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so as to be called Death, by reason of Gothicus ; seeing, after that little his throwing so many into Hades, or interval, their brethren were also to the future state, by immature deaths. suffer still further under Rome Pagan Where we have a very remarkable --viz. under Aurelian, and afterwards account of the state of the Roman (when the short reigns of Tacitus, empire after the decease of the brave Probus, Carus, and Carinus should Antoninus Philosophus, under the be over) under the cruel persecution barbarities of Commodus, the short- raised against them by Dioclesian and lived reigns of Pertinax and Didius Maximianus, elder and younger, toJulianus, but especially under the gether with Severus and Maximinus. bloody Septimus Severus, in his wars So that this seal ends with the conagainst Persennius Nigerius, Albinus, clusion of this last persecution, begun and others, and under his son Cara- by Dioclesian, and so expires A.D. 306. calla ; and afterwards under Macri- The sixth seal (chap. vi. 12-17) nus, Heliogabulus, (the reign of the gives us an account of God's graexcellent Alexander Severus being cious answer, at length, to the but a short breathing to the empire prayer of the slain witnesses, in and the Christians) Maximinus, and the destruction of Rome Pagan, after his son Pupienus, Balbinus and Gor their cup was made full by the last dianus, and Philippus and his son- cruel persecution; and this is dewith whose death, I think, this seal scribed as if heaven and earth were runs out in the year 250. And come to an end. For so the prophets with the death of these Phillippi, who use to represent the ruin of kingdoms favored Christianity, the four evan- and monarchies, as we see among gelical living creatures (which our other places (Jer. iv. 24, Isa. xiii. translation renders Beasts, most un- | 10, and xxiv. 21-23, Joel ii. 10.) So accountably) cease to speak openly. that this seal contains the great and
The fifth seal, therefore, discovers terrible wars of Constantine the Great the state of the Christian church to be against all those last tyrants, from the exceedingly languishing and melan-year 306 to the death of the last Pacholy, as if the saints were all slain, gan emperor Licinius, A.D. 324. praying and crying for vengeance The seventh seal, therefore, repreagainst their persecutors, while they sents the short breathing of the church are represented as lying under the (chap. viii. 1) and peace of the Chrisaltar (chap. vi. 9, 10, 11.) So that tians under Constantine, from the this period begins with Decius, the year 313, when he first published an first universal persecutor of Christians edict in their favor; and particularly (for all the former persecutions under from the death of Licinius, A.D. 324 Nero, Domitian, Trajan, and the An- to his own decease in the year 337, tonines, were but provincial ones, and immediately upon which the scene that of Maximinus against the minis- alters : and then begins ters only) who began his reign and The second septenary of trumpets, persecution together in the year 250, which gives us an account of the state and was seconded in it by Valerian of the church, in relation to the gra(for the short reigns of Trebonianus, dual growth and increase of her antiGallus, and Æmilianus, hardly de- christian enemies, though in a way serve to be taken notice of in this also of judgment upon them—which case.) Now the souls of the martyrs I represent to you in the following are desired to rest patiently until the series and order : confused reign of Galienus should The first trumpet (chap. vii. 7) run out, and the thirty tyrants that began a little after Constantine's rose in his time should be cut off, to-death, in the wars between his eldest gether with the short-lived Claudius and youngest son, or at the death of
the first in battle, and of the last by wood, because of the bitter trials this the usurpation of Magnentius, which brought upon the empire. For the was a kind of mixed storm of hail, Ostro-Goths planted themselves in fire, and blood. The continuance of Italy, and reigned as arbitrarily as it was in the persecutions against the the emperors had ever done. So orthodox by Constantius and Valens, that this period began with the kingwith the intervention of that against dom of the Ostro-Goths, A.D. 476, all Christians by Julian, the apostate. and ended with it, A.D. 553. And the conclusion of it seems to be the The fourth trumpet (chap. viii. 12) usurpation of Maximus, upon the brings yet further desolations on death of Gratianus, and afterwards Rome, by darkening its splendour the death of Valentinian the Second, and glory, represented by the eclipand finally the wars and death of sing of the sun, for a third part of it, Theodosius; so that it began with and the moon and stars also in a like the year 339, and ended A.D. 395. manner; by which we are to under
