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fare against them—he simply declared sought with unsanctified means to that he was not bound to follow the produce a pure result. It is true, decrees of those Councils--that he was their intentions were good ; but that irresponsible to any power but God- made no difference, except in making a masterly manoeuvre, yet it appears their folly more apparent. As a naa simple one. But the Roman Pon- tural consequence, they effected mistiff estimated its value, not by the chief — they instituted a General reputation he gained for generalship, Council of the Churches. It was but by its ultimate results. He who held for the first time at Nice, A.D. was not responsible in his procedure 315, with the concurrence, and under to any but God, was above all earthly the express patronage of the Emperor power, either of the church or state. Constantine ; and 318 Bishops, in He assumed this position, and left the full assembly, passed a series of caRESULTS to time, and the MEANS to nons, of which the fourth reads as folhis own intellect and energy; for he lows:-“ It is especially requisite that knew that men could not long beholda bishop be appointed by all the a series of Spiritual Rulers, uttering bishops in the province ; but if this such bold doctrines, without giving be difficult by reason of any urgent them some credence. Like Romulus, necessity, or through the length of he offered an asylum and protection the way, three must by all means to every one who, by his ambition or meet together, and when those who his crimes, had disgraced his Christian are absent have agreed on their votes, profession. Had any bishop a dispute and signified the same by letters, then with his metropolitan, or was he ex- let the ordination take place ; but in pelled his office for any gross offence, every province the ratification of what he appealed to the Roman Bishop, is done must be allowed to the meand by that act of appeal personally tropolitan.” (Labbé Concil. ii. 29.) acknowledged the supremacy of his The evidence of this canon is very see. Nor did the Pontiff neglect to very valuable, inasmuch as it shows answer those appeals, for he thus drew the constitution of the church, at that around himn all the proud, energetic, time, and also the means by which, and turbulent spirits of the age. His the Roman Bishop became an autoservants were bound to him by the crat in his own diocese. It is manitwo potent ties of fear and self-inte- fest that there was a bishop in every rest ; and the “ mystery of iniquity" city ; that if any bishop died, or was grew apace, for spiritual darkness otherwise removed, the election of a was fast covering the world. The successor devolved on those remain“ man of sin,” “the mystery of in- ing, and this choice was ratified or iquity,” was like the monstrous plants annulled by the metropolitan, or paof the Eastern climes, which grow triarch, who was the superior of all. only in the dark and silent night. It is evident that the Roman Bishop
But though ambition was the domi- had been usurping authority by apnant feeling of the Roman Bishop, pointing his own partizans to vacant there were others who felt its power. | bishoprics, without the previous conThe Roman Emperor--the astute and sent, or contrary to the previous dewily Patriarch of the East — the Af- cision of the other inferior bishops ; so rican churches, and many of the West that in time, all the bishops in the Roern Bishops, who were equally aspi- man diocese, having been chosen by ring as the Roman one, were not un- the Roman Pontiff alone, his triumph aware of the nature and tendency of over the privileges and authority of such a system of policy, and they re- the bishops of the cities was comsorted to a plan which men have plete ; and the existing bishops of the often tried, and will try again— they cities would not dare to reclaim their lost right of election, because their thee, because thou hast thought that the gist of own appointment had been in direct | God may be purchasłd with money.” The violation of that right.
ir priest saying mass in Latin, walks on these lines
And thus, in in the form of a stair, “ I had rather speak five the course of a few score years, the words in the church so as to be understood, than Roman Bishop obtained despotic rule ten thousand in an unknown tongue." A pla. over his own diocese, and consequently carded door has for caption — a mandate con wasfree, and able to commence external
cerning Lent, and for the Order. “Whatsoever
* aggression. His forces were not wide
is sold in the shambles eat, asking no question
from scruple of conscience.” Further the tariff ly distributed, but they were united, of prices, which is this, “ Freely ye have recompact, and well-disciplined: they ceived, freely give.” At the other extreme, a moved as ove man at the command man is counting his beads, kneeling on a bench
on which is this inscription, “ When ye pray, of their superior.
