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• first; for he was father-in-law to 17 Then saith the damsel that Caiaphas, which was the high priest kept the door unto Peter, Art nor that same year.
thou also one of this man's disci14 Now Caiaphas was he which ples? He saith, I am not. gave counsel to the Jews, that it 18 And the servants and officers was expedient that one man should stood there, who had made a fire die for the people.
of coals; for it was cold: and they 15 And Ċ Simon Peter followed warmed themselves : and Peter Jesus, and so did another disciple: stood with them, and warmed him Chat disciple was known unto the self. high priest, and went in with Jesus 19 The high priest then asked into the palace of the high priest. Jesus of his disciples, and of his
16 But Peter stood at the door doctrine. without. Then went out that other 20 Jesus answered him, I spake disciple, which was known unto the openly to the world : I ever taught high priest, and spake unto her that in the synagogue, and in the temkept the door, and brought in Peter. ple, whither the Jews always re
a Lu.3.2. 1 And Annas sent Christ bound b c.11.49,50. c Matt.26.58,&c. Mar.14 unto Caiaphas the high priest.
54. Lu.22.54. d Lu.4.15. c.7.14,26,28. 8.2
a long time High Priest; he had had ble, it was necessary to show that he five sons who had successively enjoyed had mare so many disciples as to form che office of High Priest; and that of a strong and dangerous faction. Bu fice was now filled by his son-in-law. as they had no direct proof of that, the It was of importance, therefore, to ob- High Priest insidiously and improperly tain his sanction and counsel in their attempted to draw the Saviour into a work of evil. (That same year. Ch. confession. Of this he was aware, and xi. 49.
referred him to the proper source of 14. Had given counsel, &c. Ch. xi. evidence — his open, undisguised con. 19, 50. This is referred to, here, product before the world. His doctrine bably to show how little prospect there His teaching. The sentiments that he was that Jesus would have justice done inculcated. The object was doubtless uim in the hands of a man who had al- to convict him of teaching sentiments ‘eady pronounced on the case.
that tended to subvert the Mosaic insti. 15—18. See Notes, Matt. xxvi. 57, tutions, or that were treasonable against 58. [Another disciple. Not improba- the Roman government. Either would bly John. Some critics, however, have have answered the design of the Jews, supposed that this disciple was one who and they doubtless expected that he Iwelt at Jerusalem, and who, not be an unarmed and despised Galilean, now ing, a Galilean, could enter the place completely in their power-would easi without suspicion. John, however, ly be drawn into confessions that art mentions the circumstance of his being and malice could use to procure his con known to them, to show why it was demnation. that he was not questioned as Peter 20. Openly to the world. If his docwas. It is not probable that any dan-trine had tended to excite sedition and ger resulted from its being known that tumult, if he had aimed to overthrow he was a follower of Jesus, or that any the government, he would have trained harm was meditated on them for this. his friends in secret: he would have reThe questions asked Peter were not tired from pub.ic view, and have laid asked by those in authority, and his ap- his plans in private. This is the case prehensions which led to his denial, with all who attempt to subvert exist. were groundless.
ing establishments. Instead of that, he 19. Of his disciples. To ascertain had proclaimed his views to all. Ho uheir number and power. The charge had done it in every place of public conon which they wished to arraign him course - in the synagogue, and in the was that of grlition, or of rebellion, temple. He here speaks the language against Czyser. To make that plausi- l of one conscious of his innocence, and
sort: and « in secret have I said his hand, saying, Answerest thou nothing
the high priest so? 21 Why askest thou me? ask 23 Jesus answered him, If I have them which heard me, what I have spoken evil, bear witness of the said unto them : behold, they know evil : but if well, why smitest thou what I said.
me ? 22 And when he had thus spoken, 24 Now ? Annas had sent him one of the officers which stood by bound unto Caiaphas the high struck • Jesus' with the palm of priest.
b Job 16.10. Je.20.2. Ac.23.2, 1 or, with a rod.
a Ac. 26:26. 3.
2 See ver.13.
determined to insist on his rights. [Al which. In whatever way it was dona, ways resort.
