green specks within the tropics to the measureless deserts of snow-land which constitute her Asiatic empire. There is no disposition at all, however, on the part of the natives, to acknowledge such dependence, under the pretext of alliance with the Autocrat of all the Russias ; whereas they would be glad to put themselves under the direct guardianship of England.

In consequence of the Russian vessel being in the harbour, the schools are forsaken, and almost every ordinary occupation suspended.

The people are crowding about the strangers, both on shipboard and on shore, with their fruit, hogs, and other commodities for sale. But it was gratifying to observe that not a canoe went out yesterday, and the Sabbath was as sacredly kept by the Tahitians (both converts and halfheathens) as though there were no temptation at hand to break it for the indulgence of curiosity and the profits of commerce; eager as they are to visit the strange ships, and traffic with the strange people. Very differently and very disgracefully, on the other hand, have those bornChristians, the Russians, employed their Sabbath, which, with the exception of a formal and customary service performed on board, could not be distinguished from a day of labour and dissipation.

April 5. Captain Kotzebue dined with us. He is, no doubt, an able navigator, but is not possessed of those social habits and friendly feelings which we have been in the habit of meeting with in all the commanders of the ships of other countries which we have met with. He did not even shew us the attention of inviting us to go on board his ship.

April 6. Captain Kotzebue called upon us to take his leave. At his request, Mrs. Wilson had provided him several articles of provision, which were to be ready by 4 P.M.; but he got under weigh before that time, and went without them. The squally state of the weather was probably the cause of his hasty movement. The Captain did not appear to think the better of these islands on account of their having renounced idolatry and embraced Christianity, though he had every rea

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shores of Hawaii. But, long after the suppression of the in. fernal worship, the idols were secretly preserved, the priests cherishing the hope of a counter-revolution. When Messrs. Tyerman and Bennet visited the island in 1822, the moral improvement which had taken place, was very slight and partial, and the manners of the natives presented a disgusting contrast to those of the Christianised islands of the Southern Pacific. The Deputation found the American Missionaries struggling with great difficulties and disadvantages. They had not as yet acquired the language sufliciently to be able to address the natives without an interpreter; and the most injurious misrepresentations had been industriously propagated by the enemies of Christian Missions, respecting the state of things in the Southern Islands, with a view to prejudice the minds of the king, chiefs, and people of Hawaii against both the Gospel and its ministers. The arrival of the English Deputation, with Mr. Ellis, was singularly opportune, and indeed providential. A short time before, the Ainerican Missionaries had actually projected a voyage to Tahiti, in company with some of the native chiefs, for the express purpose of ascertaining the real state of things there; but the foreigners opposed to them, had, by their influence, prevented the vessel from sailing. At the time of our arrival', say Messrs. Tyerman and Bennet, 'the people were labouring under the influence of the prejudices which the foreigners had produced among them. But our testimony to the wonderful work of God in the South Sea Islands, together with that of the people who accompanied us, appears to have confounded the opposers, and confirmed the king, and chiefs, and people, in the confidence that the prejudices which had been excited were false and unfounded. We had no idea that this important object was to be answered by our voyage.' Journal, Vol. I. p. 407.

This will explain the origin of the fabrications and calumnies transmitted to this country from the Sandwich Islands, where the report of the revolution in morals that had taken place in the Southern archipelago, had spread jealousy and alarm among the foreign adventurers, heathenized Christians from Great Britain and America. This will account too for the peculiar anxiety which is shewn to depreciate and misrepresent the proceedings of the Missionaries in the South Sea Islands. Ii is, accordingly, in reference to Tahiti chiefly, that Captain Kotzebue has set himself to compose his elaborate and malicious slanders. Tahiti is, from the very completeness of the triumph which the Gospel has there signalised, - from the perplexing, inexplicable change which has banished its voluptuous dances, its Eleusinian orgies, its Paphian abandonment, and naturalised there the simple worship and puritanized morality of the New Testament,-a stumbling-block and an eye-sore to the infidels, learned and vulgar, of the nineteenth century. Before we proceed to notice a few of the misrepresentations which Mr. Ellis has argumentatively refuted, and which find in the Journal of the English Deputation, so triumphant an exposure, we must place the qualifications and character of the Russian Captain in their proper light.

In the Missionary Journal kept by the late Mr. Tyerman, the following notices occur under the date of March 27, 1824.

• March 27. The Russian ship, Enterprise, Captain Kotzebue, came to anchor in Matavai Bay. ... He and several of his officers came on shore, and visited the Missionaries, by whom they were hospitably entertained.

March 29. We paid a morning visit to Captain Kotzebue, on board his ship.

Mr. Nott had a long conversation with the Captain, concerning the relation in which these islands stand towards England; Russia apparently coveting the petty, but merely nominal distinction of adding these green specks within the tropics to the measureless deserts of snow-land which constitute her Asiatic empire. There is no disposition at all, however, on the part of the natives, to acknowledge such dependence, under the pretext of alliance with the Autocrat of all the Russias ; whereas they would be glad to put themselves under the direct guardianship of England.

