« PreviousContinue »
divinities and sacred animals. We humiliating, are found in these rooms, have wooden figures dug out of their of which it would be not only tedious, tombs. We have their bronze offer- but disgusting, either to write or ings-objects of private devotion, speak. porcelain and small figures of stone, The sacred animals of Egypt are as perforated for net-work and for neck- curious, imaginative, and barbarous laces for mummies. First of their as their deities. Among their sainted divinities stands Amen, or Amouenna, quadrupeds stand conspicuous the the Egyptian Jupiter on his throne, jackall, cynocephalus, or dog-headed with his cynocephali and lotus sceptre. baboon, decorated with a lunar disk; On his rear stands Amoun, between a wolf, a shrew mouse, an apis, and Rhons and Joh, another deity, in an ibex on one knee; a gazelle and sandstone, 71 feet high.
an ibex kneeling; lions couchant, a Of these gods we have many antique lion and a bull in one figure, sphinxes, figures. Thoth, or Thout, walking monkeys, cats, ramş, swine, hares, in a boat; Rhem, the Pan of the dogs, cows, mystic animals, head and Egyptians, and many others too neck of a viper, and the body of a tedious to tell. We have Net, or quadruped. Neith, their Minerva ; Sate, or Seti, Household furniture and other their Juno. We have them in every large objects; stools inlaid with position, and in every monstrous ivory, four-footed and three-footed; combination; their Chous, or Her- high-backed chairs, on lion-footed cules, with a lunar disk—a mystic legs; others double-backed, with lock of hair; another standing on seats of platted cord; concave seats, two crocodiles, with a jackall's and formed of four flat bars ; cushions, a ram's head, the back formed by the stuffed with feathers of water-fowl ; body and tail of a hawk; Athor, the three-legged tables or stands; model Egyptian Venus, -with head over- of a house, of a granary and yard, shadowed by a vulture supporting with a covered shed, in which a man the disk and horns; his body is a is seated ; in the yard a female mashrine placed upon a wheel of eight king bread. There are also vases, spokes, with a figure of her godship ampullæ, mirrors, combs, shoes, and dancing. Athor stands cow-headed, sandals, some with round and some with disk and plumes; Pasht, the with peaked toes; vases of all shapes Diana of Egypt, cat-headed, standing and sizes, some conical, others rein a striated garment, with an ægis sembling fruits, fish, lambs, gourds, in her left hand. Again, we have &c. ; spoons, chests, lamps, cups, this divinity standing, human and baskets, knives, tools, nails, musical hawk-headed, holding two swords, instruments, &c. reeds, or feathers, two hands passing To notice in detail a hundred other from the mouth to the shoulders. cases filled with various furniture, Many of these are standing in porce- agricultural implements, weapons, lain, green, blue, grey, variegated. fragments of tombs, coffins, boards, Taur, hippopotamus, standing on its inscriptions, instruments of writing, hind legs, with pendant arms, and painting, playthings, tools, weaving breasts of a female, back covered tools, mummies, animal and human ; with the tail of a crocodile ; a Pha- sepulchral ornaments, amulets, &c. raoh, too, standing, having on his would be to write a volume ; and forehead a place for the Uraeus. but for the guide furnished us in ma
We have given but a specimen of king our too hasty tour through this these Egyptian superstitions and Pa- miniature world, I could not, from gan idolatries. Hundreds of these, either my notes or my recollections, and other fancies equally gross and have given so much as I have done
in this letter with an accuracy to be the Chelonian, and Emydosaurian relied on.
