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slave shall be eligible to the highest being injurious to the parent, and offices of the Christian priesthood. especially to the daughter.
The church also launched its And now investigate the influence anathemas against all professors of of Christianity in elevating woman. Christianity who ill-treated their Christianity declared the husband slaves. Muratori, in his Annals, says and wife to be equal, to be the living that the punishment for such a crime similitude of Christ and his church. was either two years' penance, or ex- The same spirit of gratitude and decommunication.
votion was to be manifested by the If the situation and prospects of the wife towards her husband, as the slave in the reign of Constantine be church was to manifest towards Christ. compared with his former ones, the The first-fruits of that declaration was civilizing power of Christianity will the abolition of polygamy, and then then be evident. Now, he has his the institution of chivalry; and, as | personal safety, his liberty of con- the latest visible effect, woman, when science, his rights as a husband and beauty and intellect are joined to father, his religious equality — all piety and love, is now regarded as established by law. Formerly his God's best gift to man. It is from situation and prospects were the her lips that lisping childhood receives dreadful ones we have mentioned. We its first lessons in moral truth. She could wish to carry this investigation is the arbitress of her offspring's desthrough the succeeding reigns and the tiny : the passionsand temptations of Middle Ages, until the final abolition manhood may shake the soul as with of slavery in Europe, but have not an earthquake, yet, where woman space for so doing. We have pre- has thoroughly implanted the lessons sented such an amount of evidence of morality in early childhood, sin as to the civilizing principle that never wholly triumphs. Is not woChristianity contains, that no well man now the dearest companion of balanced mind will remain uncon- our social hours, the participator in vinced.
our joys, and above all, in our sorThe second and last instance of the rows ? And when man is stretched above-mentioned principle, is the so- on the couch of sickness, then, indeed, cial position of Woman. From the she is a ministering angel. And now earliest age of society woman had no compare the power, the glorious misvoice in the bestowal of her band : sion of woman, with her former deshe was esteemed too worthless for graded state. Behold how Christiher wishes to be considered — the anity has softened the feelings of huword “daughter” was almost synony- manity, purified society, and elevated mous with the word “ disgrace,” and woman in the scale of being, and then in most savage, or semi-civilized na- ask your own mind if Christianity is tions, it actually is so. One relic not the true principle of civilization ? alone of her former degraded state is And it may serve as a solemn warnnow remaining - that relic is, the ing to woman to know, that wherever dowry, the marriage portion, or, as it the doctrines of Christianity are coris better expressed in France, the do- rupted, and wherever the early traintation or gift. This shows the former ing of her offspring is neglected by position of woman in all its degrada- her, she herself falls into a proportion. A father gave a reward to the tionate state of bondage and contempt. man who freed him from such a con- ! We have now delineated the pecutemptible burden as a daughter. And liar features and powers of Christihere we may remark, that the best anity, and shall, at a more advanced interests of society demand the abo- stage of inquiry, contrast these peculition of the custom of dotation, as liar features and powers of Christi
anity, with those of Christianity as cies to which they would be liable, by improved by the “powers that be,” constructing them with elastic stems, or with Christianity as embodied in which extended or contracted accordA STATE CHURCH.
ing to the rise or fall of the water. If this, our world, be the physical Now, as the laws by which God universe of God, Christianity is his provided, in the physical universe, for moral universe.
the preservation and reproduction of We remeniber a spot much loved a few plants, which were not essential by us, long years ago, when in the to the existence of man, are of such a first flush of youth-when Hope, the comprehensive and grasping characrainbow of the heart, had not faded ter, it is impossible that he would away under the influence of sad expe- leave his moral universe destitute of rience, nor manhood left unfulfilled | laws providing for the preservation the expectations of youth. It was and reproduction of the principles it one of those bright spots which, from contained. their extreme beauty and repose, so And yet, those who say that the eloquently declare to man that he has support of the State is necessary for fallen from a state once as bright as the preservation and spread of Christheirs. It was a small lawn on a tianity, thereby declare that God has river's bank, encircled by huge oaks, left his moral universe without any whose leaves cast their shadows over | laws for preservation and reproducthe green turf, chequering it with rich tion. Truly they must have a poor shades ; and enclosing the fair scene opinion of the wisdom of God! If a was an undergrowth of eglantine and Minister of State were to gravely hawthorn, while, beneath their shade, propose an Act of Parliament for mathe violet, the anemone, and the wild king barley or dandelion seeds sprout convolvolus raised their graceful forms at the right time, he would be laughed