The second trumpet (chapter viii. stand, no doubt, the decay of the 8, 9) represents a great kingdom, imperial power and authority in the under the emblem of a mountain (see West by the Lombards, and the Jer. li. 25), burning with fire (i. e. in Exarchat afterwards. So that this a cruel and fierce manner), and thrown trumpet lasted from the year 568 to into the midst of the body politic, or the year 758, when Pepin made the empire of Rome, represented by the Pope, in a manner, king of Rome sea (see chap. xviii. 15), by which (who, in requital of his kindness, gave the third part of it became blood; by his son, Charlemange, the empty title which we are, unquestionably, to of Emperor of Rome, making thus understand the irruption of the bar- the succeeding western empire an barous nations of the Vandals and image of the ancient one, Rev. xiii. Goths into the Roman dominions. 14, 15), by which both the power of This began about the death of Theo- the Lombards, of the Exarchat, and dosius, and made a formidable pro- the Emperors did, as it were, termigress (A.D. 405) in the days of nate in him; and as the Exarchat Arcadius and Honorius, by Rada- ended A.D. 752, so the Lombards gisus, and afterwards Alarieus, who were totally expelled Italy a little took Rome (A.D. 410); and it was after-viz. 773. continued during the inroads of
(To be continued.) Athaulphus the Goth (who pillaged the great city, A.D. 414), and of ANECDOTES, INCIDENTS, Gensericus the Vandal, and of Attila
AND FACTS, the Hun into Italy, and other Roman
CONNECTED WITH THE ORIGIN AND provinces, which they and others
PROGRESS OF THE CURRENT REabout that time wasted miserably, to
FORMATION, SOME OF WHICH HAVE the year 355, and afterwards to the
NEVER BEEN BEFORE PUBLISHED. year 476.
NO. I. The third trumpet (chap. viii. 10,11) doth plainly represent the destruction The greatest changes in nature of the Western empire, by a star and society are frequently not only falling from the heaven of its glory, the results of causes remote in themas a burning lamp. For after it had selves, but of instruments, agencies, struggled with its fatal destiny, under and events, exceedingly feeble and the obscure Cæsars, Avitus Major- small compared with the magnitude, anus, Severus, &c. it did at length importance, and grandeur of the reexpire with Augustulus (A.D. 475 or sults. The dreams of Joseph, and 476.) This star was called Worm- I the exposure of Moses in an ark of
bulrushes, were, in themselves, mat- of the world. And so in a single ters of trivial importance. Yet, great truth, placed in a proper atticonstituted as the world is, the des- tude before the mind, may sometimes tinies of all mankind are more or less be found the cause of momentous directly or indirectly connected with changes, not only in a single indivithese events. Time, in its mighty dual, but in great masses of mankind; career, and eternity, in its grand and indeed, in nations and generations of awful developments, may yet show men. that, in the mysterious schemes of The question has been often proDivine Providence and moral go- pounded to me-How came you by vernment, the whole human race your present views of the Christian may, in the epocha of time, be much religion ? Are they original, or deaffected by these very trifling and rived ? If original, by what process apparently contingent events. of reason? If derived, from what
Had Joseph not been sold a slave authority or source? These are into Egypt, the Israelites had never questions of but little consequence to sojourned there; the arts and learn- any individual. The capital question ing of the Egyptians, together with is, are they well founded ? their idolatry, would not have given There are no new discoveries in character and destiny to the Jewish Christianity. It is as old as the people. The Exodus and all its sacred writings of the apostles and miracles had never occurred; human evangelists of Jesus Christ. Our history would never have been what whole religion, objectively and docit now is, or what it will hereafter be. trinally considered, is found in a If Carthage had conquered Rome, book. Nothing discovered by any and not Rome Carthage, who could man that has lived since John wrote now declare what might have been, the Apocalypse is of any virtue in or what might yet be, the condition religion ; nay, indeed, is no part or of the world ? If the elector of parcel of Christianity. All that can Saxony had not patronised Luther, now be pretended or aimed at, by or if a sale of indulgencies had not any sane mind, is the proper interroused into action the mighty ener-pretation of what is written in Hegies of his soul, what of Protestantism brew and Greek, and translated into would there have been in its present all the modern languages in the forms ?
