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A CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE Of the principal events occurring in Judea, and the correspond
ing events in the Roman empire, from the conquest of Judea by Pompey, to the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus.
BEFORE CHRIST. 77–68. ALEXANDRA, QUEEN OF THE JEWS. She leaves two sons, Hyrcanus and Aristobulus. Both claim the crown. Aristobulus seizing upon it by force, and Ilyrmanus being placed on the throne by the Pharisees. In a battle between the two brothers, Hyrcanus is overcome, and Aristobulus secures the crown.
70. Pompey and Crassus, Consuls in Rome.
65. In Syria, the dynasty of the Seleucidæ ends with Antiochus XII., who is overcome by Pompey. Syria becomes a Roman province.
67–63. ARISTOBULUS II., KING OF THE JEWs. He had been High Priest under the reign of his mother, nine years. Was then King and High Priest. Was afterwards Priest nineteen years. Then Ethnarch four years. Then Herod's captive and sport, eight years. Hyrcanus, at the instigation of Antipater, the father of Herod the Great, seeks the aid of Aretas, the king of Arabia. Antipater, or Antipas, was an Idumean by birth, but had adopted the Jewish religion, and was Governor of Idumea during the reign of Alexander Janneus, and his widow, Alexandra. Antipater joins the party of Hyrcanus. He and Hyrcanus flee to Aretas, King of Arabia. Aretas agrees to place him on the throne, and conducts him to Judea with an army of 50,000 men; takes Jerusalem, and restores him to the throne. Aristobulus flees to the temple; and then appeals to Scauras, the Roman General at Damascus, for aid. Scauras writes to Aretas; threatens to declare him an enemy of the Roman people if he does not withdraw. He withdraws, and Aristobulus pursues him, and defeats him in a battle.
63. Pompey the Great, who had come to Damascus, commands the two brothers to appear before him The two brothers appear before him, and urge their respective claims-Hyrcanus pleading his birth ; Aristobulus, the necessity of the case. Aris. tobulus, foreseeing that the decision would be against him, withdraws and fortifies himself in Jerusalem. Aristobulus surrenders himself to Pompey, but his party shuts the gates against the Romans, and Pompey puts Aristobulus in chains, and begins a siege. The city is taken by the Romans, because the Jews would not fight on the Sabbath, and is brought under the Roman power, according to Calmet, 59 years; according to Hales, 63 years; and according to Jahn, 63 years before Christ. Pompey confirms Hyrcanus in the High Priesthood.
63 55. HYRCANUS II., PRINCE AND High PRIEST OF THE JEWS JUDEA A ROMAN PROVINCE.
60. THE FIRST TRIUMVIRATE :-Pompey, Crassus, and Julius Cæsar
54. Alexander, son of Aristobulus, escapes from those who were carrying him w Rome, and returns to Judea and raises soldiers. Hyrcanus not being able to defend kimself, applies to Gabinius, the Roman general. Antipater, the father of Herod the Great, joins the Roman army. Alexander is defeated. 'Gabinius confirms Hyrcanus ia the High Priesthood, but changes the form of she Xovernment to an ARISTOCRA..U
This continues until the year 44, B. C., when Cæsar comes to Judea and restores Hy canus to his former power.
53. Aristobulus escapes from Rome, and comes to Judea with his younger son Antigonus. They are taken prisoners, and sent to Rome
54. Gabinius is removed from Judea, Crassus is made Pro-consul of Syria, and comes to Syria. He comes to Jerusalem, and robs the Temple of 8,000 Talents of fold, mequal to about $200,000,000. Makes var with the Parthians, and is put to Jeath. Cassius Longinus succeeds him in the command of the army. Brings the tumainder of the army over the Euphrates, and takes about 30,000 Jewish captives.
53. Augustus, afterwards the Roman Emperor, is born.
45. Battle of Pharsalia in Thessaly, where Pompey is defeated. Pompey flees tu Egypt, and is beheaded.
45. ANTIPATER, THE FATHER OF HEROD THE GREAT, IS MADE GOVERNOR OF JUDEA. He is appointed to this office by Julius Cæsar. Cæsar confirms Hyrcanus in the High Priesthood, and gives him permission to build the walls of Jerusalem, which had been demolished by Pompey.
44. Hyrcanus sends to Rome a golden shield, and the Jews are, by a decree of the Senate, acknowledged as the allies of the Romans.
44. Antipater re-builds the walls of Jerusalem. He makes his oldest son, Pha. zael, Governor of Jerusalem, and HEROD, afterwards Herod the Great, Governor of Galilee.
