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and boys. But from the grounds and There are ten different orders of exterior circumstances we must hasten persons in each of these seventeen to the interior arrangements of this colleges :-1. Heads of Colleges genecelebrated institution. But in the rally: these are Doctors of Divinity. first place we shall answer a very fre- There are but three exceptions in the quent and common question—What seventeen colleges. In these they means the University of Cambridge ? may be only Doctors in Civil Law or It may be of more use and interest to Physic. The head of King's College some of our readers to understand is called Provost; the head of Queen's something of its organizatiaon and College is called President, the heads character, than to read any thing we of all the others, Masters. could say of its buildings or of their 2. Fellows. These are generally contents.
Doctors of Divinity, of Civil Law, or In the first place, then, we shall Physic; Bachelors of Divinity ; define the institution from its own Masters or Bachelors of Arts ; Bacheauthentic documents :-“ The Uni- lors of Incivil Law or Physic. In all vsrsity of Cambridge is a society of these there are 430 Fellowships. students in all and every of the liberal 3. Noblemen Graduates ; Doctors arts and sciences, incorporated (43 in the several Faculties; Bachelors in Elizabeth, c. 29) by the name of The Divinity and Masters or Bachelors of Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars, of Arts, Civil Law, or Physic. For the the Universiiy of Cambridge. This purpose of being members of the commonwealth is the union of seven- Senate, many of them keep their teen Colleges, or societies devoted to names on the Boards at the expense the study of learning and knowledge, of from £2 to £4 per annum. and for the better service of the Church 4. Ten Year Men. These are aland State. Each College is a body lowed to become Bachelors of Divinity corporate, bound by its own statutes, without graduating in the Arts at all, but is likewise controlled by the para- provided their names are kept ten mount laws of the University. The years on the Boards, and that two of present University statutes were given these ten years have been spent for by Queen Elizabeth in the 12th year the greater part in the University. of her reign. Each of the seventeen 5. Bachelors in the Civil Law and Colleges furnishes members both for Physic. the executive and legislative branches 6. Bachelors of Arts, who are in of its government. In this assembly, statu pupillari, and pay for tuition, which holds its meetings in the Senate whether resident or not, together with House, all Masters of Arts, Doctors certain other conditions. of Divinity, Law and Physic, may 7. Fellow - Commoners, generally vote, who have their names enrolled younger sons of the Nobility, or young on its books a sufficient time. The men of fortune, who have the privilege present eligible voters, amount to of dining at the Fellows' table, whence about 3500.
the appellation originated. The executive officers of the Uni | 8. Scholars—foundation members versity are a Chancellor, High Stew- of their respective colleges, and who ard, Vice-Chancellor, Commissary, enjoy various advantages—having Public Orator, Assessors, two Proc their commons paid for, their chambers tors annually elected, Librarian, rent free, specific stipends, &c. &c. Registrary, two Taxors, two Scruta 9. Pensioners, who form the great tors, two Moderators, two Esquire | body of the students, who pay for their Beadles, the University Printer, Li commons, chambers, &c. and who brary Keepers, Under Library Keep- enjoy generally no pecuniary advaners, School Keeper, and Marshal. | tages from their respective colleges.
10. Sizars are generally students of the inauguration visit. The Doctor's limited means. They usually have“ grace before meat,” written in old their commons free, and receive several Latin and recited at table, which I emoluments.
recollect to have read in the London The terms or sessions of the Times during that grand pageant, did University are three per annum. far less honor to his practical theology Commencement Day is always July than did the Bridgewater Treatise to Ist. The candidate for the degree of his theoretic. Bachelor of Arts must have resided The arbors for that grand display ten terms, or the major part of such and the tents were only being in exterms. The term in which he enters, | tremis when I entered Trinity College and that in which he takes the degree, and its library. In this splendid colare both counted in the ten.
lection of choice works of many ages, But strange to tell, “The University I saw much to interest me had I a confers no dugree whatever, unless the year or two to spend in it. But a candidate has previously snbscribed mere glance of the eye over its extena declaration that he is bona fide a sive shelves and well assorted folios member of the Church of England, as was all that I could allot to it. A by law established.”
| peep through Sir Isaac Newton's an“In conferring the degree of Doctor tique telescope, through which he of Divinity, it must appear that the surveyed the heavens, gave me more candidate has been a Bachelor of Di- pleasure than any thing I saw in vinity of five years standing, or a Trinity College. To handle, to exMaster of Arts of twelve years stand-plore, to peep through this homely ing.”
