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opinion, the last hope of poor hu- blame us for maintaining the right of manity.
| private judgment in matters of reliIf, happily, the Protestants had gion and conscience ; and in conceadhered in practice to the just and ding the principle, he must of necesliberal principles which, in theory, sity allow the consequences which they at first adopted, such censures legitimately flow from it. These conwould be undeserved, and the condi- sequences belong to Protestantism, as tion of the religious world would be much as does the principle from which far different to what it is. If, taking they spring. the Bible alone as the standard of It is not, however, my present obfaith and obedience, they had given ject to claim kindred with Protestfree toleration to all opinions which ants, or trace our lineage to a princidid not contravene the express decla- ple common to both us and them. rations of the divine word ; and re- We should be sorry to offend the fasquired assent to nothing for which a tidiousness of sectarism by any speclear scripture precept could not be cial claim of fraternity ; nor, however produced, there would have been no desirous of union, are we disposed to contention, because there would have form any alliances inconsisten with been no occasion for it. But of what the free exercise of judgment and the avail was it to take theoretically the privileges of citizenship in the kingBible as the only rule of faith and dom of Christ. My purpose is to practice, when a variety of opinions present some remarks upon the proand speculative dogmas must be su- per method of interpreting the scripperadded as standards of orthodoxy tures ; and we here simply adverted for discordant and conflicting parties ? to the fact, that the right to interpret Why reject the traditions of Rome, the scriptures for ourselves, not demerely to adopt opinions from Geneva nied to us by Protestants, has, in or from Wittemberg ? Why dili- practice, been the means of bringing gently circulate the scriptures, and to light all the doctrines by which we place a copy in the hands of every fa- are distinguished from other commumily in the land, if they deliver along nities. Indeed, the free exercise of with it the doctrine, that the laity this privilege is itself one of the most must not presume to understand these striking characteristics of the disciples sacred writings for themselves, but —and leading, as it does, to such remust receive this law from the lips of sults, it is highly important that much their pastor, who alone is authorised attention should be paid to the true to explain the scriptures, and only in principles of interpretation, and that harmony with the standards of his a knowledge of these should be cochurch ?
extensive with the exercise of the We say with truth, then, that while privilege of which we speak. Protestants in theory concede the May this precious right never be right of private judgment, in practice relinquished ! May no one be perthey deny it. But it is something to mitted to curtail the liberties we enhave this concession even in theory. joy in the kingdom of heaven ! May At least, it ought to defend us from no one be allowed to impose his speccensure for heresy when we proceed ulations and opinions upon his brethto carry it into practice. For if con- ren ! For my part, I shall ever formity to the most important funda- | claim the right of thinking and judgmental principle of the Lutheran Re-ing for myself, and of fully and freely formation be the test, we ought to be expressing my views, whether these considered more purely Protestant correspond with those of others or than any other community. Cer differ from them. This, I conceive tainly no intelligent Protestant can to be a high and holy privilege, and
its exercise a sacred duty. By this Unfortunately this statement is enmeans alone we have, as a religious tirely contradicted by the New Testabody, attained to our present position, ment account. and by this alone can we advance or In the eighteenth year of Tiberius, make improvement in the future. Christ was crucified A.D. 33. Peter “ Prove all things, hold fast thai was then at Jerusalem. With the which is good,” is a worthy motto for other apostles, he was soon after put a most worthy cause. Let it ever be into prison, whence he miraculously adhered to, and in its adoption let us escaped, and afterwards continued seek the wisdom that comes from with his brethren to preach daily in above, “ which is first pure, then the temple of Jerusalem. Aets v. 42. peaceable, gentle and easy to be en The gospel rapidly extended into Satreated, full of mercy and good fruits, maria. “ Now when the Apostles without partiality and without hy- which were at Jerusalem heard that pocrisy."