use not vain repetitions, as the heathen do." The “ Still as the breeze, but dreadful as the storm" tabernacle containing some dozen of Jesus
Christs, presents on its door these words of the they were fit instruments with which
Saviour, “ If any man say unto you, lo, here is to commence a crusade against the Christ, believe him not.” “Whom the heavens rights, the liberties, and the happiness must receive until the times of restitution of all of mankind.
things.” But this I imagine will be sufficient
to give you an idea of my engraving, and to Nottingham. J. G. L.
show you that my passages are well chosen. I (To be continued.)
shall even own to you, that I have the weakness to look upon my work as a little chef-lieuvre.
"Well, would you believe it? The engra. THE PROHIBITED SATIRE. ving, containing but the simple interior of a
church, and some sentences from the Bible, was The following extract from a letter
not allowed to be published.” — SELECTED. of M. Roussel, in the Archives du Christinnism”, will explain a very little piece of work, which that witty LETTERS FROM EUROPE. controversialist has just produced, but which the government prohibits himn
NO. xx. from publishing in France :
MY DEAR CLARINDA_While on “Paris. January 7, 1848. the subject of the Literary Institutions "How unlucky I am. If I publish a tract, of England, I must not forget the anI am summoned before the king's attorney. If
cient, and venerable, and long celeI open a place of worship, they prosecute me. If I write a letter to the priests, they send me brated University of Oxford. My before the grand jury. This tine I wished to visit to it was, indeed, but a call; do as little as possible for me. I insculled a pic but while on the spot and its environs, ture, and they refused ine license to publish it. I was diligent to ascertain so much of Here is the fact.
"I caused the interior of a Roman Catholic its past and present condition as I church to be engraved, with all the apparatus of could gather from the best sources of confessionals, statues, pictures, chaplets, &c. information. In looking especially No harm, thus far, thought I, in the eyes of into the condition and history of Merour most Catholic govirament. Afterward, I attached to each of these objects a biblical sen
ton College, one of the most ancient tence. Who could complain of this without and reputable, I learned that this || condemning himself? Nothing, therefore, ap- institution was as old as the earlier peared to me more innocent than a church in part of the 13th century ; and, like which, on all sides, is inscribed the Word of
Cambridge, owed its origin to ibe || God; the more so, because I endeavoured to put each inscription in connection with the ob
policy or benevolence of the Roman ject which it accompanied. On the statute it Catholic community, then in 'pos- | self I engraved, " Thou shalt not make unto me session of the Western Roman Empire, any graven image," (Ex. xx.) On the picture
with but a small reservation. Mero] of the Virgin interceding, I put, “ There is but
ton College was removed from Surrey | one intercessor, namely, Jesus Christ.” On the box in behalf of souls in purgatory, this excla
to Oxford in 1274.
* 's mi tms mation of St. Peter, " Thy money perish with The University of Oxford, governed ||!
by two Houses—that of Congregation “ Under the head of Members on the Founand that of Convocation : and, like dation, may also be included the College Officers,
| who are chosen from among the Fellows; and Cambridge, sending two members to
some of the servants hereafter mentioned. the British Parliament, is a corpora- ! «The Head of a College (except in the intion of nineteen Colleges and five stance of Christ Church, where the Dean is Halls. “ Colleges are all endowed nominated by the Crown ; and Worcester, with estates, and are incorporated
where the Provost is appointed by the Chancel
lor of the University) is chosen by the Fellows, bodies. Halls are not so, although
from those who are or have been Fellows of the some of them have “exhibitions” to Society. wards the maintenance of certain “The qualifications for Fellowships vary in students. The Principals or Heads
| almost every Society. The Fellows are, accord
ing to the statutes of the College, or the will of of the Halls receive annual rents for
the Founder, elected from certain public schools, the chambers inhabited by the students, and admitted on their arrival in Oxford; or who live at their own expense. The they are young men, who, having studied and Chancellor of the University has the
| distinguished themselves in other colleges, offer disposal of the Headships of all the
| themselves as candidates, and are selected by
| the votes of the Fellows. In some Societies Halls except that of St. Edmund Hall,
they are confined to the natives of particular which is in the appointment of the counties, or elected from the Scholars; and in Provost and Fellows of Queen's Col others, the kindred of the Founder have peculiar lege. With respect to every academ- | privileges. The Fellows, in conjunction with
the Head of the College, are, in all cases, the ical privilege, the members of Halls
directors of the internal regulation of their stand precisely on the same footing Society, and the managers of its property and with those of the Colleges. Their estates; and from among this body the Church discipline, course of studies, length Preferment attached to every College, is distriof residence, examinations, degrees,
buted, according to seniority, as å vacancy
occurs." dress, and expenses, are the same as | the Colleges.
