Genocide and Gross Human Rights Violations: In Comparative Perspective

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Transaction Publishers - Political Science - 338 pages
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The author in his dedication declares his hopes for the 21st century: "May it be kinder than the last one." If that happy thought becomes reality it will be because of scholars like Kurt Jonassohn. Here he provides a conceptual perspective with which to examine a wide variety of themes from famines, refugees and hunger, to the Holocaust denial literature and the prevention of unpunished crimes. A unique feature of the volume is special attention to methods and comparative approaches to data gathering with which to study global issues such as genocide. "Genocide and Gross Human Rights Violations" offers actual studies of genocide in India, China, Colonial Africa, the Soviet Union, Burma, and the former Yugoslavia. Beyond narrating the most horrendous atrocities, the book focuses on the nature of gross human rights violations and genocides, and how best to stop them. Jonassohn formulates a typology that distinguishes events that have different origins, occur in different situations, and follow different processes. This work is motivated by the hope that it might be possible to reduce the number of genocides and to intervene in those that do occur. Jonassohn argues that genocides occurred throughout history in all parts of the world. As a consequence the subject needs to be approached from a comparative and historical perspective. While each genocide is unique, the author also emphasizes that there is much to be learned by what these unique events have in common. It is this conceptual framework that makes the work special and of enduring value. Jonassohn aims to learn enough to gain an understanding of the underlying situations and processes that will make it possible to prevent new genocidal events in the future, or at least to find ways to intervene in those underway. The book should satisfy both scholar and activist; those who read the book for intellectual guideposts and for political measures against to organized human destruction.
 

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Contents

The Case of Walter Duranty
167
Editorial Bias
168
False Reports
169
Ownership and Censorship
171
Western Culture and the Western Media
172
Conclusion
174
Site Visits
175
Other Sources of Data
176

TwentiethCentury Famines
33
Summary
38
The Tragic Circle of Famine Genocide and Refugees
41
Definitions
42
Food Shortages as Evidence of Genocide
43
Refugees as Sources of Information
44
Summary
48
The Consequences of Ideological Genocides and Their Role in Prevention
49
The Albigensian Crusade
50
The Spanish Inquisition
52
The Armenian Genocide
54
Genocides in the Soviet Union
56
Nazi Germany and the Holocaust
57
The Cambodian Tragedy
59
Conclusion
61
Afterword
62
Some Antecedents of the Holocaust Denial Literature
65
A Brief History
66
Some Domestic Sources of German Racism
69
Denials after World War I
73
The Hitler Period
76
Denials since World War II
78
Conclusion
80
On Jewish Resistance An Essay on Perceptions
83
Jewish Resistance to Nazi Victimization
84
The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
86
Reasons Why Jewish Resistance is So Little Known
88
Conclusion
90
Prevention without Prediction
93
Early Recognition
94
Education
97
Publicity
99
Economic Sanctions
100
Organizational Linkages
101
The Law
103
Conclusions
104
Rethinking the Conceptualization of Genocide and Gross Human Rights Violations
107
On the Prevention of Unpunished Crimes
115
Who is the Perpetrator?
116
The Individual as Perpetrator
117
Conclusion
121
A Summation
123
Preliminary Considerations
129
A Note on Definitions and Typologies
131
The Language of Data
139
Translation
141
Evolution of Language
146
Place Names
147
Writing Systems and Transliteration
148
Manipulation of Language
149
Sources of Data
153
Kinds of Data for Contemporary Cases
159
Quality of Data
161
Journalists Reports
162
The Western Media
163
Censorship and the Western Media
164
National and International Governments
177
Humanitarian Aid NGOs
178
Human Rights NGOs
179
Introduction
183
PreTwentiethCentury Perpetrators
187
The Defeat of Numantia in 133 BC
188
The Asian Vespers of 88 BC
190
Diocletians Persecution of the Christians
191
The Fourth Crusade 1202౼1204
195
Vlad III of Walachia
197
The Conquest of Mexico 1519౼1521
200
The Sack of Novgorod in 1570 by Ivan the Terrible
202
The Wars of the Vendee
205
Bulgarian Atrocities 1876
208
Argentina 1878౼1885
211
The Brazil Backhands 1886౼1897
213
Perpetrators in India
217
The Persecution of the Jains
219
Balbans Persecution of the Meos
220
Timurs Conquests
221
Baburs Style of Warfare
222
Perpetrators in China
225
The Taiping Rebellion of 1850౼1864
227
Famines
229
Perpetrators in Colonial Africa
233
Britain in Matabeleland and Mashonaland 1896౼1897
234
The Belgian Congo Leopoldville
235
French Pacification of the Ivory Coast and the French Congo
239
The Graziani Massacre in Italian Ethiopia
243
The War against the Hehe 1891౼1898 in German East Africa
245
The Maji Maji Uprising 1905౼1907
248
Revolt against the Germans in Kamerun 1903౼1908
249
More TwentiethCentury Cases
253
Chittagong Hill People in Bangladesh
256
Myanmar Burma
258
The Rohingyas
262
Oppression of Other Minorities and Political Opposition
265
The Relevance of History for the Case of the Former Yugoslavia
269
Antiquity
270
The Schism between Greek and Latin Christendom
272
Medieval Croatia and Serbia
273
The Ottoman Empire
275
The Rise of Balkan Nationalism
277
Hegemony or Negation
278
A New Yugoslav State
279
The Killing of Jews in the Independent States of Croatia and Serbia 1939౼1945
281
The Killing of Gypsies in Serbia and Croatia 1941౼1945
282
The Resistance
284
Yugoslavia under Tito
286
The Abuse of History
287
Conclusion
288
Afterword
291
Bibliography of Print Materials
295
Bibliography of Internet Materials
325
Name Index
330
Copyright

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Page 9 - Nations, 1983) defines a refugee as any person who owing to well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion...
Page 10 - genocide is a form of one-sided mass killing in which a state or other authority intends to destroy a group, as that group and membership in it are defined by the perpetrators.'6 Before the perpetrators of genocide acquire the power over their victims' life, they must have acquired the power over their definition.

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About the author

Kurt Jonassohn is director of the Montreal Institute for Genocide and Human Rights Studies, and professor of sociology at Concordia University.

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