'In consequence of the Russian vessel being in the harbour, the schools are forsaken, and almost every ordinary occupation suspended. The people are crowding about the strangers, both on shipboard and on shore, with their fruit, hogs, and other commodities for sale. But it was gratifying to observe that not a canoe went out yesterday, and the Sabbath was as sacredly kept by the Tahitians (both converts and halfheathens) as though there were no temptation at hand to break it for the indulgence of curiosity and the profits of commerce; eager as they are to visit the strange ships, and traffic with the strange people. Very differently and very disgracefully, on the other hand, have those bornChristians, the Russians, employed their Sabbath, which, with the exception of a formal and customary service performed on board, could not be distinguished from a day of labour and dissipation. * April 5. Captain Kotzebue dined with us. He is, no doubt, an

, able navigator, but is not possessed of those social habits and friendly feelings which we have been in the habit of meeting with in all the commanders of the ships of other countries which we have met with. He did not even shew us the attention of inviting us to go on board his ship

April 6. Captain Kotzebue called upon us to take his leave. At his request, Mrs. Wilson had provided him several articles of provision, which were to be ready by 4 P.m.; but he got under weigh before that time, and went without them. The squally state of the weather was probably the cause of his hasty movement. The Captain did not appear to think the better of these islands on account of their having renounced idolatry and embraced Christianity, though he had every rea

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son to be satisfied with the general behaviour and conduct of the people.' Journal, Vol. II. pp. 86–88.

Mr. Bennet, the surviving member of the Deputation, a gentleman whose distinguished frankness and polished courtesy of manners, added to great knowledge of the world and invincible goodnature, could not fail, one might have thought, to conciliate the rudest sailor,—speaks of the disposition manifested by Captain Kotzebue, as differing most widely from what he had witnessed in any other visiters to the islands.

«« The attentions which were paid him (as his own acknowledgements prove) by the natives, the Missionary, and ourselves, were received with a repulsive coldness which even ordinary courtesy might have served to suppress. Whether this arose from natural moroseness of temper, or from the ill-humour which their adopted religion has had to endure, from some others as well as himself, on account of the restraints it has imposed on their former licentious habits,—it must be left to the Discerner of Hearts to determine." Vindication, p. 125.

Want of courtesy might, however, be forgiven ;-the Captain was evidently no gentleman; but that might pass, had he not proved himself, by his base return for the hospitality shewn him, à mendacious detractor. Even the heathen,' remarks Mr. Ellis, ' have branded with infamy the ungrateful guest. The following specimen of his unprincipled insinuations will place his conduct in a sufficiently broad light.

Speaking of those natives whom they induced to become their companions in vice, as manifesting “the utmost caution and secresy," and * the most fearful anxiety lest their errors should be betrayed to the Missionaries,” Kotzebue continues : “ An accidental occurrence proved their terrors were not groundless." And he thus concludes bis account of the disgraceful conduct of his sailors :

« « Suddenly the owner of the house) and his wife disappeared in the night—the house was found empty the next morning-and we could never learn what had become of its proprietors. Have the Missionaries already introduced the Oubliettes ?

· Whether the Author has drawn his illustration from French or from Russian history, he knows best ; but the resentment must have been strong which could induce the Writer thus insidiously to charge the teachers of the Christian religion with a crime associated only with the most hated despotism. The inmates were removed by no oubliette, or dungeon. What was the real cause of this desertion of their habitation, Mr. Bennet, the surviving member of the Deputation from the London Missionary Society, who was there during the whole of Kotzebue's stay, shall

declare. He states, that the husband removed with his wife towards Taiarabu, until the officers and crew of the Russian vessel had left Matavai, when they returned to their then unmolested habitation. These are the circumstances on which Kotzebue grounds his crimination of those who have introduced a state of things among the people, which, if seen with unprejudiced eyes, and understood, he himself, as well as “ Europe, would have admired.” But the real fact appears to be, that, under the full influence of those representations of the volatile and licentious disposition and habits of the Tahitians, given in the narratives of Wallis, Bougainville, Forster, and others, he arrived in Matavai Bay on the 14th of March, and remained there till the 24th (O.S.); found that a change in character and manners had taken place, which froze the current of his feelings; that the inhabitants were no longer the idolatrous and lascivious race described by the writers above referred to, but had become a more virtuous and temperate people. To the mortification which this discovery seems to have occasioned, and the restraint which the altered character of the people imposed, there can be little doubt that the gross caricature of religion which the Author has drawn, and those charges of tyranny, &c., against the Missionaries with which his work abounds, owe their origin.'

Vindication, pp. 77–79. Kotzebue's ship was ten days at Matavai, during which he was never further from his ship than the shores of the Bay. He, as well as his companions, was totally ignorant of the native language; and an English seaman was his only interpreter. Yet he has boldly undertaken to furnish a history of the people, an account of their institutions, language, and present condition, with strictures on the quality of the religious instruction furnished by the Missionaries, their personal qualifications, their motives and objects. In all this, he must have been perfectly conscious that he was either retailing what he had been told by the enemies of Missions elsewhere, or was drawing wholly upon his invention. At Tahiti, he had no means or opportunity of collecting any portion of this pretended information, which is, in fact, half libel, half romance. His account of the first introduction of Christianity, we must transcribe at length, because the substance of it has been cited in the Westminster Review as authentic history, the Author of the article compromising his own veracity by adopting the impudent fiction. It is proper too, that our readers should be fully aware, that Boki's letter is no solitary instance of deliberate fabrication.

“ After many fruitless efforts, some English Missionaries succeeded at length, in the year 1797, in introducing what they called Christianity into Tahiti, and even in gaining over to their doctrine the king Tajo, who then governed the whole island in peace and tranquillity. This conversion was a spark thrown into a powder-magazine, and was followed by a fearful explosion. The new religion was introduced by force. The maraes, as well as every memorial of the deities formerly worshipped, were suddenly destroyed by order of the king. Whoever would not instantly believe the new doctrine, was put to death. With the zeal for making proselytes, the rage of tigers took possession of a people once so gentle. Streams of blood flowedwhole races were ex

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