R. R. Samaria had received the word of God,
they sent unto them Peter and John," THE APOSTLE PETER NEVER
Acts viii. 14. Having fulfilled their
mission, they returned to Jerusalem, WAS AT ROME.
where they remained ; v. 25 Paul Tue assertion of the Roman Catho- was converted A.D. 35, and went to lic Church is this-Peter was the Arabia, where he spent three years. first Pope, and sat in the Pontifical “ Then after three years he went up chair at Rome for twenty five years ; to Jerusalem, to see Peter, and abode and that in the thirteenth year of with him fifteen days," Gal. i. 18. Nero's reign, he was crucified there Peter being a married man, had by that tyrant, with his head down-doubtless a house of his own, where wards. Upon the establishment of he could accomodate Paul. This this point depends the validity of your interview occured A.D. 38. After“ Apostolic Succession ;” and unless wards Peter passed through all quarit be shown to be a “fixed fact,” the ters, preaching the word and healing foundation of said Church is not “ this the sick. He visited Lydda, Saron, Rock.” Two things must be abso- | Joppa, and Cesarea, sixty miles dislutely demonstrated, viz. : that Peter tant from Jerusalem ; and when he was at Rome, and that he was there had completed this tour, he returned, in the capacity of Pope for twenty-five Acts ix. x. xi. years. The one by no means implies Tiberius the Emperor died A.D. 37, the other. If it be admitted that he and nominated Caius Caligula his even visited Rome, the simple fact of successor. He was assassinated four his being there does not prove that he years after, and was succeeded by was Pope ; but I believe it cannot be Claudius, A.D. 41. A great dearth, made out, beyond a guess, that he foretold by Agabus, occurred in the was there at all. My arguments are days of Claudius Cæsar, Acts xi. 28. these :
| This famine lasted, according to Jo1. The Chronology of the Acts of sephus, during the fifth, sixth, and the Apostles is irreconcileably at vari- seventh years of Claudius's reign. ance with the aforesaid Pontificate of “Now about this time Herod the King Peter. Baronius says that Peter went stretched forth his hand to vex certain to Rome in the second year of Claudius, of the church, and he killed James A.D. 44, and sat as Pope twenty-five the brother of John with the sword, years. Others, that he went a year and because he saw it pleased the Jews, earlier, and was martyred A.D. 68, he proceeded further to take Peter consequently the beginning of his also,” Acts xii. 1-3. Peter, therePontificate must be dated A.D. 43. 'fore was in Jerusalem, and not in
Rome, A.D. 47. Nothing more is thy, A.D. 66, he complained thus : said of him until we come to the “ At my first answer no man stood council of Jerusalem, Acts xv. This with me, but all forsook me.” Where was held, as we learn from Paul, Gal., was Peter then? He says himself ii. eighteen years after the death of that he was at BABYLON, in Chaldea, Christ, or A.D. 51. According to the directly east of Jerusalem, on the New Testament, therefore, Peter had river Euphrates—a very long distance not been out of Palestine up to the from the throne of the Cæsars. Had year 51, but according to the account he been with Paul, he never would given by the Roman Catholics, Peter have suffered him to stand alone in was at that very date at Rome, in the defence of the truth. With his imeighth or ninth year of Pontificate! petuous mind, he could not have At this council, Peter agreed with forsaken him, as did others, and Paul that circumcision was unneces- therefore the inference is irresistible : sary for the Gentiles, and argued the Peter was not at Rome A.D. 64, that matter ; but some time after this, is, within two years of his alleged Paul met Peter at Antioch, where no martyrdom. doubt the dispute occurred between Again— Paul wrote to Timothy them, on account of Peter's dissimula- about this date, and said that Timothy tion, Gal. ii. 2. Hence it is abso was with him, 2 Tim. iv. 2. Comlutely certain, that up to the year 52, paring this with Acts xxviii. 14, we Peter had not become Bishop of Rome, must believe that Luke arrived at and this date is within sixteen years Rome with Paul, where, as aforesaid, of his alledged martyrdom by Nero! he wrote the Acts, A.D. 63. Now the
