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lative Halls of the nation. But these may yet be regarded comparatively are not the only offices or places of as a dark age; compared not with the public service, of trust, or of honor. past, but with the future. For my They are more than can be numbered. own part, though so much enlightened We yet need an immense multitude compared with the past ages, I must of educated men. The candidates regard the present age as dark in my are not here as tens to units, but as anticipations of the future. units to hundreds, or thousands com- The proportion between educated pared with the wants of society. We and uneducated mind is yet really need a hundred truly educated men alarming. I fear the responsibility of for one. There are but very few taking upon me either to estimate it upon the shelf at present ; and those or to express an opinion on the subject. few that are there had, for the most I will, therefore, shield myself, at least part, better be placed under the ham- in part, from all unfavourable suspirner and be knocked off to the highest cions, by selecting, next to our own, bidder. Then we should endeavour to of course, the most enlightened nation get up a better article. .
in the world, and give you the opinion You understand me, no doubt, to of her attainments, expressed by one indicate the idea that we must have of her most popular, useful, and laself-edueated men, and that you are borious sons, very generally known to now only prepared to become your our fellow-citizens ; with whom in my own tutors. You can now act, and late tour I formed a very favorable you must act, both preceptor and acquaintance, and of whom I have pupil. Collegiate education can golong cherished a very high opinion. no farther-never yet went farther Let us hear what Dr. Dick says of than to qualify a man to teach himself. his own Scotland ; and, if you please, Like an apprenticed youth when he what the late Frederick, king of lifts his indentures, you have merely Prussia, said of any of the most en. acquired the use of the tools of litera- ligutened nations on the European ture, science, and art. To-day you continent: are enrolled amongst the Bachelors “There is, perhaps, no country in of Arts. Before your espousals with the world where the body of the peoliterature and science you may have ple are better educated and more ina courtship of several years, and even telligent than in North Britain ; yet then you will not be old bachelors. we need not go far, either in the city Still I confess I am in favor of early or in the country, to be convinced marriages, provided only they are that the most absurd and superstitious equally and suitably consummated. notions, and the grossest ignorance
- Be not alarmed, gentlemen, about respecting many important subjects places. Say not that electricity and intimately connected with human hap
steam will rule the world and vacate piness, still prevail anong tbe great 1 the wants of society ; or that no new majority of the population. Of two || discoveries are yet wanting to raise millions of inhabitants which consti I man to the highest niche he was tute the population of the northern | ordained to fill. In my opinion, part of our island, there are not, perneither Galvanism - nor Mesmerism, haps, twenty thousand, or the hun. neįther Owenism nor Fourierism, dredth part of the whole, whose neither Homopathy nor. Alliopathy, knowledge extends to any subject of neither rail roads nor electric tele- importance beyond the range of their
graphs, will regenerate the world or daily avocations. With respect to the Il save. mankind from ignorance and remaining 1,800,000, it may, perhaps, #crime, from disease and poverty. The be said with propriety, that, of the # Corraincognita is yet very large. This figure and magnitude of the world they live in-of the seas and rivers, of an intellectual nature. For, in so continents and islands, which diversify far as the intention of mankind is. its su face, and of the various tribes of absorbed merely in making provision men and animals by which it is in- for animal subsistenceand in gratifying habited of the nature and properties the sensual appetites of their pature, of the atmosphere which surrounds it they can be considered as little su
-of the discoveries which have been perior in dignity to the lower orders made respecting, light, heat, elec- of animated existence.” tricity, and magnetism-of the general The late Frederick, king of Prussia, laws which regulate the economy of who was a correct observer of mankind, nature-of the various combinations makes a still lower estimate of the and effects of chemical and mechani- actual intelligence of the species. In cal powers-of the motions and mag- a letter to D'Alembert, in 1770, he nitades of the planetary and starry says. “Let us take any monarchy you orbs-of the principles of legitimate please ; let us suppose that it contains reasoning-of just conceptions of the ten millions of inhabitants : from these attributes and moral government of ten millions let us discount, first, the the Supreme Being—of the genuine laborers, the manufacturers, the artiprinciples of moral action-of many zans, the soldiers, and there will reother subjects interesting to a rational main about fifty thousand persons, and immortal being, they are almost men and women : from these let us as entirely ignorant as the wandering discount twenty-five thousand for the Tartar or the untutored Indian