reptiles. The gigantic Salamander, I shall only add a few remarks on of Scheuchzer's dissertation, belongs this grand national Museum, and dis- to the Batrachian race, first named. miss the subject. But on opening | One whole case is filled with the another page of my memoranda Ibones of the Iquanodon. In these discover, to me, one of the most inte- rooms are arranged the order Enalioresting departments of this grand re- sauria, or Sea Lizard, of which the pository of some of the remains of genera Plesiosaurus and Ichthyoworlds passed away. There is the saurus are principal types. These, collection of organic remains in room together with the casts of the Deinofirst, wholly pretermitted. In this, therium, a most gigantic quadruped, too, because of its relation to the found at Eppelsheim, including those science of geology, I took more inte- of the Megatherium, are amongst the rest than in any of the treasures of greatest curiosities in this Museum. the rooms already noted. I must In contemplating these huge lizards, state a few of its more prominent fos- inhabitants of climes that have been, sil treasures, vegetable and animal. but are not, and the casts of those And, first, of the vegetable.
| huge animals already named, to which These are not so valuable as the may be added the skeleton of the animal. There are in room 1st fos | American Mastodon, we cannot but sils of submerged Algae, Tucoides, assent to the revelations of geology, Conservites, &c. On some coal slate, and admit those deductions which in the same case, are displayed very assert the long series of ages that striking impressions of plants with passed away during the preparation verticillated leaves, usually called as- of the materials of our terraqueous terophyllites annularia, &c. There domicile, which were at the comare, besides these, some nondescripts, mencement of the present epoch, in whose nature is yet mysterious. a single week, new modified, deve
There are also calamites, of the loped, and replenished for the comspecies Equiseta. These come from fortable residence of man. the rocks of the coal formation of the I fear that these details will be highest antiquity. Ferns (filices) | rather tiresome than edifying to yourimpressions on the clay state of the self and others. My apology for carboniferous strata, and some speci- them is the large space that Egypt mens of the Lepedodendron. There holds in sacred and profane history; are also perfect specimens of the indeed, in the history of the literature, Clatharia Lyelli, from the Weldon, science, art, and religion of the world. with some remains of real Palmae. It was once the greatest, the most There are many beautiful specimens learned, and the most admired nation of polished fossil wood, found in the in the world. The place which it red sandstone formations of Saxony. occupies in the Louvre in Paris, and
Greenfield, Massachusetts, has con- in the British Museum, is in good tributed some recent red sandstone keeping with the large space it once formations, covered with very singular occupied in the esteem and admiration impressions of various dimensions, of mankind. resembling the feet of birds, called In the arts of architecture, sculpOrnithichnites. There are sundry ture, painting-in mathematics, astrospecimens in Room 2nd, not yet nomy, and hieroglyphics—in all that arranged.
pertains to the science of numbers, In Rooms 3rd and 4th are some magnitude, and proportion, they stand very interesting osseous remains of out upon the canvass of time the most reptiles. There are the Batrachian, 'prominent and remarkable people of all antiquity. Even the present re- pleased with high relief, and painted mains of their ancient greatness are all their works, whether of architecstill the wonder and the admiration ture or sculpture, with simple colors of the most enlightened of the human -white, black, red, blue, or yellow, race. The impression made by them as might please their tastes. on the family of Abraham-the long “The churches” called St. Paul's, continuance of the charms of their St. Peter's, and St. Germain's, are greatness—the bewitchery of their much more Egyptian than Christian, arts and idolatries on that wonderful so far as we can learn from the Bripeople, are amongst the most striking tish Museum, and from what is visible evidences of their former grandeur to those who visit them. In many and magnificence, and of the tran- respects we may be indebted to Egypt scendent influence of national great for her lessons in husbandry, general ness which can be adduced ; indeed, agriculture, architecture, sculpture, they are altogether unparalleled in and painting; but certainly she is the history of the world. . . no model for us either in the object,
So early as the Pyramids of the the manner, or the places of Christian fourth dynasty, beyond which we worship. When we look at her idols know little or nothing of architectural and her idolatries, but a meagre porart, and have no reliable record, the tion of which is found even in this Egyptians had attained a degree of most extensive and varied collection, perfection which has long been, and we can see nothing in them indicative yet is, the wonder of the world. In of any claim she can have upon our these most ancient pyramids our pre- admiration or imitation. On the sent distinguished architects discover contrary, she exhibits more than any evidences of an art exhibiting forms other nation the need of a divine of vast magnitude and of the most revelation, Egypt was at best the delicate and minute finish. They hot-bed of idols and idolatries, and see in the colossal proportions and therefore teaches a lesson which almagnificence of their plans the pri- most all mankind are slow to learn mordial elements of classic taste, and that the most gigantic strides and of those great achievements which advances in science and learning, and were the pride of Greece and Rome. in all arts both useful and ornamental, In the Egyptian columns of the 12th are quite impossible, without a single dynasty, they see the Doric architec- perception of a spiritual system or a ture in embryo development, and the spiritual religion. Men have meacapitals of the columns of the 18th sured the heavens a-la-mode de La dynasty are seen breaking forth in Place, or according to the pyramidal the lotus buds and flowers with which philosophers of Egypt: they have the architects of Egypt adorned their | erected pyramids of art, temples, alfirst efforts.