civilized world. Whatever in ChrisNewton's observation of a falling tianity is new is not true. Whatever apple, Franklin's reflections upon a is true is contained in the commonly thunder cloud, the Marquis of Wor- received and acknowledged books cester's speculations on steam, the our Old and New Testaments, or conjectures of Columbus on a new covenants. Philology, and not phicontinent, &c. &c. have changed the losophy; history, and not fable ; condition of mankind, and given new reason, and not imagination; common sciences and new arts to the world. sense, and not genius, are essential
The beginnings of all things are to the perception, and candor and both small and weak. Yes, the oak honesty to the reception, of the gospel is in the acorn, the giant in the em- of Christ and its spiritual privileges bryo, and the destinies of the world and honors. in the fortunes of an individual. The But how were you led to interpret character of a nation sometimes takes the scriptures differently, and to teach its color from that of an individual. and practise differently from what Hence the ambition of a Cæsar, or a you once thought, believed, and praco Napoleon, gives laws to nations, dis- tised ? Well, as these may be useful solves and reorganizes the kingdoms I to others, I will answer the question by the narration of a few incidents, express precept for, or precept of, anecdotes, some of which, never be- infant baptism?” “Not one, sir," fore published, may be of use to responded the Doctor. I was startled, others, and lead them to a new mode and mortified that I could not produce of thinking and acting, as well as of one. He withdrew. Turning round enjoying the Christian religion. to Mr. Andrew Munroe, the principal
I will go no further back than my bookseller of Jefferson College, Canarrival in the United States in 1809, nonsburgh, Pa. who heard the conand note a few matters very trivial versation : “Send me, sir, if you in appearance, but important in their please, forthwith, all the treatises bearing and results.
you have in favour of infant bapThe first proof sheet that I ever tism.” He did so. Disclaiming the read was a form of MY FATHER'S DE | Baptists as “an ignorant and uneduCLARATION AND ADDRESS, in press cated population,” as my notions were, in Washington, Pennsylvania, on my I never inquired for any of their books arrival there in October, 1809. There or writings. I knew John Bunyan's were in it the following sentences : Pilgrim's Progress, and had often “ Nothing ought to be received into read it; but I knew not at that time the faith or worship of the Church, that he was a Baptist. or be made a term of communion All the members of the “Washamongst Christians, that is not as old ington Christian Association,” whose as the New Testament. Nor ought “Declaration and Address” my father any thing to be admitted as of Divine had then written, were not only all obligation, in the Church constitution Pedo-baptists, but the most leading and management, but what is ex- and influential persons in it were pressly enjoined by the authority of hostile to the Baptist views and our Lord Jesus Christ and his Apos- practice. So to work I went to tles upon the New Testament Church, maintain my positions in favor of either in express terms or by approved infant baptism. I read much during precedent." These last words, “ ex- one year on the subject. I was better press terms” and “ approved prece pleased with Presbyterianism than dent” made a deep impression on my with any thing else, and desired, if mind, then well furnished with the possible, to maintain it. But despite popular doctrines of the Presbyterian of my prejudices, partialities and proschurch in all its branches. While pects, the conviction deepened and there was some ambiguity about this strengthened that it was all a grand “approved precedent,” there was none Papal imposition. I threw away the about “express terms." Still a precc- Pedobaptist volumes with indignation dent, I alleged, might be in “express at their assumptions and fallacious terms,” and a good precedent might reasonings, and fled, with some faint not be clearly approved or expressly hope of finding something more constated by apostles or evangelists with vincing, to my Greek New Testament. approbation.