telescope, handled and used by him Of the seventeen colleges of the who taught the mechanics of the uniUniversity of Cambridge, that of verse, and who demonstrated its funSt. Peter is the oldest. It was founded damental laws, was the richest feast A.D. 1257; and the most recent is I enjoyed at Cambridge. Downing College, founded September Next to Trinity College, I was 22, 1800. Of the whole number of most interested in the gorgeous display colleges, thirteen were founded by the of regal pride in King's Church, the Church of Rome, and but four by the richest edifice of its size in Great Church of England. Of these, the Britain. All I can say of it here is, first in point of age and standing is that it is after the architectural style Trinity College, founded in 1546. and splendour of what is called WoolI was, therefore, most curious and sey's Hall, in Hampton Court Palace. interested to examine its details. I had the curiosity to ascend its long The justly celebrated “Rev. William winding stairs, and even to place myWhewell, D. D.” appointed in 1841, self on its loftiest summit-a leaden is Master of this College—the cele- seat on its comb~that I might surbrated author of that which I have vey the whole town of Cambridge and long regarded the best of the “Bridge- all the surrounding country. I sat water Treatises." His argument from there alone for almost half an hour, in general physics, or from cosmical ar- contemplation not only of the Univerrangements of the material universe, sity in its seventeen colleges, covering is the fullest and most convincing so great an area—not merely in surargument of the seven treatises in veying the city and its environs, but proof of the being and perfections of in casting a few houghts over its God as developed in material nature. connections with the past and future
The Queen, and her illustrious history of England, and with the consort, the Prince Regent, sojourned world that now is, and that which is as the guests of Dr. Whewell during to come.
How circumscribed is human vision, great and mighty nation, and holds it said I to myself, not only as respects as much in abeyance to all that is the objects of the scenes around me, animalard sensual in fallen humanity, but as respects those which the mind as that hierarchy which, some tliree itself surveys! How indistinct those centuries since, it reprobated, conin the remoter part of the few miles demned, and almost unanimously which I now survey, compared with renounced!! those immediately around this splen- ! But to return from my musings to did edifice! How little did the Roman the University of Cambridge. From Catholic founders of thirteen of these the archives of the University, we seventeen colleges, with all their learned that the Professors derive church infallibility, imagine, when their annual salaries from various founding them and lavishing on them sources, ancient stipends and modern their gold and their silver, that these stipends, paid out of the privy purse, very colleges should be alienated from or by government. We could not, their church and converted into mighty however, accurately ascertain the engines to demolish her ancient in- aggregate amount of the salaries from fallibility and omnipotency! Such, all sources. Compared with Amerihowever, is the fact. The Papal can Professors, they are, however, schools and colleges, abbeys, priories, liberally rewarded. monasteries, convents, glebes, parson- The matriculation fees of new ages, &c. &c., have all been not only students are paid on the second day escheated from her dominion, but in each term on the registering of have become battering rams and en- | their names. The fees are as diverse gines of demolition against her grossest as the rank of the student. Noblesuperstition and most palpable abomi- men pay £16 ; a Fellow-Commoner, nations. Still these institutions are £12; a Pensioner, £5 10; and the so combined with evils to man, are very Sizer himself pays £1 5s. On so much in league with the lusts of these, however, there is a government the flesh, the lusts of the eye, and the tax and the fees of registry. pride of life-so hostile to the letter The tuition is paid quarterly, at and the spirit of Bible Christianity, the following rates :-A Nobleman that a man must be as spiritually pays £10; Fellow-Commoner, £5 ; blind as a bat at noon, if he do not Pensioner, £2 10s. ; a Sizer, 15 shilsee that the hierarchy which these lings per quarter. institutions sustain is as worthy of To these are added room rent, repudiation and annihilation as that attendance, coals, laundress' bills, which has been, in its outward and assessed taxes, and college payments, political form, denounced and demol- amounting together to £25. Tuition ished by him that founded Trinity and these accommodations amount to College, -(how ridiculous and blas- £35. The cost of boarding for 25 phemous the name the first of the weeks, which is the average time of Protestant series of institutions added boarding in college during the three to, and allied with the Papal colleges terms per annum, at 16 shillings per baptized into mere Protestantism or week, and the laundress' bill of £5 reformed Popery.
8s., make the annual expenses at May not the time come, continued Cambridge over £100 per annum. I to myself, when these schools, and This is a fair average of all the seventhe languages, sciences, and arts teen colleges composing the Univerwhich they teach, will be redeemed sity. Every member of the Univerfrom their servility to a corrupt and sity pays also six shillings for the corrupting hierarchy, which, like an annual purchase of books for the incubus, oppresses the energies of a public library.
Degrees are not confined to literary buildings are :—The University Limerit. “The University sometimes brary, the University Press, the Fitzconfers degrees without either exam- william Museum ; the donation of ination or residence, on such indi-Viscount Fitzwilliam, a splendid colviduals of mature age as are illustri- lection of Books, Paintings, Drawings ous-not, indeed, merely on account and Engravings; besides, for its erecof birth, but for services rendered the tion and preservation, the gift of some state or to literature.” Thus in half million of dollars ;-the Mesman America the degree of L.L.D. has Museum, holding 248 Paintings and been conferred on several distin- | 33 Drawings and Prints ; the Camguished statesmen, without any lite- bridge Observatory, in which are a rary merit whatsoever. But so sworn Transit Instrument, of ten feet focal to the English hierarchy is the Uni- | length by Dollond ; a Mural Circle, versity, that she confers no honors on eight feet diameter, and an Equaany man, no matter how great historial, of five feet in length ; also, a merit or learning, unless he be a magnificent telescope, of nearly twelve bona fide member of the Church of inches aperture, and twenty feet in England.