The Scholars are, in a few Colleges, Every College and Hall has a Probationary Fellows ; although, in governor, whose nominal distinctions some others, the attainment of a vary. They are called in different
Scholarship is attended with no other Colleges, Dean, Rector, Provost,
beneficial consequence than the receipt Warden. President. Master. aná of a stated annual sum towards the. Principal. The Heads of Halls are
education of the person who holds it." called Principals.”
Strangers are often perplexed with the “ The members of the University may be
terms Scholar and Student, and somedivided into two classes—those on the founda
times apply them indiscriminately to tion, commonly called Dependent Members; all members of the University. For and those not on the foundation, termed Inde- their information we repeat, that by a pendent Members. The Dependent Members Scholar is meant the person who holds derive emolument from the revenue of their so
the rank above mentioned ; and that cieties, and on some of them the management and discipline of the whole body devolve.
a Student is one of the 101 members * “ The Independent Members consist of such of that name at Christ Church, whose persons as repair to the University for their rank is similiar to that of Fellow of education and degrees ; but who, as they have other Colleges. no claim on the estate of the society to which they belong, so they possess no voice nor autho- “The Chaplain has a stipend, and generally rity in its management; and during their resi-chambers and provisions in his College. His dence in a College or Hall, they are supported duty consists in the performance of divine scr. at their own expense.
vice in the chapel. * The Dependent Members, or Members on "A Bible Clerk performs a different duty in the Foundation, are as follows:
various Colleges, and his stipend, and the fund -" The Head of the College, the Fellows, from which it arises, differ in like manner. He (called Students at Christ Church) the Scholars is required to attend the service of the chapel, (called Demies at Magdalen, and Postmasters and to deliver in a list of the absent underát Merton) Chaplains, Exhibitioners, Bible / graduates to the officer appointed to enforce the Clerks, and Servitors.
discipline of the college.
“Exhibitioners, although not on the Founda- oaths of allegiance and supremacy. The oath tion, may be reckoned amongst the Dependent at the matriculation of a privileged person, not Members, as they receive from particular a member of any College or Hall, is as follows:-schools, from the bequest of private persons, or You shall swear to observe all statutes, privileges, from the colleges themselves, a stipend, which and customs of this University. You shall assists in supporting them during the collegiate further swear, that you will never sue in any residences. Many of the London Companies cause of yours before the Mayor and Balliffs of have Exhibitions of this description in their gift. this town, nor answer before them as your
"The Servitors also may be considered as Judge, as long as you continue to enjoy the Dependent Members, having certain emolu- privileges of the University. ments from their Society, whilst they enjoy all ] “The Indepenent Members are Noblemen; the benefits of a collegiate education.
Gentlemen Commoners, (at Worcester College “In each college one of the Fellows is ap- called Fellow-Commoners); and Commoners. pointed to superintend its management during “The Noblemen are Peers and sons of Peers the absence of the Head : he takes his title from of England, Scotland, and Ireland. In proceedthat of the governor of the college, Vice- ing to their degrees, they submit to the same President, Sub-Rector, &c.
forms, and undergo the same examinations as "The Tutors undertake the directions of the every other member of the University. classical, mathematical, and other studies of the “Gentlemen Commoners are young men of junior members; they prepare them for the family and fortune, who are educated at their public examinations, and furnish them with own expense. The fees, &c. of a Nobleman and advice and assistance in other respects; many Gentleman Commoner are higher than those of of the Undergraduates have also private tutors. a Commoner.
