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distinct narration, just as prepared died for our sins according to the by its Divine Author, for universal scriptures, and that he was buried, aceeptance. It should never be for- and that he rose again according to gotten that the Apostles and first the scriptures.” And it is by repreachers of the gospel had no Bibles, ceiving and retaining in heart and and not even a New Testament, to life these simple facts, so universally distribute ; and that there was no accredited by the variant parties, that such thing among the early Christians as he affirms, men are “ saved." as a formal union upon the “Bible And the great confession of faith realone.” Nay, rather, it was a union quired of the penitent believer, is that upon the Gospel alone ; for in those of the Treasurer of Queen Candace : days the gospel possessed identity, “ I believe that Jesus Christ is the and enjoyed a distinct and determinate Son of God.” This is the comprecharacter. It was then recognized pensive saying which involves within as the substitute for all previous insti- it, as it were, the whole of Christitutions, as complete in itself, and as anity. This is the Rock on which being the very “power of God to our Lord declared he would build his salvation” to every one who be- church. And why should not all lieved it.

agree as co-workers to build upon There can be no doubt that the this Rock ? This is the tried, the gospel should now be regarded in the sure corner-stone of congregational same light, and be suffered to occupy and Christian union, and all may rest the same position. The same sim- assured that no other foundation can plicity which fits it to the understand-be laid than that which is already laid ing of the illiterate, may well secure Jesus Christ the Lord. Let the the admiration of the erudite ; and “ Bible alone" then, be our exhaustthe same comprehensiveness of an- less treasury of religious knowledge, punciation which involves every thing and to its sacred pages let us continunecessary to Christian faith, fits it to ally resort, that we may be enriched be the basis of Christian union. That from its accumulated stores of divine alone which saves men, can unite truth. Let the Bible be our spiritual them. That faith which the gospel library ; but let the Gospel be our requires of sinners, is the faith which standard of orthodoxy. Let the Bible should unite saints. That confession be our test of Christian character and upon which the believing penitent perfection ; but let the Christian conmay be admitted to the blessings fession be our formula of Christian which Christianity confers, should be adoption and of Christian union. In the only authorized test of orthodoxy, a word, let the Bible be to us every and the only rallying cry amongst the thing designed by its Author ; but hosts of the redeemed. Now the let « Christ crucified” be not only gospel, as defined by Paul, consists of our peace with God, but our peace the following facts :-" That Christ/ with one another.

R. R.

ETERNITY OF ACTION. EXCEPTING freedom from sin, intense, Isaiah hung up their barps, useless as the vigorous, untiring action, is the mind's high- dusty arms in Westminster Abbey ? Has est pleasure. I would not wish to go to hea-Paul, glowing with god-like enthusiasm,

ceased itinerating the universe of God? Are ven, did I believe that its inhabitants were Peter an

Peter, and Cyprian, and Luther, and Edto sit inactive by purling streams, to be wards, idling away eternity in mere psalmfanned into indolent slumbers by balmy singing ? Heaven is a place of activity, of breezes ! Heaven, to be a place of happiness never-tiring thought. Reader, press on, must be a place of activity. Has the far- you will never get through. An eternity of reaching mind of Newton rested from its pro- untiring activity is before you, and the unifound investigations ? Have David and Iverse of thought your field.”