female sex ; the rest will compose .“ Of eight hundred millions of hu- the nobility and gentry, and the reman beings which people the globe spectable citizens. Of these let us we inhabit, there are not, perhaps, examine how many will be incapable two millions whose minds are truly of application, how many imbecile, enlightened as they ought to be ; who how many pusillaninous, how many prosecute rational pursuits for their dissipated ; and from this calculation own sake, and from a pure love of it will result, that, out of what is science, independently of the know-called a civilized nation of nearly ten ledge requisite for their respective millions, you will hardly find a thouprofessions and employments ; for we sand well informed persons : and, must exclude from the rank of even among them, what inequality rational inquirers after knowledge, all with regard to genius! If eightthose who have acquired a smattering tenths of the nation, toiling for their of learning with no other view than subsistence, never read ; if another to gain a subsistence, or to appear tenth are incapable of application from fashionable and polite. And, if this frivolity, or dissipation, or imbecility, rule be admitted, I am afraid that a it results that the small share of good goodly number even of lawyers, phy- sense of which our species is capable, sicians, clergymen, teachers--nay, can only reside in a small fraction of even some authors and professors in a nation.” “Such,” continues Dr. universities and academies, would be Dick, “was the estimate made by struck off from the list of lovers of this philosophic monarch of the intelscience and rational inquirers after ligence possessed by the nations of truth. Admitting this statement, Europe sixty years ago ; and although it follows that there is not one in society has considerably advanced in dividual out of four hundred of the intellectual acquisitions since that human race, that passes his life as a period, the great body of the people, rational intelligent being, employing in every nation, is still shrouded in his faculties in those trains of thought the midst of folly and ignorance. and active exercises which are worthy' “ Such a picture of the intellectual state of mankind must, when seriously dors of true science, learning, humaniconsidered, excite a melancholy train ty, and religion. So long as duelling, of reflections in the breast both of the fighting, and enslaving one another philanthropist and the man of science. to royal and lordly masters-ecclesiasThat such a vast assemblage of beings tic, political, and financial, are yet in furnished with powers capable of in high esteem, approved, and lauded by vestigating the laws of nature of men professing to be the sons of civildetermining the arrangement, the mo- ization and Christian morality; who, tions, and magnitudes of distant that is not beguiled by a false philosoworlds — of weighing the masses of phy, can regard a people so thinking, the planets-of penetrating into the speaking, acting, as yet fully enlightdistant regions of the universe-of ar- ened, civilized, and evangelized by resting the lightning in its course — the Christian religion ? I have long of exploring the pathless ocean and since and often said, that probably in the region of the clouds, and of ren- one, two, or three centuries more, dering the most stubborn elements of posterity will talk of us as we now nature subservient to their designs. talk of the children of the dark ages. That beings capable of forming a Every thing around is, indeed, in sublime intercourse with the Creator progress-rapid progress. The moral himself, and of endless progression in conditions of society alone are stationknowledge and felicity, should have ary or retrograding. If riches, honor, their minds almost wholly absorbed in science, and learning, could make the eating and drinking, in childish and world more virtuous, pure, and happy, cruel sports and diversions, and in we would urge the prosecution of butchering one another, seems, at these objects. But unfortunately the first view, a tacit reflection on the history of the world, as well as the wisdom of the Creator in bestowing developments of the Bible, will not on our race such noble powers, and allow us to expect any better fruits plainly indicates that the current of from their labors and their results human intellect has widely deviated than they have already furnished. from its pristine course, and that When including science and learnstrong and reiterated efforts are now ing with riches and honor, as not requisite to restore it to its original tending to improve the social or moral channel. Every lover of science and relations of society, I must define of mankind must, therefore, feel in- myself. terested in endeavouring to remove Science and learning, dissociated obstructions which have impeded the from Christian religion and morality, progress of useful knowledge, and to are very different from science and direct the intellectual energies of his learning associated with them. In fellow-men to the prosecution of the latter case they are a great blessing objects worthy of the high station in the former case, rather a curse they hold in the scale of existence.” than a blessing. What was the ten
