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CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

Page

TIR BIOGRAPHY OF BOOKS IN GENERAL, AND OF THR

BIBLE IN PARTICULAR.

Biography of Books - The Iliad - Cæsar's Commentaries -
Bacon's Organum-Bunny's Resolutions and Richard Baxter
-Wycliffe and Luther-Knor and WesleyDoddridge and
Wilberforce-Richmond and the Dairyman's Daughter-Col.
Gardiner and Dr. Ohalmers. The Bible and its influence on
individuals :-Usher and Toplady-The earl of Rochester-
Greenland-Andrew Fuller and Dr. McAll.-Luther and the
Psalms-Ohrysostom and Paul's Epistles-Ridley and Boyle
Sir Isaac Newton and Locke Leighton's French Bible--The

"Great Bible-Translators of modern times. Literary beau.

ties: -Petrarch-Hale-Milton-Steele-Addison-Sir W.

Jones-Mrs. Hemans-Sir Walter Scott. The Bible and our

race :--Its influence--The patriarchs-The law. Missions:-

South America-Japan-Madagascar. The Reformation in

Germany, England, and Bengal - Its influence. Philology and

History-Europe, India, China-Universities of Germany

Scotland and Italy England and Spain-The Bible and

freedom-The spiritual results of the Bible most important. 6

CHAPTER II.

THE BIBLE IN THE ANCIENT EAST AND AT ROME.

The Captivity and the Targums-Jewish dispersions and their

moral purpose--Hebrew printing--The language of the Cymri

- Diffusion of Greek-The Ptolemies The Alexandrian

Library and the Seventy--The story of Aristeas and Philo-A

dilemma-The Codex Alexandrinus written by a lady-All not

satisfied with the Seventy--Origen's Polyglot--Jerome'slabours

The Vulgate-Antiquity, what P--Judge or witness P-Did

the church at Rome originally read the Bible in the language

of Italy - Infallibility turns printer-Results. Syriac versions

-Claudius Buchanan-The churches in Malabar Testimony

of Syrian churches against Romish corruptions. The Bible

speaks the language of barbarians-The Coptio version-The

Thebaic-The Ethiopic-Book of Enoch. Armenian version

and the Nestorians-The Georgian. The Goths, their origin

and version-The Silver Manuscript of Upsal-The Vandals-

The Solaronic version. Arabic, one of the oldest and most

extensively spoken of all languages --Lessons. Who read

these books --Ancient and modern libraries-The circulating

library of Cæsarea -- Fenelon's opinion - The Fathers -

Destruction of early books - Number of manuscripts now

existing-Results on the character of the early church, and

the extension of the gospel a . . . . . 26
CONTENTS.

CHAPTER III.

TAB BIBLE AND THB REFORMATION.

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The Middle Ages - Lights and shadows-Methods of study-The

Bible-Tradition-Scholastic logic-Rise of modern languages

-Italian, French, Spanish, Romaic - Languedoc and the

Troubadourg - The Albigenses and Waldenses - Waldo in

Bohemia-Religion and the Bible before the Reformation in

Italy, Switzerland, Germany, and England - Opposition -

Friars, Black and Grey-The Inquisition. The Reformation

in Germany : Its success—Versions of the Bible : their num-

ber and the extent of their circulation in Italy, Spain, France,

Germany, England-Effect of printing-The Bible probibited

at Mentz and Rome-First Index-The Reformation a spiritual

work-Its doctrines in Italy-Paleario-Address to Julius II.