26

LONDON, June 26, 1847. MY DEAR CLARINDA—In the contemporary minds in the improveUnited States we have nothing an- ments of the current age, as in concient except the everlasting hills and templating the works of our fathers mountains. These, indeed, are monu- in ages long since passed away. The ments of ancient grandeur ; but it is portion of England through which I the grandeur of Nature and not of have recently passed, I am glad to Art. We have also many an ancient say, has afforded me much gratificariver, on whose time-worn banks are tion of this sort. In the cities of inscribed the records of many a flood, Chester, Shrewsbury, Nottingham, which for thousands of years and and Leicester—not now to name this thousands of miles, carried the rains city of many generations, this vast of heaven and the exuviæ of forests London-I have found something of and of hills into the shoals and estua- Roman, and much of British, Saxon, ries that have been for ages entrenching and Norman antiquity. True, these upon the dominions of ancientNeptune. are not as grey and as venerable as We have also many a broad lake, those of Roman, Grecian, or Chinese and many a wide extended plain, traditions : still to me they are more whose antiquities reach beyond all interesting, because there is more of the epochs of chronology and all the that important personage, Oneself, in dialects of men. But we have no them, than in those of other kindreds, ruins of ancient temples and palaces tongues, and people. I will, therefore, -no mouldering altars-no fallen give you a few extracts from my towers-no vanquished castles, on memorandum book, being desirous which are written the superstitions not so much to direct your mind into of extinct tribes, or the bloody deeds this channel as that of the younger of rival nations contending for the branches of my family. empire of the world. But here it is And first of Chester, the venerable quite otherwise. Scarce a city whose metropolis of the county palatine of origin reaches not into the ages of Cheshire, situated on the beautiful fable and romance, scarce a mountain bank of the Dee, whose mouth you or a hill on whose surface stands not passed as you marked the boundaries some monument of ancient superstition, of Wales and England in the Channel or some memento of battles fought while aproaching the Mersey and and of victories won.

Liverpool. The origin of Chester is Having either in my nature or my lost in the depths of remote antiquity. education, I cannot now find time to It is more probably of British than of decide in which, or whether in both, Roman origin. The Romans called a certain love of the ancient, a pas-it Deva, from the Dee, and afterwards sion or a taste for deeds of former Cestriæ, Castrium, a camp, and Casttimes-developments of ancestorial rum Legsonis, being the camp of the mind, proofs of genius and of art, Legion. It was, indeed, the camp of especially of those from whom I must the twentieth Legion, stationed here have derived much of that which A. D. 61, called “ The Victorious." reconciles me to myself ; much of It was certainly a Roman colony that on account of which a man would before Agricola's expedition to Scotnot barter himself for any other self land. There is a tower, or the rein the world, I have spent my hours mains of a tower, yet standing, called of recreation not so much in contem- Julius Cesar's ; more properly, howplating what is now, as in searching ever, as some think, Julius Agricola's. into that which is old ; not so much It was relinquished by the Romans in in admiring the developments of the 6th century, and falling into the

hands of the British princes, continued quarters, and one hundred and twentytheirs till about the Saxon conquest one yards. This, I learn, “is the in 607.

only entire specimen of ancient forI will not more than allude to the tification in Great Britain.” The battles fought here for religion and present form of the walls is strictly politics from the year 585, when it Roman. They are carefully preserved became part of the Saxon kingdom, by the corporation of the city. They till 886, when it was dissolved by attest their Roman origin. Their Alfred. Two and twenty kings reigned sides have yet the Roman propugnaover it during these three centuries.culum, or bastion, to annoy an enterHenry III. created his eldest son ing army ; and between them stands Earl of Chester ; Richard II. erected the portcullis, or cataract, ready to it into a principality, adding to his drop in case an enemy should force titles Princeps Cestriæ. It was re- the gates. duced into a county palatine, again Every thing about here is built of abridged by Henry VIII. and finally red sand-stone, and that of a very abolished.

| brittle character. This gives to ChesChristianity was introduced here ter and its walls, its battlements, its by the family of Caractacus, who towers, and its churches, a very anpropagated it among the British tribes, cient and venerable appearance. The several Christians being among the four gates of the city, looking to the Roman soldiers and citizens. It was, four cardinal points, have, with some therefore, introduced here sometime of their very ancient churches, been in the last half of the first century. re-builded, as I learn from their Ro