I am really sorry, gentlemen, to be dency of the science, learning, and constrained to say that such is my own talents of a Spinoza, a Hobbes, a opinion of the present condition of the Voltaire, a Gibbon, a Hume, or of a human race ; and so far anı I from Volney, less virulent but more insincoming to the conclusion that we have uating and dangerous on that account yet a truly enlightened or a truly than they. Perhaps I may be cencivilized nation in the world. I must sured for associating these men of regard our own age and country as renown with science at all. Learning merely in the twilight of Christian they hal, but science they had not, and philosophical illumination, rather say the modern enlightened majority. than as basking in the meridian splen- 'I will not, however, debate these nice
points. I speak after the manner of good ? Whatever, then, be your callmen. Talents, learning, and science, ing — whether you cultivate the soil falsely so called, they may have had, or direct the state—whether you spend though they were neither Bacons nor your days in the profession of science Newtons, neither Lockes nor Stewarts, or of some useful art—you must. in not one of them a Benjamin Franklin all the social relations of life, give all or a Sir Humphrey Davy. Still they your influence and example in favor had learning and influence to contami- of an enlightened understanding, a nate depraved millions, while a few good conseience, and a pure heart. good and great men can seldom raise But we may advance one step farand ennoble a few hundreds or thou- ther, and say, Should any of you, sands of their race. Still, to redeem attracted by a celestial magnet and one of our race, is a greater, nobler, guided by a light from above, ambiand more divine work and aspiration tiously look into the distance of ages than to damn a million.
to come, far beyond the limits of earth But I have already transcended my and time, to a bolier and a happier prescribed limits, and will only add, clime, panting after an object full of that, to work on the moral constitution glory, honor, and immortality, comof man, to raise, reform, and ennoble mensurate with the dimensions of your him, is, in my opinion, the most de- nature and with the grandeur, riches, sirable, useful, honorable, and godlike and glory of the universe ; then, and employment on earth. The agricul- in that case, we say, seize with a firm turist, the manufacturer, the mechanic, and unwavering grasp the telescope are all useful men. I mean their call- of faith, and place before your mental ing is useful and honorable. They | vision the grand circles of a blissful are so in the aggregate : they are so eternity-triumphing in the fullness in the detail. Who could dispense of joy, participating in all the rapwith the latter, the tailor, or the turous transports of eternal pleasure, cordwainer ? While the hatter takes yourself invested with unfading youth, the heads of men, and the cordwainer beauty, and loveliness; and then, I their feet under his special care and doubt not, you will set about forming protection and the tailor, still more a class of humble though aspiring benevolent, the whole body- none of candidates for these eternal honors these is either so indispensable, or so and rewards. If you cannot find useful to society, consequently not so them amongst the higher castes of honorable as the schoolmaster. There fallen humanity, I know you will seek is a true scale by which we truly ap- them wherever you may find them, if preciate men's standing in society, as not in the palaces of the great and nowell as a false one. “ Act well your ble of this world, you will find them part-there all the honor lies,” is, in- amongst the fallen outcasts and downdeed, a good maxim from a polished trodden of humanity, even in the poet, who smoothly says
sordid huts of cheerless poverty—you " Fortune in me, has some small difference made:
will stoop to conquer, and ransomed One taunts in rags, one tlutters in brocade; men will be your prize! The cobbler apron'd, and the parson gown'd; This is sound wisdom and unfading The friar hooded, and the monarch crown'd. What differs more, you'll say, than crown or cowl?
honor. Success in this enterprize is I'll tell yon, sir- a wise man and a fool! .
eternal wealth and blessedness. If, Worth makes the man, and want of it the fellow; then, you have faith, courage, and a All the rest is either leather or prunello." .
holy ambition, an ample field lies This being conceded -- and who before you—Apostles, prophets, mardoubts it ?we only ask, do you not, týrs, 'are your fellow-laborers. If young gentlemen, aspire to usefulness with them you encounter the perils and happiness--to the luxury of doing and endure the toils, with them you
will share the reward and wear an Respectšof persons is preferring some individuals
above others. unfading crown.