Constantly assemble. — it was a violation of all law and justice They were required to assemble there Jesus had showed no disrespect for the three times in a year, and great multi- office of the high priest; and if he had, tudes were there constantly. T In se- this was not the proper way to punish cret, &c. He had taught no private or it
. The Syriac reads this: “Smote concealed doctrine. He had taught the cheek of Jesus.” The Vulgate and nothing to his disciples which he had Arabic: “ Gave him a blow.” not himself taught in public, and com- 23. Spoken evil. In my answer to manded them to do. Matt. x. 27. Luke the high priest. If there was any disxii. 3.
respect to the office, and want of re. 21. Why askest thou me? Ask them, gard for the law which appointed him &c. Jesus here insisted on his rights, then testify to the fact, and let punish and reproves the high priest for his unjust ment be inflicted according to the law. and illegal manner of extorting a con- Compare Ex. xxii. 28. 1 But if well, fession from him. If he had done wrong, &c. While an accused person is ou or taught erroneous and seditious doc- trial, he is under the protection of the trines, it was easy to prove it, and the court, and has a right to demand that all course which he had a right to demand legal measures should be taken to se was, that they should establish the cure his rights. On this right Jesus in. charge by fair and incontrovertible evi- sisted, and thus showed, that though he dence. We may here learn, 1st. That had no dispɔsition to take revenge, yet though Jesus was willing to be reviled he insisted that when arraigned, strict and persecuted, yet he also insisted that justice should be done. This showg justice should be done him. 2d. He that his precept that when we are smitwas conscious of innocence, and had ten on one cheek, we should turn the other, been so open in his conduct, that he (Matt. v. 39.), is consistent with a firm could appeal to the vast multitudes which demand that justice should be done us. had heard him, as witnesses in his favor. That precept refers besides rather to 3d. It is proper for us, when persecuted private matters than to judicial proceed. and reviled, meekly, but firmly, to in- ings. It does not demand that when we sist on our rights, and to demand that are unjustly arraigned, or assaulted, and justice should be done us. Laws are when the law is in our favor, we should made to protect the innocent, as well as sacrifice our rights to the malignant ac to condemn the guilty. 4th. Christians, cuser. Such a surrender would be in. like their Saviour, should so live that justice to the law and to the commu. they may confidently appeal to all who nity, and be giving legal triumph to the have known them as witnesses of the wicked, and destroying the very end of sincerity, purity, and rectitude of their all law. In private matters this effect lives. 1 Pet. iv. 13-16.
would not follow, and we should there 22. One of the officers. One of the bear injuries without reviling, or seek inferior officers, or those who attended ing for vengeance. on the ourt. TWith the palm of his 24. Compare ver. 13, with Matt. XXSL. rand. This may mean, 'gave him a 57. blow either with the npen hand, or with 25, 26. See Note, Matt. xxvi. 72 74. a rod.' The Greek does nor de ermine 28. See Matt. xxvï. 1, 2. 9 Hall of
25 And Sinon Peter stood and 28 Then "led they Jesus from warmed himself. They said there- Caiaphas unto the hall of judg. fore unto him, Art not thou also ment: and it was early: and they one of his disciples? He denied it, themselves went not into the judg and said, I am not.
ment-hall, lest o they should be de26 One of the servants of the filed, but that they might eat the high priest, (being his kinsman passover. whose ear Peter cut off), saith, Did 29 Pilate then went out unto at I see thee in the garden with them, and said, What accusation Svin?
bring ye against this man? 27 Peter then denied again : and 30 They answered and said unto immediately the cock crew. him, If he were not a malefactor, a Matt.26 74. Mar.14.72. Lu.22.60.
b Matt.27.2,&c. Mar.15.1,&c. Lu.23.1.&c. 1 or, Pilate's house.