The Saxons drove the British into man inscriptions, within more or less Wales, whither Christianity receded than one century. Every where you after their invasion. Because St. see the mouldering ruins of ancient Augustine converted the Anglo- magnificence. Saxons to the Christianity of Rome Were it not foreign to my purpose, in the sixth century, it is alleged that I would attempt the description of the church of Rome first planted the churches of this ancient city. But Christianity in this island. But this since at Chester, I see so much of is fabulous. The ancient Britons antiquity and of ruins, that I dare not refused the religion of Augustine, attempt it. My notes would not be retired into Wales, and never ac- so interesting or so useful. Their knowledged his spiritual jurisdiction. time and water-worn dilapidated conDr. Bird was the first proper Bishop dition and appearance, occasioned inof Chester, who, because of his con- deed by the frail texture of the red formity to the Protestant faith, was sandstone of this country, would lead deposed by Queen Mary. He was one to think that instead of hundreds succeeded by the persecuting Cotis they were thousands of years old. and by Cuthbert Scott, who had a The oldest ruins of church architechand in burning Bucer's bones at ture in Chester is that of St. John. Cambridge. Queen Elizabeth de- I spent an hour in wandering through posed Scott, Cotis having, after he its extensive walls and prostrate had washed his hands in the blood of splendour. It was founded, accordone martyr, soon made his exit. ing to Girardus, A.D. 509, by Ethel

From these notices of the ancient dred, King of Mercia ; and without history of Chester, we enter its ven- the portions of it yet standing and erable walls. It is entirely surrounded used for worship, I saw some of the with a very antique wall, on which finest specimens of Saxon architecture is a flagged walk, some six feet wide. in the kingdom. The whole circuit is one mile three The cathedral, indeed, demands a passing notice. It is an immense (lumns and spacious fronts, in symmetSaxon pile. Its external length is rical correspondence with each other 372 feet ; its internal 350 feet. Its and with the whole, produce the nave, or broad aisle, 175 feet ; its finest effect, and constrain the most choir, 110; the height of its ceiling, skilful and tasteful amateurs to give 73 ; and its tower, 127 feet high. Its it the preference to any thing of the vestry is of Norman style. Its choir kind in the kingdom. stands separated from the nave by a But a few notices of its history is rich Gothic stone screen, above which more important and more full of inis placed the organ. Yet so furrow-struction than any thing we could ed and wasted are its outside walls say of its architecture. Chester is and whole exterior, as if torrents had famous in history for the visits of the for ages run down its sides, that one kings of England, and the visitations of large caution would, with some of the King of kings. hesitancy, for the first time at least, The Welsh prince Llewellyn, one commit his person within its massive of whose family has been pressman roof and mouldering towers. in my printing-office for some fifteen