-Defence of the prohibition of the Bible--Sir Thomas More's

view-The Bible and Luther--Twofold effect-- Protestantism

henceforth a system; and a system founded, not on Luther's

writings, but on Scripture-Results of his version--Hostility

of the papacy_Versions founded on Luther's. The Bible and

the Reformation in France :-Lefèvre, Farel-The Bible at

Meaux. The Reformation in Switzerland :-Zwingle-Bible

and Tract Society at Basle ---Colporteurs -- France largely

Protestant--Geneva. The Bible among Sclavonic nations :-

Russia-Poland-Various Sclavonic dialects. The Bible in

Hungary and Lapland Other Tartarian dialects. Results

Probable extent to which Scripture was circulated in the 16th

and 17th centuries-The Bible among the learned-Ancient

versions printed-Polyglots-Commentaries-Latin versions

-Printers-Bomberg-Stepheng-Policy of Rome. Romanist

re-action-Decay of Protestantism-Aggressive missionary

character of the papacy-Persecution

CHAPTER IV.

THE BIBLE AND CHRISTIAN MISSIONS.

The missionary spirit not peculiar to the 19th century-Mis.

sionary efforts of the first age, and of the Reformation-Yet

combined general missionary effort characteristic of this

century-Societies: Missionary, Bible, Tract-Results-Bibles

in the first centuries of the Christian era ; in the 250 years after

the Reformation; and in the last 60 years-Contrasts: Finland,

Russia, Wales, France - Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress.

Individual efforts-The Jews-Hutter-Tremellius-The Irish

Scriptures - Boyle - Turkish - Malay - John Eliot and the

Indians-The king of Denmark-Tranquebar-Schwartz-

The Dutch and Ceylon — The Portuguese - Labrador and

Greenland-The printing establishment at Halle-Professor

Francke. Systematic efforts-The languages of the earth,

their number and connexion.-1. Shemitic languages.-2. Indo-

European.-Henry Martyn at Shiraz - Results of Indian

versions in India --Versions in Europe.-3. Monosyllabic:

Chinese-Contrasted with Polynesian versions.--Ugro-Tar.

tarian.-5. Polynesian.-6. African-Female influence-Han.

nah Kilham.-7. American.-Lessons . . . . 143

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THE BIBLE IN MANY TONGUES.

CHAPTER I.

THE BIOGRAPHY OF BOOKS IN GENERAL, AND OF THE

BIBLE IN PARTICULAR.

What an interesting volume might be written on the lives of books—their origin, history, and influence! By whom were these pages written, and under what circumstances ? who have read them, and with what results are questions which any great book may prompt us to ask. The answers, could we hear them, would be found to connect the books themselves with the highest temporal, and even with the eternal interests of our race.

Ilere, for example, is the “ tale of Troy divine." In which of the seven cities that contend for the honour of being the birthplace of the poet was it written? Did he sing these lines Through the streets of his native place ? How did he live, and where is he now? Is he himself a fiction, the shadow of a great name, the representative of a school of poets, whose fame is lost in his? These pages Plato has read. Hence he gathered, perhaps, the conviction that in his model republic, the deities which are here clothed with worse than human

CÆSAR'S COMMENTARIES. passions should have no place. Hence, perhaps, his doctrine of the final absorption of all souls in one great Spirit gathered strength; for the souls of the heroes who were slain go, we are here told, to the shades below, while the heroes themselves lie bleaching on the shore. This book Alexander studied and admired while meditating fiercer struggles and wider conquest. Hence Virgil borrowed his measure and history. Milton mastered its mythology and rhythm while preparing his “ Paradise Lost." "Pope has rivalled the music of its numbers in a translation that has all the merit and (what in a translation must be called) the faults of an original work. In studying these pages, Cowper has found relief from the burden of well-nigh intolerable despondency, has caught the simplicity of his author, and has even thanked God that Homer lived. Millions of men, probably, have read or listened to those lines ; and many have gathered impressions from them for good or for evil which have never been effaced.

Or let us open à very different volume. These Commentaries of Cæsar were written amidst the turmoil of conflict. These are lines penned, one might suppose, in the fastnesses of ancient Germany, or during the harassing attacks of the fickle Gauls, or in the fogs and privations of our own Britain. The whole was evidently composed by snatches, and is the work of a man of action, who could as easily conquer a country as describe it. But little

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