judgment. The prætorium-the same to that of the contact of a dead body, word that in Matt. xxvii. 27, is translat- (Lev. xxii. 4–6. Num. v. 2.,) and as ed comimon hall. See Note on that place. disqualifying them to partake of the It was the place where the Roman Pre- passover in a proper manner. The word tor, or governor, heard and decided cases translated passover means properly the brought before him. Jesus had been paschal which was slain and eaten condemned by the sanhedrim, and pro- on the observance of this feast. This nounced guilty of death. Matt. xxvi. rite Jesus had observed with his disci. 66. But they had not power to carry ples the day before this. It has been their sentence into execution (ver. 31.); supposed by many that he anticipated and they, therefore, sought that he might the usual time of observing it one day, be condemned and executed by Pilate. and was crucified on the day on which 1 Lest they should be defiled. They con- the Jews observed it. But ihis opinion sidered the touch of a Gentile to be a de- is improbable. The very day of keepfilement, and on this occasion, at least, ing the ordinance was specified in the seemed to consider it a pollution to en- law of Moses, and it is not probable that ter the house of a Gentile. They took the Saviour departed from the comcare, therefore, to guard themselves mandment. All the circumstances, also, against what they considered ceremo- lead us to suppose that he observed it nial pollution, while they were wholly at
usual time and manner. Matt. unconcerned at the enormous crime of xxvi. 17, 19. The only passage which putting the innocent Saviour to death, has led to a contrary opinion, is this in and irnbruing their hands in their Mes- John. But here the word passover does siah's blood. Probably there is not not, of necessity, mean the paschal lamb. any where to be found another such in- It probally refers to the feast which fol. stance of petty regard to the mere cere- lowed the sacrifice of the lamb, and monies of the law, and attempting to which continued some days. Compare keep from pollution, at the same time Num. xxviii. 16, 17. The whole feast that their hearts were filled with malice, was called the passover, and they were and they were meditating the most unwilling to defile themselves, even enormous of all crimes. But it shows though the paschal lamb had been kill. us how much more concerned men willed, because it would disqualify them for be at the violation of the mere forms participating in the remainder of the and ceremonies of religion than they will ceremonies. Lightfoot. be at real crime; and how they endea- 30. If he were not a malefactor. A vor to keep their consciences at ease violator of the law. If we had not de. amidst their deeds of wickedness by the termined that he was such, and was observance of some of the outward ce- worthy of death. Matt. xxvi. 66. Froni remonies of religion -- by mere sancti- this it appears, that they did not delive moniousness. That they might eat the him up to be tried, but hoped that Pi. passover. Note, Matt. xxvi. 2, 17. This late would at once give sentence that he defilement, produced by contact with a should be executed according to their Gentile, they considered as equivalent I request. It is probable that in ordinary
we would not have delivered him lawful for us a to put any man to up unto thee.
death: 31 Then said Pilate unto them, 32 That the saying of Jesus Take ye him, and judge him ac- might be fulfilled, which he spake, cording to your law. The Jews signifying what death he should therefore said unto him, It is not die. a Ge.49.10. Eze.21.27.
auses the Roman governor was not ac- or by the concurrence of the Roman customed to make very strict inquiry governor, is uncertain. The Jews them. into the justice of the sentence. The selves say, that the power of inflicting Jewish sanhedrim tried causes, and pro- capital punishments was taken away nounced sentence, and the sentence was about forty years before the destruction usually approved by the governor. But of the temple. But still, it is probable in this case, Pilate, evidently contrary that in the time of Christ' they had the to their expectations, proceeded himself power of determining on capital cases to re-hear and re-try the cause. He in instances that pertained to religion. had doubtless heard of the miracles of Josephus, Ant. b. xiv.ch. 20, 82. Com Jesus. He seems to have been strongly pare Jewish wars, b. vi. ch. 2, 4. In prepossessed with the belief of his in- this case, however, it is supposed that
He knew that they had de- their sentence was to be confirmed by livered him from mere envy. Matt. the Roman governor. But it is admitxxvii. 18. And hence he inquired of ted on all hands, that they had not this them the nature of the case, and the power in the case of seditions, tumults, kind of charge which they expected to or treasons against the Roman govern substantiate against him.
If they had this power in the 31. Judge him, &c. The Jews had case of blasphemy and irreligion, they not directly informed him that they had did not dare to exert it here, because judged him, and pronounced him worthy they were afraid of tumult among the vi death. Pilate, therefore, tells them people. Matt. xxvi. 5. Hence thes to inquire into the case; to ascertain the sought to bring in the authority of Pí. proof of his guilt, and to decide on what late. To do this they endeavored 10 the law of Moses pronounced. It has make it appear that it was a case of bebeen doubted whether this gave them dition and treason, and one which there. the power of putting him to death, or was fore demanded the interference of the either a direction to them to inquire into Roman governor.