—and by the bank the water lilies at by the whole nation, and deposited and other aquatic plants added to the in a lunatic asylum—and why? Bebeauty of the scene. There were we cause every person knows that the accustomed to spend many of the long laws which regulate the growth of summer hours, enjoying the luxury material things are not under the of existence and dreaming, twining | control of man. Man cannot create, garlauds of wild flowers, or blowing or destroy, or modify, or help one naaway the seeds of the dandelion. tural law ; much less, then, can he Little did we think, in blowing away create, or destroy, or modify, or even those seeds, the wisdom of God was help one spiritual law. making the caprice of a child minister Or, if the Minister proposed even to his designs: the seeds were so to a child (much less to a nation) to constructed, that the slightest disturb- make barley grow where there was ing cause, such as the movement of no soil to cover and nourish it, why the air, scattered them around, to re- that child would point its tiny finger new the species when the others were at him, in ridicule of his foolish prowithered and dead. As sometimes position ; yet the advocates of a State happens, in hilly districts, the river Church make quite as foolish a prowas subject to a sudden rise ; and position, who, by means of Acts of after one of these sudden risings, we Parliament, endeavour to make State visited the spot, expecting to see the Christianity grow in the hearts of water flowers all hidden by the wa- people who declare they do not wish ters, but we found a few still floating for it. Now we think that every one on the surface, and on examining the will admit the two following concluplants we found that the Divine Being sions to be correct :-1. If state power had provided against the contingen-' and protection be in any way requisite
for the preservation and spread of saw the wonderful power of the cruChristianity, then the absence of cified Nazarene over the souls of men, state power and protection would and yet the natural pride of priestcause Christianity to perish. — 2. If craft was averse to confessing its fear state power and protection be in any of an opportent apparently so conway requisite for the preservation temptible. In their perplexity they and spread of Christianity, then, if applied for counsel and support to the the entire power of the state be di- Emperor Tiberius. And Tiberius rected to the destruction of Christi- | demonstrated, by his wise advice, anity – Christianity must inevitably that their confidence was not misperish from the world.
placed. He was cruel - for so are These are two conclusions which all men who have not a belief in the are irrefragable, and not to be con- immortal destiny of the human soul : troverted by a rational mind. Now, he was licentious—for all men will be the entire power of the state was em- so who have no future existence to ployed in the destruction of Christi- which they can look forward with anity, by means of thirteen dreadful hope ; but he possessed a profound persecutions : and if the power of the and gigantic intellect, over which state was necessary for the preserva- passion had no power— he possessed tion and spread of Christianity, these the Roman genius for rule, along thirteen persecutions by the state with the deepest insight into the paswould extinguish it. It is now neces- sions and foibles of the human heart sary to let history declare whether -he comprehended, at a glance, the the state succeeded in its object. / vast details of the Universal Empire, When Christ had been crucified, his or the more secret intrigues of his followers were scattered abroad, pro- court. This monarch, who possessed pagating, in their travels, the princi- such fathomless profundity of thought, ples and institutions of their Master. when consulted by the priesthood as For a number of years their labors to the most effectual means of crushdid not attract the attention of the ing Christianity, determined to give political powers ; but the jealous and Jesus Clirist a niche in the National watchful eyes of the Roman priest- Pantheon—to establish the Christian hood perceived that the temples were church by law-to make it a State gradually becoming deserted—that Church ! Such was the method of the purest, the noblest, and most in- crushing Christianity proposed by the tellectual of their votaries were gra- politic and astute Tiberius. But the dually departing—that the altars were priesthood objected to this method not loaded as in oljen times, by the they desired him to employ the sword votive garlands of flowers—that the of the state in eradicating the ChrisOracles were less consulted — and tian system and its followers. This, the priesthood was struck with fear. Tiberius did not consent to : he knew Superstition was waning, for there the Pagan religion to be a system of was an enemy who was powerful, yet jugglery and deceit, and very likely, invisible. But the priests, who, in all was indifferent as to which system ages bave been
triumphed. So the priests had to “ Politicians,
rest contented till the accession of an With more eyes than a beast in a vision,”
| Emperor who possessed less determiwere not long in discovering, that nation and foresight ; and in the year many persons were in the habit of 64. meeting together for the purpose of The First Persecution commenced celebrating the death of a Nazarene, under Nero, and lasted 4 years, duwho had been crucified in Judea ; ring which Paul and Peter, and an and the priests were perplexed. They 'immense number of Christians, perished by martyrdom. Now it is The Eighth Persecution in the natural to conclude that four years of reign of Maximin. persecution must have made dreadful The Ninth Persecution in the reign havoc among the Christians ; but we of Decius, A.D. 250. find that this persecution was not so The Tenth Persecution under very effectual, for, about the year | Gallus, and his son Volusinianus. 94, in the reign of Domitian,
The Eleventh Persecution, under The Second Persecution was com- Valerian, in the year 258. menced.