tars, and divinities ; still they have Their temples were rectangular, worshipped a crocodile, a sphinx, a with gateways and doors tapering to gryphon, a frog, an onion, or a fly. their summit. Their walls were We ought not, then, to imagine covered with sculpture, and their that there is any necessary connection approaches were filled with sphinxes between genius and religion, the fine or divinities. Both temples and arts and morality, philosophy and sepulchres were frequently cut out theology, national greatness and of solid rock, having their sides national goodness. There may be adorned with paintings and sculpture, a good taste without good sense, a indicative of events religious or his- religion without piety, and a refinetorical, as it happened to suit their ment without morality. But true taste. In sculpture, they were most piety and true humanity will always
impart true dignity and true happi- tion to the Father by one Spirit. ness to their possessor.
Now, then, ye are no longer strangers In much affection, your father, and sojourners, but fellow-citizens
A. CAMPBELL. with the saints and of the household
of God, having been built upon the THE COMMUNION OF SISTER
foundation of the apostles and proCHURCHES.
phets, Jesus Christ himself being the
foundation corner-stone, by which the The term “ sister churches” is in- whole building being fitly compacted tended to signify a number of com- together, rises into a holy temple of munities of the same faith and order, | the Lord, in which ye also are buildeach brought into avowed subjectioned together for a habitation of God to one common Lord, and to each by the Spirit. other in his fear. The churches plant- The Most High dwells not in temed by the Apostles, the ambassadors ples made with hands : He is a Spirit, of Jesus, were, for some considerable and has chosen the hearts of his peotime, of this character. Begotten by ple for his dwelling-place. Man is the truth, they were espoused to one the temple of God, wherein the perhusband, and became one body, pos- fections of Deity, in their beauty, sessing one spirit, and inspired by one greatness, and glory will be intellihope that of being collected together gently exhibited for ever. Thus saith by a resurrection from the dead into the Lord : heaven is my throne, the one body, and presented as a chaste earth is my footstool — what house virgin to Christ, to live and reign | will ye build for me ? hath not my with him for ever.