Person-individual, or particular man or woman,"
-WALKER. But we must bid you adieu. To hear a good report of you, be assured, young gentlemen, will be to us a
The Westminster Assembly's Capleasure ; and, after the toils and the techism states, that “God having out trials of life are over, to meet you in of his mere good pleasure, from all that pure and happy land where none eternity, elected some to everlasting but the great and wise and good shall life, did enter into a covenant of grace be admitted, will be to you and us a to deliver them out of an estate of sin joy and an honor which we have no and misery, and to bring them into an power to conceive nor language to estate of salvation by a Redeemer." express.
This is, indeed, respect of persons-a
flat and palpable contradiction of the HOW SHALL I ACI MY PART? testimony " that there is no respect BY D. AMBROSE DAVIS.
of persons with God." Let God be Shall I be foremost on the tield,
true, though every Assembly be a The warrior's pas. to play, And there the gleaming falchion wield, liar. To get rid of the plain testi
My brother mau to slay ? and thus a reinforcement send
mony of God in our motto, it is said 1 he nourner's ranks to fill,
that here it is meant that there is no Then ask my God to be my friend, And send ine blesiings still ?
respect of Jew's more than Gentiles Or if I at Gol's altar stand
with God. But mark the divine tesTo breathe a faitbless pra ver, And claim that by Divine cwmmand
timony: it refers to PERSONS ; as also I take ny station there.
in Acts x. 34, “ Of a truth I perceive And lan the Bible with my breath, To prove my doctrines trne
that God is no respecter of persons. What will be vue me after death,
The doctrine of personal election re-
ceives a death-blow from these two Professor of the laws,
quotations, for there cannot be greater And litt my voice in high debate To gain the world's applause,
respect of persons than arbitrarily to Shall I be able thus to prove
choose some to heaven, and leave That I am jus and true ? Will God look down in kindest love
others to sink into woe. Those who To witness what I do?
are unable to argue down all the pasOr with the pr. ud physician's part I boast of matchless skill,
sages which are adduced in favor of Professing super human art
| the doctrine that God is partial, will In serving whom I will; While holding thus the mystic charm
find Rom. ii. ll, and Acts x. 34, to To make the wounded whole, Oh! shall I find the healing balin
| be an axe which cuts by the roots To soothe my wounded soul?
| limited atonement, personal election, Though I am lord of boundless lands, and special influences of the Spirit in
And countless golden ore,
order to conversion. The principles
on which the world shall be judged () er all the land anu eea,
are distinctly stated in Rom. ii. 1-16, How will it plead iny cause with God ? How will it answer me?
Mat. xxv. 31-46. Let us all read o, let me stand as Jesus stood
and consider. Though Calvinism is To act that faithful part ?
thus demolished, we shall comment Let me go out to fight for God, With pure and perfect heart!
upon a few of the passages most freo, let me fight as Jesns fought, Unyielding till I die!
quently quoted in support of it. Mat. Yes, let me act as Jesus taught,
xxii. 14, “ Many are called, but few Till down in death I lie !
chosen.” EKLEKETOS is the word “ GOD IS LOVE.”
rendered chosen : it is defined —lst,
chosen, elect; 2nd, favored, chosen to “ We love God because he first loved us, and gave his only begotten Son to be the propitiation for our sing."
accepted, approved, excellent. The ** There is no respect of persons with God."Rom.ü. 11.
scope of the passage distinctly proves