My second argument goes to prove Acts give a particular account of that Peter never was at Rome at all. Peter, as well as Paul. That he It is admitted on all sides that the should have been at Rome, and Luke, Acts of the Apostles was written by who wrote from that place, not have Luke A.D. 63. By his manner of known it, especially as his visit was writing, it is clear, from the last chap- to ascend the Pontifical chair, is past ters, that the historian was with Paul all belief. And when we consider on his way to, and with him at Rome. how many important points of faith Here the apostle to the Gentiles wrote are made by Catholics to depend upon sis Epistles, in which he mentions Peter's being at Rome, such as the many persons of less note, but never primacy of the Pope, the infallibility once mentions Pope Peter! Some of his chair, the Apostolic succession, four years before he reached Rome, the absolute power of binding and he addressed an Epistle to the Church loosing, no salvation out of the Church there, and sent his salutation to twenty- of Rome, &c.--I say, when we consiseven persons, and to two or three der that such momentous subjects households ; but not one word does depend upon Peter's being at Rome, he say about Peter. Now if Peter and yet Luke omits to record the fact had been at Rome at that time, would —Peter's primacy is utterly beyond Paul have omitted the particular all belief. mention of his name? Would he On this subject, however, we are have recounted many persons of in- not left simply to a high degree of ferior standing, and saluted them with probability, but we have circumstanvaried expressions of tender regard, tial certainty that Peter never was at and omitted the Pope ? The thing is Rome. If he went there at all he impossible, because incompatible with went to preach the gospel : and as Paul's manner, and with the Spirit of the “circumcision was committed to Christianity, which he never forgot to Peter,” Gal. ii. 7, he would have manifest. In his second letter to Timo- sought out the Jews and pressed upon
them the claims of Christ, as the able epistle which so greatly enriches my Messiah. This is beyond a question. soul
soul with the true knowledge of Jesus.
Oh that God may be your continual supNow what is the fact ? Paul, upon
port, with the rest of your worthy correhis arrival at Rome, called the chief spondents. The enclosed letter upon of the Jews together for a conference, “ Domestic Worship and Government," Acts xxviii. 17-29. They said to was composed by Mr. Jacob Nicholas, him—" We desire to hear of thee
Baptist minister, Caersws, and was sent
to several churches; but wishing it a what thou thinkest : for as concerning wider circulation, for the benefit of the this sect, we know that every where it disciples of Jesus, (with the author's conis spoken against.” 66 And when they sent) I addressed it to you, knowing that had appointed him a day, there came
your periodical visits many families, some
of whom, perhaps, neglect this very immany to him unto his lodgings, to portant duty. This is too often the case whom he expounded and testified the with many Christian families. Besid s, kingdom of God, persuading them indeed, the subject corresponds well with
the title of your periodical, “ Family Maconcerning Jesus, both out of the law
gazine." Dear brother, if it is agreeable, of Moses, and out of the Prophets, please to insert it. Your faithful friend, from morning until evening.” And for the truth's sake, EDWARD Evans.] what was the effect?“ The Jews
DEAR BRETHREN, departed, and had great reasoning As it is customary with us to address among themselves,” v. 29. All the you annually on some subject relating knowledge they had about Christianity to Christian doctrine or practice, perwas this:--“concerning this sect, we mit us, this year, to invite your attenknow it is every where spoken against,” tion to the faithful discharge of a very and their request was, “ we desire to important duty, viz.—that of Domestic hear of thee what thou thinkest ;” and Worship and Government. The prinafter they had heard, they departed, ciple which impels us rightly and faithand had great reasoning among them- fully to perform the first of those duties, selves. Is it not perfectly evident gives impulse to the discharge of all that this was the first exposition of other duties of the Christian life. the gospel they had ever heard ? Now The man who, surrounded by his how did it happen that Peter was at family, devotes a portion of every Rome for at least 22 years, according morning and evening to the service of to your account, and yet these Jews, God, is the man who is always glad, his especial charge, as well as “breth- when it is said unto him, “Let us go ren according to the flesh,” had not into the house of the Lord.” His soul heard the gospel, and were only ac- fainteth for the courts of the Lord, quainted with the gainsayings of the and his heart and flesh cry out for the opposition? The conclusion is irre- living God." He is seldom found to sistible, from which there can be no be an unfaithful or an unprofitable fair escape, that Peter never was at servant. Whatsoever his hand findRome. According to your account eth to do, he doeth with all his might. he died there, A.D. 68. According to He seldom shrinks from the discharge the argument from inspired chrono- of known duties, at the same time that logy, he could not have been at it is the desire of his heart to know Rome up to A.D. 66. The remaining more of the will of his Lord, in which two years are not worth contention. he delights, as the law by which his
GORDON. | conduct is regulated.