But still worse. I found no resting While reasoning with myself and place there ; and entering into converothers on these matters, I accidentally sation with my father on the subject, fell in with Dr. Riddle, of the Pres- he admitted there was neither express byterian Union church, and intro- terms nor express precedent. But, duced the matter to him. “ Sir,” | strange to tell, he took the ground that said he, “ these words, however plau- once in the church, and a participant sible in appearance, are not sound; of the Lord's supper, we could not for if you follow out these, you must “unchurch or paganize ourselves ;" become a Baptist.” “Why, sir,” said put off Christ and then make a new I, “is there, in the scriptures, no profession, and commence again as would a heathen man and a pub- | on a former occasion, heard him lican.
preach, but not on that subject, I Having the highest esteem for his asked him into what formula of faith learning, and the deepest conviction of he immersed ? His answer was, that his piety and devotion to the truth, his “the Baptist church required candiauthority over me then was para- dates to appear before it, and on a mount and almost irresistible. We narration of their experience, apwent into discussion. He simply con-proved by the church, a time and ceded, that we ought not to teach nor place were appointed for the bappractice infant baptism without Divine tism." authority ; but, on the contrary, preach To this I immediately demurred, and administer the apostolic baptism. saying, that I knew no scriptural Still, however, we ought not to un- authority for bringing a candidate christianize ourselves and put on for baptism before the church to be Christ, having not only professed and examined, judged, and approved by preached the Christian faith, but also it, as prerequisite to his baptism. To participated in its solemn rites. We which he simply responded, “ It was discussed this question, and all that the Baptist custom." But was it, family of questions, at sundry inter- said I, the apostolic custom ? He views, for many months. At length did not contend that it was, admitting I told him that, with great reluctance, freely that such was not the case from I must dissent from all his reasonings the beginning. “But,” added he, upon that subject and be baptized." if I were to depart from our usual I now fully and conscientiouly believed custom, they might hold me to account that I never had been baptized, and, before the Association.” “Sir," I consequently, I was then, in point of replied, “there is but one confession fact, an unbaptized person ; and hence of faith that I can make, and into could not consistently preach a bap- that alone can I consent to be baptism to others, of which I had never tized.” “What is that?” said he. been a subject myself.
| “Into the belief that Jesus is the His response was, “I have, then, Christ, the confession into which the no more to add; you must please first converts were immersed. I have yourself.” On leaving me in the set out to follow the apostles of Christ morning, he asked me when, where, and their master, and I will be bapand by whom I intended to be im- tized only into the primitive Christian mersed? As to the place, I preferred faith.” to be baptized near home, among After a short silence, he replied, those who were accustomed to attend saying, “I believe you are right, and my preaching; as to the time, just as I will risk the consequences; I will soon as I could procure an accept-get, if possible, one of our Redstone able Baptist minister. The nearest, preachers to accompany me. Where and, indeed, the only one known to do you desire to be baptized ?” “In me, was Elder Matthias Luse, living Buffalo creek, on which I live, and some thirty miles from my resi- on which I am accustomed to preach. dence. I promieed to let my father My Presbyterian wife," I added, know the time and place as soon as “ and, perhaps, some others, will I obtained the consent of Elder Luse. accompany me.”
Immediately I went in quest of an 1 On the day appointed, Elder Henry administrator, of one who practised Spears, from the Monongahela, and what he preached. I spent the next Matthias Luse, according to promise, evening with Elder Luse. During met us at the place appointed. It the evening I announced my errand. was on the 12th of June, 1812, a He heard me with pleasure. Having, beautiful day; a large and attentive