44. Cæsar subdues all Egypt, and gives it into the hands of Cleopatra. Is agair made Dictator.
Herod attacks and subdues the robbers in Galilee.
Herod is summoned before the Sanhedrim on the charge of the exercise of arbi. trary power. He appears before them in a purple robe, and attended by his lifeguard, and defies them. He departs from Jerusalem, and goes to Sextus Cæsar, at Ďamascus, and obtains the government of all Calo-Syria.
43. The Roman calendar reformed by Julius Cæsar. This year was called the year of confusion, and consisted of 445 days.
41. Julius Cæsar restores 10 the Jews all that they had formerly possessed, and confirms them in the enjoyment of all their privileges.
Cæsar is put to death in the Senate-house. 40. TRIUMVIRATE:-Octavianus Cæsar, (afterwards Augustus), Antony, and Le pidus.
40 Jewish ambassadors appear at Rome 10 pray that their privileges may be con firmel Their request is granted.
39. Malichus causes Antipater, the father of Herod, to be poisoned.
39. Herod and Phazael, Tetrarchs of Judea. They are accused by the Jews be fore Antony. More than a thousand Jews appear with these complaints. Antony regards it as rebellion, and causes many of them to be slain, and confirms the bro thers as Tetrarchs of the Jews.
Antigonus, son of Aristobulus, prevails on the Parthians to place him on the throne of Judea. The Parthians seize Hyrcanus and Phazael, and deliver them up to Anti gonus.
Phazaol beats out his own brains. Antigonus cuts off the ears of Hyrcanus, and kends him beyond the Euphrates.
37. Herod is forced to flee to Jerusalem, and thence to Rome, to implore the aid of Antony. He oblains the grant of the KINGDOM of Judea from the Senate and the lio yernor's of Syria are required to aid him in securing it. He reigns thirty-seven years lle is conducted to the Capitol at Rome by Antony and Octavianus, and there trowned King, with idolatrous sacrifices.
37. HEROD, KING OF JUDEA. He was the second win of Antipater, an Idumean by birth, who had been governor of Judea. 37. Ventidius, a Roman, has commanı if the forces in the East; appointed by Ar
Herud returns to Judea, having been absent but three months. He raises an army. lfastens to relieve his family in the forti ass of Massada, where they were besieged by Antigonus. Goes to Idumea and takes possession of a strong fortress by the name of Ressa, and then returns and lays siege to Jerusalem. Unable to take the city, he is obliged to decamp. Marches to Galilee, and endeavors to clear the country of robbers.
36. Herod renews his attacks on the robbers. Is obliged to let down his soldiers un chests by ropes over the mouth of the caves, and to fight them there. Having subdued the robbers, he marches to Samaria against Antigonus, but is obliged to return to Galilee, to quell the robbers.
The brother of Herod, Joseph, is surrounded and slain by the army of Antigon:29, Roar Jericho.
36. Antony leads an army against the Parthians. Commits the government of Byria to Sosius, and returns to Italy.
The Roman Triumvirate continues, and Antony has assigned to him the affairs of the East.
35. Herod marches against Jerusalem, and lays siege again to the city.
He is married to Mariamne, to whom he had been betrothed four years. She was the daughter of Alexander, the son of king Aristobulus, by Alexandra, the daughter of Hyrcanus II., and was thus grand-daughter to both these brothers. Herod hoped by this marriage to reconcile the Jews to him; as the Asmonean family, from which she was descended, was in high favor with the Jews. She was a woman of un common beauty. Herod is joined by the Roman general, Sosius.
34. Jerusalem is taken by Herod, and Antigonus surrenders himself. He is reated with the greatest indignity. Is sent to Antioch, and beheaded by the command of Anicny, and thus the reign of the Asmoneans, which had lasted 126 years, ig ended, AND HEROD IS CONFIRMED IN THE KINGDOM.
REIGN OF HEROD THE GREAT. 31. Herod condemns to death all the members of the Sanhedrim, except Sameag nd Pollio.
32. He appoints to the office of High Priest, Ananel of Babylon, a common priest, but a descendant of the ancient high priests.
He invites Hyrcanus II. to come to Jerusalem from Seleucia, where he had beer kindly entertained by the Oriental Jews. Hyrcanus comes to Jerusalem, where he is treated by Herod with great respect.
32. Herod, at the earnest solicitations of Alexandra and Mariamne, deprives Ana nel of the high priesthood, and confers it on Aristobulus, the brother of Mariamne then only 17 yoars old. Herod is displeased with the interference of Alexandra in shis business, and she and her son Aristobulus, attempt to escape to Cleopatra in Egypt. Aristobulus is drowned by order of Herod, in a lake near Jericho, on account of the affection shown for him by the people.