We are sorry to be necessitated to DOMESTIC WORSHIP AND add, that this is not a true portraiture GOVERNMENT.
of the majority of Christian professors.
There are those who look upon all Dear Brother-About the close of each
Christian duties — those duties by Nottingham, for that elaborate and invalu. which Christians ought to be charac
terised and distinguished from the comprising the history of almost two world—as too irksome for them to thousand five hundred years, given us perform. Even family worship seems in the book of Genesis, we find seveto be almost, if not entirely neglected ral allusions to this part of the patriby many ; which in a great measure archal institution. Immediately after accounts for the general tepidity and his going out of the ark, we find callousness by which professors of reli- Noah rearing his altar upon the region are characterized, as well as for cently baptized earth, and of every the little success of the Redeemer's clean bird and beast offering to the cause in our days. Should, therefore, Lord whole burnt offerings. The fathis brief address, under the blessing ther of the faithful, in all his sojournof God, be the means of awakening, ings, wherever he pitched his tent, in the minds of individuals, placed there also he erected an altar, and by Providence at the head of fami- called on the name of the Lord : and lies, a deep and permanent sense of thus he is honored by his God—“For the importance of this duty, to which I know him, that he will command they have hitherto been inattentive, his children and his household after our heart's desire will be realized, him, and they shall keep the way of and our labour more than compen- | the Lord, to do justice and judgsated.
ment." Abraham had known" the Families are the smallest social di- way of the Lord,” which is the true vision of the human species ; and religion, and he would have that relithat individuals among mankind, bear- gion preserved in his family. Are ing to each other the relations ex- we, brethren, imitators of this "friend pressed by the term father, mother, of God ?” Is it, moreover, likely, husband, wife, children, &c. should that our children and our household thus be associated, is a Divine institu- / after us, will “ keep the way of the tion, ordained for their mutual good ; Lord ?” A multitude of instances and whereas it is neither the inclina- might be added, but let this suffice. tion nor the duty of man to live in Reason and Scripture concur in solitude, it is spoken of as an expres- pointing out the head of the family as sion of the Divine goodness, that the the fittest person to officiate at the do“Lord setteth the solitary in families.” mestic altar. Anciently, indeed, the
In any collective body of people, be father of every family bore to it the it great or small, there can be no en- | threefold relation of prophet, priest, joyment comparable to that of serving and king. As a prophet, he instructed the Lord. The greater the purity his household in the knowledge of with which He is worshipped, the God, and the history of man. As a more it gladdens the heart, which is priest, he officiated at the family alone reason assignable for the perfec- tar, interceded for those under his tion and endless duration of the fe- care, and pronounced benedictions licity of heaven: “That, in His pre- upon his children. As a lawgiver sence, there is fulness of joy ; and at and king, he “ commanded his chilHis right hand there are pleasures dren and household” to “keep the for evermore." Domestic worship is way of the Lord,” at the same time the most ancient mode in which the that his own deportment presented to Almighty was served by our race. them the most salutary and impulsive In this way our first parents worship- example. What a blessing to the ped Him, in the green and shady church and the world it would be, bowers of Eden ; and the antedilu- did Christians act on this principle ! vian patriarchs presented their sin It would be an admirable means of offerings and thank-offerings on the bringing “ up their children in the family altars. In the brief outlines nurture and admonition of the Lord”