| length, made in Paris, and presented The University of Cambridge, by by the Duke of Northumberland, &c. large and liberal prizes, does much to &c. ; the Anatomical Museum, the stimulate ambition and to elicit talent. Geological Museum, and the MineraloPrizes on foundations of legacies for gical Museum. To these we may the purpose, for the encouragement add the Botanic Garden, of some four of literature, free and open to com- acres ; of each of which I cannot, of petition for the whole University, course, speak particularly. Such is amount to upwards of £1500. Three- ameagre outline of this grand national fourths of this sum are given for clas- institution. But of its great utility sics and English compositions—the to the cause of humanity and religion, remainder for mathematics. Besides I cannot speak with much confidence, this sum there are some £700 per and shall therefore say nothing. One annum given by each of the seventeen thing, the disproportion between the colleges. Two-thirds of this sum is outlay and the revenue of good acgiven for the encouragement of classic cruing, is most striking and obvious literature.
to the most superficial observer. It Connected with and under the su- is all told when I state, that, on depervision of one of the colleges, is a scending from the roof of King's grammar school, called from its foun- Church, and on entering into that der, the Perse Free Grammar School. | room in which worship was perThe age of admission is ten years. formed, all the remainder being unThe term of continuance may be to occupied space, with golden roof and the age of eighteen years. The scho-marble floor of some 200 feet long, lars all pay ten shillings entrance I found but one hundred and twenty and twenty shillings per annum. persons only, each having its richly Other scholars than “free scholars” gilded psalter, prayer-book, and canare now admitted, and scholars edu- dlestick. An organ, a gilded pulpit, cated here for three years are to be and a golden eagle with a Bible on admitted (cæteris paribus) before its back, completed its furniture. all others to fellowships and scholar- Here were expended one million of ships in Caius College.
dollars and more for the accommodaI have time and space only to note tion of but one hundred and twenty the public buildings, at which I persons ; and, from all I could learn, merely glanced, not having time to these seats are seldom filled with any visit them in detail. The public | kind of worshippers, professional or
real. In literature and science we in the moral constitution of humanity, must not think that it is as in religion, and the mechanism of nature. One a grand display-a gigantic institu- who possesses the fundamental idea tion, without a corresponding utility. of a Supreme Divinity with infinite Affectionately, your Father, power, need not suffer it to fade from A. CAMPBELL. his soul for want of living and authen
tic documents. He can find no excuse CHRISTIANITY IN ITS in the paucity or obscurity of the BEARINGS ON NATURAL
evidence. It blazes in creation,
which has in all its provinces and THEOLOGY.
fields the stamp of superhuman intelI.-In the opening of St. Paul's ligence—the impress of designing profound argument contained in his mind—the signature of Divine and letter to Rome, we find the following eternal power—the strong grasp and remarkable passage :-"I am debtor stately march of pervading and conboth to the Greeks and to the barba- trolling law—the deep glow of fervent rians, both to the wise and to the un- and comprehensive benevolence. All wise. So much as in me is, I am this is undeniable. But what a strange ready to preach the gospel to you conclusion has been founded upon that are at Rome also. For I am such premises. It has been assumed not ashamed of the gospel of Christ : that the things which are made, the for it is the power of God unto salva- visible harmonies of creation, origition to every one that believeth ; to nated in the minds of the men spoken the Jew first, and also to the Greek. of—the conception of Godhead. This For therein is the righteousness of is a deplorable assumption, neither God revealed from faith to faith : as sustained by Revelation nor by reait is written, the just shall live by son-not to be found in this context, faith. For the wrath of God is re- nor gathered in any other legitimate vealed from heaven against all un- field of fact or observation. The godliness and unrighteousness of men, transgressors whose guilt and punishwho hold the truth in unrighteous- ment is painted here in such dread ness ; because that which may be and vivid colouring, received the known of God is manifest in them, truth concerning God by the inheritfor God hath shewed it unto them. ance of tradition. It was intellectual For the invisible things of him from and moral property derived from the creation of the world are clearly their Fathers in marvellous and aseen, being understood by the things bounding testimonies. It was a that are made, even his eternal power spiritual estate which had descended and Godhead ; so that they are in a long line through ages and without excuse : because that when generations. they knew God, they glorified him They had the idea in its unity and not as God, neither were thankful ; glory as the keystone of moral life, but became vain in their imagina- and the anchor of immortal hope. tions, and their foolish heart was They likewise had the proofs and darkened.”—Chap. i.
confirmations of Divine personality 1. The invisible things, viz. eternal and power in the archives of naturepower and Godhead, may be appre- the splendid documents of audible hended by the spirit-may be under- and visible illustration. The realized stood and believed, from the visible wisdom of God—the perfect adaptaappearances of nature—the evidence tion of means to an end, and of agenof creation. The great proposition cies to a result-was so manifold and is within the confirmation, both multiform, that plausible excuse was within and without being manifest impossible. God had shown them a