32. Antony comes into Syria, but goes then into Egypt, where he spends a whole year with Cleopatra. Lepidus and Octavianus come to an open rupture, and Lepi ülis retires as a private man, and the Roman power is left in the hands of Antony and Octavianus, afterwards Augustus.
31. Herod is sent for by Antony, to justify himself against the charge of having punered Aristobulus. Gives his kingdom to the care of his uncle, Joseph. Charges him in case he is condemned, to put Mariamne to death, that she might not be possessed by Antony. Joseph informs her of the charge of Herod, and is imprisoned on his return.
30. Ananel, High Priest the second time.
Antony gives to Cleopatra the most fertile part of Judea, but Herod agrees to pay her a yearly tribute of iwo hundred talents.
Cleopatra visits Herod at Jerusalem, and attempts, in vain, to entangle him in her
Aritony makes war on Armenia. Appoints Cæsario, son of Julius Cæsar by Cleo patra, King of Egypt. Makes his eldest son, Alexander, King of Armenia and Parthia.
27. Herod makes war with the Arabiar.3, at the command of Antony. Is defeated near Cena.
A great earthquake in Judea. 27. THE BATTLE OF ACTIUM between Antony and Octavianus, which decides the desting of the Roman world. Antony is defeated.
26. Antony and Cleopatra kill themselves.
26. Hyrcanus, then 80 years of age., attempts to escape, and Herod gladló embra ces this opportunity to put him to death. Goes to Rome to pay court to augustus, and to conciliate his favor. Places Mariamne and her mother, Alexandra, in the castle of Alexandrium, with orders to the keepers to put them to death if he is slain. Confesses to Augustus all that he had done for Antony, and is confirmed in his king dom.
25. Augustus visits Judea, and is magnificently entertained by Herod.
24. Mariamne becomes irreconcilably opposed to Herod. Herod becomes jea Ols. Orders the most faithful servant of Mariamne to be put to the torture. Accuses Ma. riamne of adultery before judges of his own selection. She is condemned, in accordance with the wishes of Herod, and immediately executed. Herod, filled with remorse, loses all self-command.
23. Herod puts to death the sons of Babas, at the instigation of her sister Salome, and thus cuts off the last remains of the Asmonean race. They were the descenco ants of Hyrcanus, and Herod now felt himself secure from any claimant to the throne
21. Plague and famine in Judea. Herod lays the foundation of a palace on Mount Zion.
He marries Mariamne, the daughter of the priest Simon.
19. Herod builds Cæsarea in Palestine, and fortifies Samaria. Sends to Rome his cwo sons, Alexander and Aristobulus, whom he had by the murdered Mariamne. Agrippa, the favorite of Augustus, is made Governor of the East.
18. Augustus visits Antioch, and at the request of Herod, raises his brother Pro moras to the dignity of a Tetrarch.
17. Agrippa comes into Asia. Herod visits him.
16. Herod, in order to conciliate the affection of the Jews, resolves on rebuilding the Temple in a style of much greater magnificence than the former Temple. Two years are spent in collecting materials. The old Temple is taken down by degrees as fast as its parts could be replaced by the new building. The main body of the edi. fice completed in nine years and an half. But the whole not completed until long after the death of Herod. (Notes on John ii. 20.)
13. Herod goes to Rome. Takes his two sons with him on his return, and marries them; the one to a daughter of the King of Cappadocia, and the other to a daughter of his sister Salome.
12. Agrippa visits the East, and is magnificently entertained by Herod, at Jerusalem.
8. Herod goes to Rome, and accuses his two sons, Alexander and Aristobulus, of a design against his life. To this he is instigated principally by his brother, Pharoras, and his sister Salome, on account of their hatred of Mariamne.
7. Cæsarea, a city built in honor of Augustus, is dedicated with great pomp.
Herod is finally reconciled to his sons by the influence of Archelaus, king or Cappadocia, whose daughter Alexander had married. He goes into Arabia, takes the fortress of Repta, and puts the garrison to the sword.
5. He breaks open the tomb of David, and takes out a large amount of treasures. 3. The suspieions of Herod are again excited against his two sons, Alexander and Aristobulus. They are arrested, tried, condemned, and sent to Samaria, where they are strangled by order of their father.