The Twelfth Persecution was comThe Third Persecution commenced menced after an enormous amount of under Trajan, when Pliny the Young- priestly importunity, by Diocletian, er, being Governor of Bythinia, was in the year 303. ordered to persecute the Christians in The Thirteenth, and last Persecuhis district. He was rather averse | tion, commenced in the Eastern Roto the task, assuring Trajan, that man Empire, under Galerius, the without mentioning the cities, many son-in-law of Dioclesian, 304. villages were entirely Christianized : Thus the whole power of the State so that it seems Pliny was afraid he had been employed in the destruction might, in persecuting the Christians, of Christianity, by means of thirteen destroy the greatest portion of the persecutions, during a space of 240 population. Besides, he was, to a years, and had been unable to crash great extent, devoid of the prejudices it, so that, as the system of the priests of the age. He says that when he was wrong, perhaps Tiberius was stretched some Christians on the rack right, in his suggestion of crushing to make them confess the secrets of it by means of state support and protheir religion, they declared that the tection. Now when Licinius cononly vow they made on entering the tended for the imperial throne, with Christian church was, that they would Constantine his colleague, he, to gain abstain from every species of vice, the favor of the priesthood and their and celebrate, one day in seven, the disciples, persecuted Christianity : he death of their Master. So Pliny's stood forth as the representative of naturally virtuous heart revolted from Paganism. Constantine, who was a the thought of slaying men, who, with man of much political sagacity, saw the exception of their religion, were that the balance of wealth and virtue models of every virtue. But, in the was on the side of the Christians—he Roman empire, there were not many also thought they were the more nugovernors like Pliny: so the work of merous body, so he declared himself persecution went on bravely, and a Christian : he stood forth as the with marvellously bad success, for representative of Christianity, and the
A Fourth Persecution was found result justified his opinion ; in one needful in the reign of Adrian, the struggle the power of his Pagan opposuccessor of Trajan.
nent Licenius was extinguished : LiceThe Fifth Persecution was com- nius and the Paganism he represented menced in the reign of Antoninus fell for ever. Christianity, therefore, Pius, but he shortly after stopped it, was more prevalent than Paganism. when he had read the Apology for We have now shown that the Christianity presented to him by power of the state, exerted for the Justin Martyr.
destruction of Christianity, during The Sixth Persecution was com- | 240 years, had not crushed Christimenced under Marcus Aurelius An- anity ; on the contrary, after thirteen toninus.
persecutions, the Christians were more The Seventh, and verydreadful Per- numerous than the Pagans. Christisecution under Severus in the year 203. anity had conquered. It is therefore certain that the preservation and re- road from London to Cambridge, and production of Christianity, which is through as beautiful and highly culthe Moral Universe of God, depends tivated a section of England as any on spiritual laws, over which man one through which I passed. has no control. He can no more add On arriving at the University so to, or diminish their power, than he soon after the inauguration of Prince can add to, or diminish, the laws Albert, the present Chancellor, and which cause the preservation and re- | after the dispersion of the Masters, production of the Physical Universe. Professors, and Students, I found But, before we proceed further, we matters somewhat in confusion, yet shall state one fact — Constantine, more than enough to engross my athaving gained the throne by the sup- tention during my stay. Every thing port of the Christians, enacted a law that the most liberal endowment and that Christianity should be the reli- the rich legacies of its friends and gion of the state : he made it into a patrons could bestow on the buildings, State Church. Tiberius wished to the college grounds, the libraries, and destroy Christianity by connecting it apparatus of the University, has been with the state-Constantine endea- done. The amplitude, neatness, and voured to preserve Christianity by beauty of the grounds connected with connecting it with the state. Which its seventeen colleges; the magnificent was the wiser man we shall show public walks, shaded with the most hereafter. We shall now investigate stately and umbrageous elms, amidst the nature and power of the laws by green terraces and gently-flowing which God appointed Christianity his streams of water, skirted with verMoral Universe, to be preserved and | dant borders and occasional clumps reproduced through all time.
of well assorted shrubbery, lend enNottingham.
J. G. L. chantment to the scenes around the (To be continued.)
venerable piles of antique buildings
which constitute the chief of English LETTERS FROM EUROPE.
Universities. Nothing extrinsic of NO. XIX.
the institution itself struck me with MY DEAR CLARINDA-While in Lon- so much force as the excellent order don, I resolved to make a special visit and style in which the grounds, the to Cambridge and Oxford. Indeed, ap- trees, the parks, the flowers, and the pointments for me to deliver discourses buildings, are kept. I saw not the at these great seats of learning had been mark of a knife on tree or shrub, on published before I reached London: but door, or window, on all the premises on learning that it was vacation at of this much frequented and extensive both of them, and that Professors and institution. Not one pane of glass Masters of Colleges, as well as Stu- was broken, not one door or window dents, were all adrift and dispersed appeared to have been profaned by over the kingdom, I preferred to re- | the unhallowed touch of any insuborcruit my health by an excursion to dinate or reckless knight of the pocketFrance, and withdraw my appoint- | knife. Certainly, said I to myself, there ments to lecture at the Universities. I are no Yankees educatedat Cambridge. Still I determined to make a call, if These remarks, indeed, are mainly not a visit to them, and to survey both true of all the English and Scotch the buildings, the libraries, the lecture Colleges and Universities. In their rooms, and all that appertained to preservation and neatness in their them, hoping to find some of the Pro- freedom from outrage and abuse, they fessors or Fellows of some of the Col- are more like private residences of leges on the ground. It is, indeed, well bred and well educated gentlemen, but some sixty or seventy miles rail- | than public seminaries for young men