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Frontispiece EDGAR ALLAN POE ....

John H. Ingram

. 124 With portrait engraved on steel by F. Halpin. CHARLES F. MARKELL ..

C. S. Thomas .

137 With portrait by N. H. Busey, Baltimore, Md. CHARLOTTE FISKE BATES. .

Louise Imogen Guiney

140 With portrait. KATE McPHELIM CLEARY

Charles Wells Moulton .

144 With portrait by Mosher, Chicago. LUCY LARCOM

Harriet H. Robinson


Henry Van Fredenberg

153 With portrait FLORENCE C. DIEUDONNE

Mrs. J. A. Armstrong

. 159 With portrait by Estabrook, Washington, D. C. ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING .

Eva Maria Kennedy


Rev. Arthur J. Lockhart D. D. 165 LETTIE S. BIGELOW.

Helen Manning .

169 With portrait by G. W. Wright, Holyoke, Mass. ELIZABETH BAKER BOHN

Col. J. A. Watrous

171 With portrait by Hamilton, Milwaukee, Wis. LYDIA HOYT FARMER

Jeannette Ward .

176 With portrait by E. Decker, Cleveland, O. JOHN OTIS BARROWS


M. M. Thomson

181 With portrait by Scholten, St. Louis, Mo. ANDREW McCABE

J. B. Berteling M. D. .


Charles Marsh Gilmore M, D.

187 With portrait by Place, Chicago, III. JAMES BARRON HOPE .

William R. Gault .


Thomas O'Hagan .

193 With portrait by Ely Bro's,, London, Ont. N. M. BASKETT, M. D. .

J. H. Rodes


Rev. Henry Hyde, D. D.

199 With portrait by R. B. Lewis, Hudson, Mass. FANNY H. R. POOLE.

Fred Lawrence Knowles


· Jane Maria Read .

205 With portrait by R. B. Lewis, Hudson, Mass. SARAH WOLVERTON

Rev. Lee S. McCallester, D. D. . 207 GERTRUDE TRACY JOHNSON

Eliza S. Pettit

. 208 With portrait by Thomson, Kansas City, Mo. MARTHA WINTERMUTE

J. C. McCahon

212 With portrait by McCahon, Newark, Ohio. MARY H. GREY CLARKE

Cyrus Cobb.

. 214 With portrait by Hardy, Boston, Mass. S. T. COLERIDGE

Nettie Leila Michel.




. 237 NOTES. John H. Ingram, Francis M. O. Smith, Harper's Young People, George Cary Eggleston, and the Editor






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TERMS.-$2.00 a year in advance; so cents a number. Foreign, nine shillings. Booksellers and Postmasters receive subscriptions. Subscribers may remit by post-office or express money orders, draft on New York, or registered letters. Money in letters is at sender's risk. Terms to clubs and canvassers on application. Magazines will be sent to subscribers until ordered discontinued. Back numbers exchanged, if in good condition, for corresponding bound volumes in half morocco, elegant, gilt, gilt top, for $1.00, subscribers paying charges both ways. Postage on bound volume, 35 cents. All numbers sent for binding should be marked with owner's name. We cannot bind or exchange copies the edges of which have been trimmed by machine. Address all communications to CHARLES WELLS MOULTON, Publisher,

Buffalo, N. Y. Copyright, 1893, by Charles Wells Moulton. Entered at Buffalo Post-Office as Second-Class Mail Matter.

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No. 2.



appears to have received was not of that kind to

touch his tender heart. Throughout life a morbid DGAR ALLAN POE was born in Boston, on sensitiveness to affection was one of his most dis

the 19th January, 1809. He was named Allan tinguishing traits, and this it was that frequently after a wealthy and intimate friend of the family, drove him to seek in the society of dumb creatures and when both his parents died his godfather, who, that love which was denied him, or which he somealthough long married, was childless, adopted the times believed denied him, by human beings. little orphan, then only six years old. Even at this There is a paragraph in his terrible tale of “The early age Poe was noted for his precocity as well as Black Cat," which those who were intimately acfor his beauty, and Mr. Allan appears to have been quainted with Poe will at once recognize the autoextremely proud of his youthful protégé, and to biographical fidelity of. have treated him in many respects as his own son. Returning to the more commonplace records of The boy is stated to have been made quite a show- his history, the future poet is described to us at child of by his adopted father; a tenacious memory this period of his life as remarkable for his general and a musical ear, we are informed, enabling him to cleverness, his feats of activity, his wayward temlearn by rote, and declaim to the evening visitors per, his extreme personal beauty, and his power assembled at Mr. Allan's house, the finest passages extemporaneous tale-telling, and, even at this early of English poetry with great effect.

stage, as a great classical scholar, and as well In 1816, the Allans having to visit England on versed in mathematics, botany, and other branches matters connected with disposal of some property of the natural sciences. He appears to have been there, brought their adopted son with them, and a successful student, having obtained distinctions in after taking him on a tour through England and Latin and French at the closing examinations of Scotland with them, left him at the Manor-House 1826. School in Church Street, Stoke-Newington. The In 1827, aroused by the heroic efforts the Greeks school belonged to a Rev. Dr. Bransby, who is so were making to throw off the yoke of their Turkish quaintly described in “William Wilson," one of oppressors, and, doubtless, emulous of Byron, Poe's finest stories. Here, in this dreamy place, whose example had excited the chivalric boys of Edgar Poe spent from four to five years of his both continents, Edgar Poe and an acquaintance, existence, and, notwithstanding the monotony of Ebenezer Burling, determined to start for Greece school life, was doubtless fully justified in looking and offer their aid to the insurgents. Either Mr. back upon the days pa ed in that venerable acad- Burling's heart failed, or parental authority was too emy with pleasurable feelings.