1. Pheroras, the brother of Herod, and Antipater the son of Herod, form a con. spiracy against his life. The plan is to poison him. Pheroras is taken sick and dies Antipäter at the time is in Rome. The whole plot is discovered by the widow of Pheroras, and Herod divorces his wife, Mariamne, daughter of Simon, for being an accomplice, strikes the name of Antipater from his will, deposes Simon from the .ligh Priesthood, and puts many persons to death. All this is kept secret from Antipaler at Rome, and Herod sends for him to come home, with many expressions of his peternal love,
Augustus the Roman Emperor. The Temple of Janus shut, as a sign of universa.
The birth of Christ four years before the common Christian era. That era began to be used about A. D. 526, being first employed by Dionysius, and is supposed to have been placed about four years too late. Some make the difference two, other Shree, four, five, and eren eight years. He was born at the commencement of the
ast year of the reign of Herod, or at the close of the year preceding Herod had seen king 37 years; Augustus emperur about 16.
Antipater returns from Rome. Is accused and convicted of a design to murder Herod, and is put to death by his order. The flight into Egypt. Maith. ii. 13-15 The murder of the Innocents at Bethlehem. Matih. 11. 16.
Herod dies at Jericho, five days after his son Antipater, in the 70th year of his age, of a most loathsome and painful disease. He called around him the principal men of the nation, and charged his sister Salome and her husband to confine them in the hippodrome, and to massacre them as soon as he had breathed his last, that the ews might have some cause to mourn when he died.
By the will of Herod, Archelaus is appointed his successor in the kingdom; Ilerod Antipas made Tetrarch of Perea and Galilee; and Philip, Tetrarch of Batanea, Gaulanitis, Trachonitis, and Paneas. To his sister Salome, he gives Jamnia, and some other places. As soon as Herod was dead, his sister Salome dismissed all the Jewish nobles who had been confined in the hippodrome, and who had been ordered to be out to death.
AFTER CHRIST. 2-11. ARCHELAUS. Goes to Rome to obtain the confirmation of his title as King from Augustus. The decision of Augustus is delayed. Archelaus takes the Higla Priesthood from Joazer, and gives it to Elcazer.
Great tumult in Judea. The nation in arms against the Roman power. The Cemple is attacked, but the Romans are repulsed.
Augustus confirms Archelaus in the kingdom, but with the title of Ethnarch, in. stead of King. Archelaus rebuilds Jericho. Is accused by the Jews and Samari. tans of tyranny, before Augustus, and is banished to Vienne, in Gaul, in the tenth year of his reign.
A. D. 12— 26. JUDEA A ROMAN PROVINCE. In the year 12 A. D., Augustus united Judea and Samaria to Syria, and appointed Publius Sulpitiùs Quirinus (Cyre nius, Luke ii. 2.) Governor of the Province. At the same time Coponius is made Pro. curator of Judea.
14. The Temple at Jerusalem is polluted by some Samaritans, who entered it by night, and strewed there the bones of dead men.
17. Augustus dies at Rola in Campania, in the 76th year of his age, and the 57th year of his reign. He is succeeded by Tiberius, the son of his wife, Julia.
18. Valerius Gratus made Procurator of Judea, by Tiberius. He deposes Ana: nus, and makes Ismael High Priest. Afterwards he gives the office to Eleazer, son of Ananus; then to Simeon; and at last to Joseph, called in the New Testament Cain phas.
Herod Antipas builds the city of Tiberias.
He attempts to set up Roman colors and ensigns in Jerusalem, but is opposed by
About this time hostilities existed between Herod Antipas, and Aretas, King of Arabia, Herod Antipas had married a daughter of Aretas.' On his way to Rome, he Baw and sell in love with Herodias, the wife of his brother, and agreed to marry her, and to put away the daughter of Aretas. She hearing this, fled to her father, and the consequence was a war, in which Herod was defeated, and his army dispersed.
30. John the Baptist declares this marriage unlawful, and is imprisoned by Herod
31. John the Baptist in prison. Sends a deputation to Jesus, is know if he wall the Messiah.
32. Is-slain by the order of Herod, at the instigation of Herodias. 33. Jesus is crucified on Friday, April 3. Supposed to have been at about throu o'clock, P.M.
34. Stephen put to death. Paul converted on his way to Damascus.
35 Agrippa the younger being involved in debt, resolves to go to Rome. Attaches himself to the party of Caius, and incurs the displeasure of Tiberius. This year died Philip, Tetrarch of Trachonitis, &c., a son of Herod the Great. He was mild and equitable in his government, and had ruled 37 years. The countries over which ne nad presided, were at his death united to the province of Syria