Hence it was on the case, or a command to take it into this charge that they arraigned him. their own hands, and inílict on him, if Luke xxiii. 2. Thus a tumult might be they judged him guilty, the mild pun- avoided, and the odium of putting hini ishment which they were yet at liberty to death they expected would fall, not to inflict on criminals. Probably the on themselves, but on Pilate. former is intended. As they had al- 32. That the saying of Jesus, &c. To ready determined that in their view this wit, that he should be delivered into he case demanded the punishment of death, hands of the Gentiles, and should be so in their answer to Pilate they implied crucified. Matt. xx. 19, Neither of that they had pronounced on it, and that these things would have happened if he he ought to die. They still, therefore, had been put to death in the way that pressed it on his attention, and refused the Jews first contemplated. Matt. xxvi. ia obey his injunction to judge him. TIL 4. Though it be admitted that they is not lawful, &c. The Jews were had the power in religious cases to do it, me customed to put persons to death still yet it would nct have been done, as Je. In a popular tumult. Acts vii. 59, 60. sus predicted, by the Gentiles; and Bit they had not the power to do it in though they had that power, yet they any case in a regular way of justice. had no power to crucify. This was par When they first laid the plan of arrest- ticularly a Roman punishment.., And ing the Saviour, they did it to kill him thus it was ordered, in the providence Matt. xxvi. 4); but whether they in- of God, that the prediction of Jesus ir iended to do this secretly, or in a tumult, I both these respects should be fillfilled.
33 Then Pilate entered into the 36 Jesus answered, My king judgment-hall again, and called Je- dom is not of this world: if iny sus, and said unto him, Art thou the kingdoin were of this world, then King of the Jews ?
would my servants fight, that I 31 Jesus answered him, Sayest should not be delivered to the Jews : thou his thing of thyself, or did but now is my kingdom not from others tell it thee of me?
hence. 35 Pilate answered, Am I a Jew? 37 Pilate therefore said unto hiin, Thine own a nation and the chief Art thou a king then? Jesus an. priests have delivered thee unto me. swered, Thou sayest that I am a What hast thou done?
king. To this end was I born, and Ac.3.13. 61 Ti.6.13.
c Ps.45.3,6. Is.9.6,7. Da.2.44. 7.14. Zec.!
9. Lu.12.14. c.6.15. Ro.14.17. Col. 1.13. 33. Art thou the king of the Jews ? claim to be a king, but not in the sense This was after they had accused him of in which the Jews understood it. They perverting the nation, and forbidding to charged him with attempting to set up give tribute to Cesar. Luke xxü. 2, 3 an earthly kingdom, and of exciting se.
34. Of thyself? From any convic- dition against Cesar. In reply to this, tion of your own mind, or any appre. Jesus says that his kingdom is out of hension of danger. During all the time this world. That is, it is not of the same in which you have been prætor, have nature as earthly kingdoms. It is not you seen any thing in me that has led originated for the same purpose, or conyou to apprehend sedition, or danger to ducted on the same plan. He imme. the Roman power? This evidently was diately adds a circumstance in which intended to remind Pilate that nothing they differ. The kingdoms of this was proved against him ; and to caution world are defended by arms; they him against being influenced by the ma- maintain armies and engage in wars. If licious acccusations of others. Jesus the kingdom of Jesus had been of this demanded a just trial, and claimed that kind, he would have excited the multiPilate should not be influenced by any tudes that followed him to prepare for reports that he might have heard of him. battle. He would have armed the host
35. Am I a Jew? Am I likely to be that attended him to Jerusalem. He influenced by Jewish prejudices and would not have been alone and unarmpartialities? Am not I, being a Roman, ed in the garden of Gethsemane. But likely to judge impartially, and to de- though he was a King, yet his dominion cide on the accusations without being was over the heart, subduing evil pasbiassed by the malignant charges of the sions and corrupt desires, and bringing accusers ? I Thine own nation, &c. In the soul to the love of peace and unity. this Pilate denies that it was from any T Not from hence. That is, not from thing that he had observed that Jesus this world. was arraigned. He admits that it was 37. Art thou a king, then? Dost thou from the accusations of others. But admit the charge in any sense, or dost then he tells the Saviour that the charge thou lay claim to a kingdom of any kind ? was one of moment, and worthy of the Thou sayest, &c. This is a form of deepest attention. It had come from expresssion denoting affirmation. It is the very nation of Jesus, from his own equivalent to yes.
That I am a king. countrymen, and fiom the highest au- This does not mean simply that Pilate thority among the people. As such it affirmed that he was a king. It does demanded consideration, and Pilate be- not appear that Pilate had done this. sught him to tell him what he had done But it means, ‘Thou affirmest the truth that is, what there had been in his thou declarest what is correct, for I am conduct that hail given occasion for this a King. I am a king in a certain sense, charge.
and do not deny it. To this end, &c. 36. My king lom, &c. The charge Compare ch. ii. 11, 12, &c. Jesus does on which Jesus was arraigned was that not here affirm that he was born to of laying claim to the office of a king. reign, that this was the design of his We here substantially admits that he did coming ; but it was to bear witness to