But in noticing the dilapidated re- years, as early as 1255, with his Welsh mains of ecclesiastic architecture, in army, marched to the gates of Chester, every ruin of which around Chester carrying the unacceptable offerings of an antiquary will find something to fire and sword to the citizens. Prince interest him, I must not omit to note Edward the next year made a more the Castle of Chester, said to have acceptable visit. In 1264, in the been founded by William the Con- wars with the Barons, the city and queror in 1016. It was formerly the castle fell into their hands. In 1276 palace of the local monarchs, and and 1277, Edward I. visited it ; but their strong hold of defence. Within neither then would the stern Llewellyn, the precincts yet stand several towers then Prince of Wales, do him homage. of Norman architecture. Of these, Edward visits it again for a whole the most handsome and interesting is month in 1282. He brought his called Julius Cæsar's Tower. Its Queen with him, and spent a few entrance is through a Gothic door of days in 1283, and twice afterwards more recent workmanship. It stands, called at Chester. In 1312, Edward indeed, in humble contrast with the II. met Piers de Gaveston at this chaste and classic specimens of modern city. In 1390, Henry of Lancaster, architecture around it. The Castle at war with Richard II. placed his of Chester is now as much distin-army under its walls. Henry VII. guished for its fine display of varied with his Queen and mother, visited architecture, as for its ancient remains Chester in 1494. In 1617, James I. of Saxon and Norman magnificence. made a splendid visit to Chester. In In approaching it, one might imagine 1642, Charles, who, on the 25th of he was about to enter the Acropolis August, this year, hoisted his standard of Athens. The entrance, more than at Nottingham, visited this ancient one hundred feet by thirty-five, is the city. In 1687, James II. and in finest specimen of the purest Doric. 1690 king William sojourned in ChesOpposite to it stands the shire hall, ter. William was then on his way whose splendid front, with its massive to reduce Ireland. In 1810, the pillars and splendid portico, of the Prince of Orange, and in 1817, the most chaste and beautiful Ionic style, Grand Duke Nicholas of Russia, splendidly ornamented in stucco, to- visited this city. . gether with the side buildings for the But the sword, pestilence, and facivil and military institutions of the mine have also visited Chester. In country, with their Corinthian co-1465 a dreadful slaughter of the peopeople of Chester and of Wales oc- God to man, and the effect of men's curred here because of misunderstand- actions upon themselves and their ings between them and Reginald ap families. Griffith ap Bleddwyn, who, after car- As an instance of a very special rying the day, took prisoner the Mayor providence found in the annals of of Chester and hung him in the Tower. Chester, I will relate a well authenIn 1507 a pestilence, called “the ticated story found in the records of sweating sickness,” broke out amongst Chester :-“In the year 1558, Dr. the males of Chester. Ninety-one Henry Cole, Dean of St. Paul's, was householders fell in three days, and charged by Queen Mary, of bloody yet only four females died of the memory and of Papistical piety, with disease during the visitation. This a commission to the Council of Ireplague again broke out in 1517. Such land, which had for its object the was the mortality, that the city was persecution of the Irish Protestants. in a great measure deserted of its in- The Doctor stopped for a night at habitants, insomuch that “ the grass Chester, on his way to Dublin, and grew a foot high at the Cross, and in put up at the BLUE Posts, a house other streets of the city.” In 1550 now occupied by W. Brittain. This the same “ sweating sickness” again house was then kept by a Mrs. Motvisited Chester, and was followed by tershead. In this house he was visited a great scarcity of food-corn selling by the Mayor, to whom, in the course at 16s. (or four dollars per bushel.) of conversation, he related his errand This plague returned in 1602, and to Dublin ; in confirmation of which continued to the end of 1605, with he took out of his cloak bag a leather few intermissions. Not less than six box, exclaiming in a tone of exultahundred and fifty died of this pesti- tion, “Here is what will lash the lence in 1603, and in the next year heretics of Ireland !” This announcenine hundred and eighty-six-fifty- ment was caught by the landlady, five dying weekly. Siege and the who had a brother in Dublin ; and pestilence in 1647 again depopulated while the commissioner was escorting the city. Two thousand and ninety- His Worship down stairs, the good nine died of the plague, and the mul- woman, prompted by an affectionate titude fled, so that again the streets regard for the safety of her brother, were covered with grass, and desola- opened the box, took out the commistion triumphed. From that day to sion, and placed in lieu thereof a pack the present the pestilence has not of cards, with the knave of clubs visited Chester.

uppermost. This the Doctor packed Such are a few of the dispensations up without suspecting the transformaof Providence preserved in the history tion of his commission ; nor was the of Chester. From these we may deception discovered till his arrival learn that nations and cities, like in the presence of the Lord Deputy private families, in a series of years, and Privy Council at the Castle of pass through numerous and various Dublin. The surprise of the whole changes, indicative of the instability assembly, on opening the supposed of all human affairs, and of a very commission, may be more easily imaspecial providence presiding over the gined than described. The Doctor, destinies of man. Had we as detailed in short, was immediately sent back and as protracted a history of almost for a more satisfactory authority ; but any city in this kingdom as we have before he could return to Ireland, of Chester, what a fund of useful ma- Queen Mary had breathed her last. terial for grave reflection would it It is added that the ingenuity and afford to those that are curious to affectionate zeal of the landlady were learn and comprehend the ways of rewarded by Elizabeth with a pension

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