strong for him, for he stayed at home, whilst the In 1821, the lad was re-called home, and soon embryo poet, doubtless in headstrong opposition to afterwards was placed by his adopted parents at an the wishes of his adopted parents, started alone for academy in Richmond, Va. Mr. Allan would Europe. Poe was absent for more than a year, but seem to have been very proud of his handsome and the adventures of his journey have never been told; precocious godson, and always to have been will- he seems to have been very reticent upon the subing to afford him any amount of education procur- ject, and to have left uncontradicted the various able; but of parental love, of that deep sympathy stories invented, and even published during his lifefor which the poor orphan yearned, he seems to time, to account for the interregnum in his history. have been utterly devoid. Not but wh the impe- 1829 Edgar Poe returned home, if Mr. Allan's rious little fellow was indulged in what money could residence may so be termed. He reached Richpurchase, but the petting and spoiling which he still mond, Va., we have been informed, early in

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March, but too late to take a last farewell of his adopted mother, she having died on the 27th of February, and her funeral having taken place the very day before Poe's return.

Mr. Allan does not appear to have manifested any great pleasure at the prodigal's return, but when Poe expressed his willingness to devote himself to the military profession, he exercised his influence and obtained a nomination for him to a scholarship in the military academy at West Point. As, according to the rules of that institution, appointments are not given to candidates after they have atttained their twenty-first birth-day, the young author, for such he now was, was only just in time to secure his nomination. Meanwhile Poe had published a little volume of poems, his first known essay in literature, under the title of “AI Aaraaf, Tamerlane, and other poems." In 1831, whilst still a cadet, he published an enlarged collection of his boyish rhymes under the title of “Poems by Edgar A. Poe.”

Upon leaving West Point, Poe returned to Mr. Allan's residence at Richmond, and appears to have remained there some time on sufferance. Soon after his return home he became attached to Miss Royster, and was ultimately, it is believed, engaged to her. Mr. Allan, why it is not known, was violently opposed to the match, and without his pecuniary aid matrimony was out of the question, as Poe was entirely dependent upon him. A violent quarrel took place between the old man and his adopted son, and Poe, unable to submit calmly to the course of events, again left home, this time with the intention of proceeding to Poland, to expend his energies in aiding the Poles in their struggles against Russia. How far he got is not known, but it is supposed that he did not leave America, having been stopped by the intelligence that, on the 6th of September, Warsaw had fallen, carrying with it the last hopes of the Polish insurgents. In the meanwhile, as if to widen the estrangement at home, Mr. Allan had taken unto himself a young wife—“the beautiful Miss Paterson”—whilst Miss Royster, forgetful of her th, was married to a wealthy man, a Mr. Shelton. Once more aimless, and probably resourceless, the chivalric young poet again sought his native province. Whether he returned to the home that was home no more is uncertain, but, from what is known of his proud spirit, it seems unlikely; if he did, however, his stay was of short duration, and his godfather's second wife having given birth to a son was the death-blow to Poe's prospects of succeeding to the property.

Bankrupt in nearly everything, the unfortunate poet now turned to literature as a means of obtain

ing subsistence, but he found the waters of Helicon were anything but Pactolian. Where he wandered, and what he did, for nearly two years, still remains an unravelled mystery, but it is alleged that some of his finest stories were written during this epoch, and, although accepted and published by magazine editors, were scarcely ever paid for. In 1833 he is heard of in Baltimore competing for prizes offered by the proprietor of the Saturday Visitor for the best prose story and the best poem. Here, then, was an opportunity of deferring, for a while at least, the starvation which was not far off. For the competition, Poe selected and sent in six of his stories, and his poem of “The Coliseum.” Some well-known literary men consented to adjudicate upon the mass of papers received, and after a careful consideration of the various contributions, decided unanimously that Poe, who was unknown to them, was entitled to both premiums. In August of 1834 a Mr. White, an energetic and accomplished man, in opposition to the advice of his friends, commenced the publication of the Southern Literary Messenger, in Richmond, Va. This magazine was a very daring speculation at such a time and place, and but for a fortunate accident might have placed its promoter completely hors de combat. Amongst the well-know writers whose aid he solicited was Mr. Kennedy, and he, being fully engaged, advised Poe to send something. Our poet did so, and Mr. White, greatly pleased with his contributions, spoke of them in very flattering terms, in March, 1835, publishing “ Berenice.” Henceforth Poe became a regular monthly contributor to the Messenger. In the June number of the magazine appeared Poe's tale of “Hans Pfaall.” Poe's reputation

now increasing so rapidly that Mr. White became desirous of retaining his services exclusively for his magazine, and having sounded his contributor, and found him only too willing, engaged him to assist in the editorial duties of the Messenger at a salary of about one hundred guineas (520 dollars) per annum. In consequence of this appointment Poe at once removed from Baltimore to Richmond, Virginia, where the magazine was published. During the whole of 1836 Poe devoted his entire attention to the Messenger, producing tales, poems, essays, and reviews in profusion; indeed, apparently at Mr. White's suggestion, frittering away his genius over these last. Early in the year a gleam of hope seemed to break in upon his chequered

In Richmond, once more among his kindred, he met and married his cousin Virginia, the daughter of his father's sister, Maria. Miss Clemm was but a girl in years, and already nifested symptoms of the family complaint, consumption, but, undeterred by this or by his slender income,



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