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finners, they ftand in no need of a Saviour, they are not the objects of Redemption, Chrift died not for them; and if not for them, then not for all mankind.

XI. The last argument is, "If Chrift died for all men, even for them that can and do perith, then no confolation nor certainty of falvation can be had from the death of Chrift, even by those that believe he died for them, feeing, notwithstanding he has died for them, they may perish but this is abfurd, and contrary to Rom. viii. 34. where believers conclude from the death of Chrift, that they cannot come into condemnation.". The confequence of this argument is denied'. But how is it poffible, that there should be any folid comfort or real certainty of falvation from the death of Chrift, when, notwithstanding compleat Redemption is obtain'd by it, the benefit of it enjoy'd, fin really forgiven in Chrift, and the remiffion of it truly applied, yet perfons may fall from the enjoyment of these bene fits thro' fin. and unbelief, and eternally perifh? So that the benefit of Chrift's death and continuance in the enjoyment of it, depend on the will of man, and certain conditions to be performed by him; whence if any comfort or affurance of falvation arise,

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f Limborch, p. 330.

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which must be very low and precarious, they muft arise, not from the death of Chrift, but from the performances of men: whereas, on the other hand, the doctrine of particular Redemption fecures grace here, and glory hereafter, to all the fubjects of it; fo that those who believe in Chrift, may take folid comfort from his death, that they shall never enter into condemnation, but fhall be for ever with him; and may be ftrongly affur'd of this, that, maugre all the oppofition of fin, fatan, and the world, they fhall be faved with an everlasting falvation by him.

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R. Whitby, in the fecond chapter of his difcourfe of fufficient and effectual, common and efficacious grace, propofes arguments to overthrow the doctrine of irrefiftible or unfruftrable grace, as neceflary in the converfion of a finner; and begins with fome general confiderations, which he thinks fuffi

t Whitby, p. 231, 232, 233. Ed. 2. 226, 227. 1.



cient to cause any man to distrust, if not entirely reject it; as, that the defenders of it grant, what is inconfiftent with it, "That preventing grace is given irresistibly and univerfally to men, and is never taken away by God from any man, unless he firft, of his own accord, rejects it; that there are certain inward workings and effects wrought by the word and fpirit of God, preceding converfion and regeneration, in the hearts of perfons not yet juftify'd; which God ceafeth not to promote and carry on towards converfion, till he be forfaken of them, by their voluntary negligence, and his grace repell'd by them; that God doth very feriously and in earneft call all thofe to faith and repentance, and converfion, in whom, by his word and fpirit, he works a knowledge of the divine will, a fenfe of fin, a dread of punishment, fome hopes of pardon, and yet that all these men, excepting the elect, are not converted, thro' a defectiveness in the grace of God to do it, or for want of means fufficient for their converfion, and because God never intended by these means falvation to any but the elect." Who thefe defenders are, that make these conceffions, I am not concerned to know, the inconfiftency of them with the doctrine of efficacious grace, will be readily own'd;

N° 3. 10, 11, 13, 14. 17.

how can grace be faid to be given univerfally to men, when multitudes of them have not fo much as the means of it? or be faid to be given irrefiftibly, when man, of his own accord, may reject it? And tho' fome certain effects may follow upon hearing the word, as, awakening of the natural conscience, fear of a future judgment, and trembling of the fpirits in fome perfons, as in Felix, who never were or will be converted; yet these things are not promoted and carried on by God, nor were ever defign'd to be promoted and carried on by him towards converfion, or in order to it: had they been wrought or defign'd for that purpose, man's forfaking the Lord, by voluntary negligence, or repelling his grace, could never fruftrate his defigns, or caufe him to cease promoting the carrying on his own work until he has brought it to perfection. Nor is it true, that God calls all thofe to faith and repentance, and converfion, who have a knowledge of the divine will, a fense of fin, a dread of punishment, and fome hopes of pardon for the devils have all these but the laft, whom he never calls to faith and repentance, and the latter, as well as the former, fome men may have, and yet be never called by the grace of God; indeed, all thofe to whom God, by his fpirit and word, gives a fpiritual knowledge of his will, a real thorough fenfe of the evil na


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ture of fin, as well as of the punishment that comes by it, and a good hope, through grace, of pardon thro' the blood of Chrift, he not only calls ferioufly and in earnest to faith and repentance, but he bestows these gifts of his grace upon them. But I proceed to the confideration of the arguments which, 'tis faid, evidently feem to confute the doctrine of irresistible and unfruftrable grace in converfion. The first four arguments, with the eighth and ninth, are founded upon paffages of fcriptures, which have been confider'd in the first part of this work, to which the reader is referr'd; the reft fhall be attended to, and are as follow.

I. w« If fuch a divine unfruftrable operation is neceffary to the conversion of a finner, then the word read or preached can be no inftrument of their converfion, without this divine and infruftrable impulse, because that only acts by moral fuafion." I answer, 'tis very true, that the word read or preached is not, nor can it be an inftrument of converfion, without the powerful and efficacious grace of God; and it is abundantly evident, that it is read and preached to multitudes on whom it has no effect, and to whom it is of no ufe and fervice. Some perfons are, indeed, begotten with the

w Whitby, p. 255. Ed. 2. 249.


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