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who went to the same source for our present Offices of Morning and Evening Prayer. Very many of these hymns are already well known, thanks to the good work of former hymnals; but there remained many Sundays and other days for which the proper hymns were not provided. There is indeed no need for all the hymns of all the ancient services, such as the hymns for both Mattins and Lauds on every occasion ; but there is a legitimate demand for all those hymns which belong to the services of Morning and Evening Prayer, according to the Prayer Book Calendar. The need has long been felt of such a complete set of these ancient hymns, which in their Scriptural simplicity and sober dignity represent the deep Christian experience of more than a thousand years. This need' we have now supplied, endeavouring where new translations were required to convey as faithfully as possible the spirit of the originals, so that in these hymns also the authors should speak for themselves.

Thus we have made complete provision for the liturgical requirements of Churchmen, while we have at the same time added


modern hymns of the first rank which have not hitherto been at their disposal. In so doing we have attempted to redress those defects in popular hymnody which are deeply felt by thoughtful men; for the best hymns of Christendom are as free as the Bible from the self-centred sentimentalism, the weakness and unreality which mark inferior productions. The great hymns, indeed, of all ages abound in the conviction that duty lies at the heart

of the Christian life-a double duty to God and to our neighbour; and such hymns, like the Prayer Book, are for all sorts and conditions of men.

EXPLANATORY NOTES. The book is divided into twelve parts, and the hymns are arranged alphabetically in each part or section, so that they may be readily found. In Parts I to III, the Office Hymns for each occasion are placed first, and after them the other hymns follow in alphabetical order. Part X is divided into two sections : the first consists of hymns and prayers arranged so that processions may be definite acts of prayer and worship, after the manner of the Prayer Book Litany and the older processions upon which it is based; the second contains other hymns that are suitable for use in procession. The Metrical Litanies in Part XI are similarly arranged, so that they form complete acts of prayer. Part XII consists of liturgical prose pieces, which are arranged in their natural order.

The heading «OFFICE HYMN’ shows that the original was the Office Hymn for the corresponding service in the Salisbury service-books, except in the case of No. 175, which is taken from those of York. The letters 'E.' and 'M.' stand for Evensong and Mattins, the first Evensong being that on the day before the festival. When these letters occur twice for the same festival or season ('E.' and ‘M.,' 'M.' and 'E.'), the first ‘E.' denotes the hymn for the first Evensong, and the second ‘E.' the Evensong on the day itself ; while the


first ‘M.' shows that the hymn anciently belonged to Mattins only, and the second ‘M.' stands over the hymn that belonged to Lauds : as our present Mattins occupies the place of the older Mattins and Lauds, either hymn is equally suitable.

The names and dates of all authors are given, in so far as they are known. Initials only are provided in the case of living translators, whose are given in the Index

of Authors, and in the case of a few living authors. The letters "Tr.' are prefixed to the names of all translators. The number of the Psalm (Ps.) is given in the case of paraphrases, though it must be remembered that some paraphrases are extremely free, while others are based upon one or two verses only of a Psalm.

Where the author's or translator's name has no mark, the hymn is unaltered or has been revised by the author himself. The sign 'f' shows that an alteration has been made in one line only; the sign'I' denotes alterations in two or three lines. To hymns that are the work of more than one writer a second name is given, or the words and others' are added. Translations which have no one special source are marked Tr. cento.' Alterations in spelling are not marked, nor is any note made of the omission of verses, nor do the statements as to authorship refer to the doxologies.

In the case of long hymns and of hymns with slow tunes, the sign '*' is prefixed to those verses which may be most conveniently omitted. It does not follow that verses so marked are considered in

any way inferior, but only that they can be omitted without doing violence to the context.

Choruses and refrains are printed once for all in italic. Amen' is only printed with doxologies. In the case of other hymns its use is sometimes appropriate and sometimes not; but in the Musical Edition it is given with its musical setting in every case except that of sequences,

that it can be sung when desired. The verses are numbered, and in order to show when the last verse of a hymn is reached at the bottom of a page, a full point is in every case printed after the number of the last verse.

The Introits are given in Part XII, and as in some churches other Scriptural passages from the older Liturgy are occasionally used, these also are for convenience given in full. They follow the Introit, and are marked by letters which are explained in a note at the head of this Part.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. We desire to express our warmest thanks to the authors who have aided us by writing or translating hymns specially for this Hymnal, i. e. Rev. Maurice F. Bell; Rev. Dr. C. Bigg, Professor of Ecclesiastical History, Oxford; Mr. F. C. Burkitt, Norrisian Professor of Divinity, Cambridge; Mr. G. K. Chesterton; Rev. G. Gillett; Mr. Laurence Housman; Miss H. Packer; Rev. E. S. Palmer; Rev. Canon Rawnsley;

Mr. R. Ellis Roberts. Our thanks are also due to the following authors for their kind permission to include their hymns in the book :Mr. A. C. Ainger ; Rev. S. Baring-Gould ; Mr. A. C. Benson; Rev. Father Benson ; Rev. G. H. Bourne;

Rev. H. R. Bramley ; Rev. John Brownlie ; Miss Christian Burke; Rev. Dr. Butler, Master of Trinity College, Cambridge ; Mr. W. Canton ; Rev. R. R. Chope ; Rev. V. S. S. Coles ; Rev. Father Collins ; Mrs. Coote ; Mr. R. F. Davis ; Mrs. Gurney ; Miss K. Hankey ; Rev. Canon H. Scott Holland ; Rev. F. L. Hosmer; Mr. C. W. Humphreys; Rev. J. S. Jones ; Rev. Dr. Julian ; Mr. Rudyard Kipling ; Rev. S. C. Lowry; the Archbishop of York; Mrs. Maude ; Mr. A. Midlane; Mrs. Miller; Mr. L. B. C. L. Muirhead ; Rev. E. J. Newell ; Mr. F. S. Pierpoint; Rev. Martin R. Pope ; Rev. F. Pott; Rev. Canon Rawnsley; Very Rev. J. Armitage Robinson, Dean of Westminster; Rev. R. Hayes Robinson; Rev.I.G.Smith; Rev. W. Chalmers Smith; Rev. W. B. Trevelyan ; Lieut.-Col. Turton. While the hymn book was going through the press three authors who had given their permission passed away: Bishop Bickersteth; Rev. L. Hensley; Mrs. Luke.

The following copyright hymns have been inserted by permission of the owners, to whom we tender our sincere gratitude:—119, Rev. H. L. Alderson; the late Dean Alford's hymns, Rev. H.L. Cruso; 580, Mr. W. K. Doane ; St. Patrick's Breastplate, and other copyright hymns of the late Mrs. Alexander, the Archbishop of Armagh and the Association for Promoting Christian Knowledge; the three hymns 29, 225, 539, by Rev. H. R. Bramley, the late C. S. Calverley, and Mr. A. C. Benson, Messrs. Novello & Co., Ltd. ; 10, 636, Mrs. Blacker; 577, Mr. J. E. Bode; the late Dr. Bright's hymns, Rev. Dr. Lock; 15, Mr. Ernest Nister; 77, Mr. Kyrle Chatfield ; 567, 584, Miss A. J. D. Clephane; 347, Mrs. Creighton; hymns by the

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