hand made all these things ? Unto This body, in the apostolic age, that man will I look, and with him consisted of Jews and Gentiles, the will I dwell, who is poor, of a broken former being a typical people, placed and contrite heart, and who trembleth under typical institutions, dwelling in at my word. Yes, the renewed, para typical land, and becoming the doned, and justified, are now the channel of divine communication to temple of God. "I will dwell in a dark and benighted world—while them, and walk in them ; they shall the latter existed for ages without be my people, and I will be their the truth, strangers to the covenants God.” These parties, while in their of promise made with Abraham and pilgrimage state, are addressed as in with David, having no hope and with the dispersion-scattered in the east, out God in the world. But now, in in the west, in the north, and in the the gospel age, those who were afar south. The territory of Christ's kingoff are brought nigh by the blood of dom is now as extensive as that of Christ, for he is our peace who has Satan, embracing the whole world. made both one, and has broken down Still the members are one body under the middle wall of separation, having Christ, brethren of the same family, abolished by his flesh the enmity, and shall finally be presented a glo(the law of commandments concern- rious church, not having spot or ing ordinances) that he might make wrinkle, defilement or deformity, or the two into one new man under him- any such thing. self, making peace, and might recon- | | If such be the present relationship cile both to God in one body through and future prospects of the body of the cross, having slain the enmity by Christ, surely there ought to be in it. And having come, he brought existence a union, and co-operation good news of peace to you (Gentiles) in righteousness, purity, and peace, the far-off — to us, the nigh; that among the disciples of Jesus, correthrough him we both have introduc- sponding with the nature of that truth
by which they have been called out him, and does not keep his commandof darkness into this marvellous light. ments, is a liar, and the truth is not
The apostles, when writing the dif | in this man. But whoever keeps his ferent epistles to the churches, never word, truly in this man is the love of failed to recognize one common bro- God perfected. By this we know therhood in the body of Christ. The that we are in him. He who says he instructions thus imparted to an in- abides in him, ought himself so to dividual community were intended walk even as he walked.” for the good of all. Hence, observe That there was constant interthe following testimonies :-“ For as communion and co-operation, as well in one body we have many members, as personal attachment, among the so we, the many, are one body under first congregations, must be apparent Christ, and individually members of to all who are acquainted with the one another.” “ Paul, a called apos- | New Testament, and the history of tle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, the churches for the first century. and Sosthenes the brother, to the There existed a sisterhood of churches church of God which is in Corinth, which corresponded, though not persanctified by Christ Jesus, called fectly, with the united relationship saints, with all in every place who into which the disciples had been invoke the name of our Lord Jesus brought by the gospel. This comChrist," &c. “ Paul, an apostle of munion, or brotherhood of saints, was Jesus Christ, by the will of God, and manifested by Jesus and his apostles, Timothy the brother, to the church and is one of the legitimate fruits of of God which is in Corinth, together the Holy Spirit. This unity of spirit with all the saints who are in all is to be kept by the bond of peaceAchaia,” &c. “And when this epis- | the Bible. tle has been read to you, cause that it The great and almost insurmountbe read also in the congregation of the able difficulty with which the apostles Laodiceans, and that ye read the one had to contend, was that of bringing from Laodicea,” &c. Without mul- Jews and Gentiles, of every name tiplying quotations, it must be obvious and class, into a mutual state of unato all, that in the primitive churches nimity and love ; indeed, we have there was, for a time at least, a mutual sometimes questioned if, at any period confidence, union, love, and co-ope- of the church's hisiory, this unanimity ration, with submission one to ano- has been realized in a manner, or to ther in the fear of God, of which we the extent, contemplated by the Spirit know but little in the present day. of God in the Christian system. Jesus When divisions took place among came to reconcile the world to the them, the causes were the same as at love of God, as well as to reconcile the present time. It was something man to man. But where must we pleaded for contrary to, or not em- | look for a perfect picture, a full exbibodied in, the doctrine received from bition, of this love among men ? the apostles. The fountain-head of Certainly it was not realized, in the this is ignorance and unbelief—then fullest sense, on the Day of Pentecost, follow carnality of mind, unrighteous- nor at any subsequent period in the ness of principle, disaffection of heart, city of Jerusalem, inasmuch as none and disobedience to divine commands, but Jews and Jewish proselytes were when separation becomes inevitable. then admitted into the congregation “ He that hath my commandments of disciples. All was not then deand keepeth them, he it is that loveth veloped in this new creation : it was me. By this we know that we have but the commencement, the infancy known him, if we keep his command of the kingdom of heaven. The sysments. He who says, I have known tem was subsequently perfected, em