“The office of Dean, (or Censor of Christ "A Commoner is a young gentleman who Church,) consists in the due prevervation of the resides in the University at his own expense. college discipline. He also presents the “It may be proper to observe, that all candidates for degrees in Arts, in the House of members of the University are placed on the Convocation.
same footing with regard to discipline, and that “The Bursar receives the rents from the neither rank nor riches can, in the slightest estates and other property belonging to the degree, tolerate any infringement of the statutes, college; he disburses all sums necessary for the nor advance their possessors to academical expenses of the Society, and pays the stipends distinctions, in the absence of the real substantial of the Fellows, Scholars, &c. He is generally | claim of literary merit.” assisted by another officer, entitled Junior “UNIVERSITY DEGREES.— The first degree Bursar.
taken in the Uunversity is that of Bachelor of "In colleges that have choirs, the singing Arts : for this a residence of sixteen terms is clerks, choristers, and organists, may also be necessary, Michaelmas and Hilary Terms rereckoned among the Dependent Members. quiring six weeks, Easter and Trinity three
“The established college servants are the weeks residence, according to the regulations of Butler, who has the care of the books in which the University; for the colleges vary as to the the names of the members are entered, the col- time they require their own members to reside; lege plate, &c. and who delivers out bread, beer, but in no case can it fall short of the period butter, and cheese; the Maniciple, who pur- prescribed by the University. As the term in chases the provisions; the Cook, and the Porter; which any one is matriculated, and that in which also, the Barber, or Tonsor, who was formerly he takes his degree, are excepted, and two more of considerable consequence; so much so, that are dispensed with by Congregation, the to this day the Vice-Chancellor and Proctors residence may, in point of fact, be stated at entertain the Fraternity, which is an incor- twelve terms. The sons of the English, Scotch, porated company, with an annual supper at and Irish Peers, and the eldest sons of Baronets their apartments. No barber nor hair-dresser and Knights, when matriculated as such, and can practise bis trade in the University unless not on the Foundation of any College, are be be matriculated ; that is, unless his name be allowed to have their degrees after having entered in the book of the University, before completed three years. Previously to admission the Vice-Chancellor, when he takes the oath of to this degree, it is neceesary to undergo two matricualation. Every Member of the Univer- examinations: the first termed Responsions; sity, and every person who enjoys the privileges the second, a Public Examination. Responsions of that body, matriculated. The Member, at must be performed from the sixth to the ninth his entrance, appears before the Vice-Chancellor, term inclusive, when the Examination is in the describes his rank in life : that is, whether he Classics and Logic, or the Elements of Euclid. be the son of a Nobleman, a Baronet, a Gentle- After entering the fourth year of residence, the man, or a Plebeian, and pays à matriculation candidate must be publicly examined in the fee accordingly. He then subscribes to the rudiments of religion, including a knowledge of XXXIX Articles, and swears to observe all the the gospels in the original Greek, the Classics, statutes, privileges, and customs of the Univer- Rhetoric, Moral Philosophy, Logic, and Latin sity; and, if he be 16 years of age, takes the Composition, to which the candidate may add
Mathematics and Natural Philosophy. If the the habit. This is the dress of business; it is candidates distinguish themselves, they are used in Convocation, Congregation, at morning placed, according to their merit, in the first, sermons at St. Mary's during term, with the second, third, or fourth class, and their names exception of the morning sermon on Quinpublished. The list which is alphabetical, I quagesima Sunday, and the morning sermons points out whether a candidate excelled in the in Lent. The third, which is the usual dress Literve Humaniores, (Classics, &c.) or in the in which a Doctor in Divinity appears, is a Disciplinæ Mathematicæet Physida, (Math- Master of Arts' gown with cassock, sash, and ematices and Natural Philosophy,) and it is by scarf. The Vice-Chancellor and Heads of no means a rare case to find the same name Colleges and Halls have no distinguishing dress, placed in the first class of both the honorable but appear, on all occasions, as Doctors in the columns. The fifth class consists of such as faculty to which they belong. have not distinguished themselves in their ex “The dresses by Graduates in Law and Physic amination, and their names are not published. are nearly the same. The Doctor has three; The examinations take place in the Schools, the first is a gown of scarlet cloth, with sleeves before the Examining Masters, who are always and facings of pink silk, and a round black gentlemen eminent for their learning. A velvet cap. This is the dress of state. The Bachelor is entitled to his degree of Master of second consists of a habit and hood of scarlet Arts twelve terms after the regular time for cloth, the habit faced, and the hood lined with taking his first degree, without any further pink silk. The habit, which is perfectly examination. One term of intermediate re- analogous to the second dress of the Doctor in sidence, comprising one and twenty days, is all Divinity, has lately grown into disuse; it is, that is requisite.
however, retained by the Professors, and is “A Student in Civil Law undergoes the same always used in presenting to degrees. The examination as that for Bachelor of Arts, pre-third, or common dress of a doctor in Law or viously to his being admitted Bachelor of Civil Physic, nearly resembles that of the Bachelor Law. The number of terms to be kept for this in these faculties; it is a black silk gown, richly degree is twenty-eight, which, by dispensation, ornamented with black lace. The hood of the may be reduced to seventeen.
Bachelor of Law (worn as a dress) is of purple "A Bachelor of Divinity receives his degree silk, lined with white fur. 7 years from the time of his Regency, which is “The dress worn by the Doctor of Music on taken out the first Act after his Master's Degree. public occasions is a rich white damask silk The Act is the first Tuesday in July. No one gown, with sleeves and facings of crimson satin, is entitled to vote in the University until he a hood of the same materials, and a round black has taken his Regency.
velvet car. The usual dresses of the Doctor “A Doctor of Divinity, four years after his and of the Bachelor in Music are nearly the degree of Bachelor of Divinity; a Doctor in same as those of Law and Physic. Civil Law, five years from his Bachelor's degree; ' “ The Master of Arts wears a black gown, a Bachelor in Medicine, one year from his usually made of Prince's stuff or crape, with Regency; a Doctor in Medicine, three years long sleeves, which are remarkable for the cirafter his degree of Bachelor. If the time becular cut at the bottom. The arm comes completed, the degrees of Bachelor and Doctor through an aperture in the sleeve, which hangs may be taken on the same day.
down. The hood of a Master of Arts is black For the degree of Bachelor and Doctor of silk, lined with crimson. Music, no examination in the Schools is necessary, “The gown of a Bachelor of Arts is also as for other degrees; but the candidates prepare usually made of Prince's stuff or crape. It has a composition, which, being previous y examined a full sleeve, looped up at the elbow, and terand approved by the Professor of Music, is minating in a point; the dress hood is black, publicly performed in the Music School, before trimmed with fur. Noblemen and Gentlemen the Vice-Chancellor, and other officers of the Commoners, who take the degrees of Bachelor University, with such of the members as think and Master of Arts, wear their gowns of silk. proper to attend.”,
“Undergraduates--The Nobleman has two UNIVERSITY DRESSES.
dresses; the first, which is worn in the Theatre, "Graduates --The Doctor in Divinity has | in processions, and on all public occasions, is three dresses : the first consists of a gown of a gown of violet figured damask silk, richly scarlet cloth, with black velvet sleeves and ornamented with gold lace. The second is a facings, a cassock, sash, and scarf. This dress black silk gown, with full sleeves; it has a is worn on all public occasions in the Theatre, tippet attached to the shoulders. With both in public processions, and on those Sundays and these dresses is worn a square capof black velvet, Holydays which are marked thus (*) in the with a gold tassel. Oxford Calendar. The second is a habit of “The Gentleman Commoner has two gowns, scarlet cloth, and a hood of the same color, both of black silk; the first, which is considered lined with black, and a black silk scarf: the as a dress-gown, although worn on all occasions, Master of Arts' gown is worn under his dress, at pleasure, is richly ornamented with tassels. the sleeves appearing through the arm-holes of The second, or un-dress gown, is ornamented