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sophy,” and claims the old sciences. The science of Pneumatology, or of of Optics, Dioptrics, Catoptrics, Pneu- spiritual existence, is as comprehensive matics, Hydrostatics ; it takes the as Astronomy. But as in Physics, fossils, the minerals, the metals, the so in Pneumatology. After speaking earths, the salts, the atmosphere itself, of Astronomy, we take our earth, on the solids, the gases of our earth, which, and from which, to reason under its care and keeping. Plants astronomically ; so, after speaking of and animals are not wholly beyond Pneumatology, we take man, on whom, its assumptions. Such is the seventh and from whom, to reason pneumatoof the first series, or the last verse of logically. For in man alone, of all the first chapter of the science of physical beings, is there a distinct sciences.
and an unequivocal portion of a spiSuch, my young friends, is the pro- ritual system. But this view exhibits cess of reasoning from which sprang man as the subject of many sciences. the division of Physics into Astronomy, Of all the physical sciences he is a Geology, Geometry, Mineralogy, Bo-part and portion, and he is himself tany, Zoology, and Chemistry. I the engrossing theme of a respectable wish you to bear in mind that man, number. His animal and human in his physical constitution, belongs nature, in the hands of the Physician, to the science of Zoology ; and, under make him the subject of many sciences this head, we may, perhaps, contem- -such as anatomy, physiology, osteplate him at some other time. lology, neurology, nosology, pathology,
2. Metaphysics are not confined and pharmacology. to any kingdom of nature, not even Besides these, in the hands of the to the material universe ; but in their Jurisconsult he becomes the subject daring and presumptuous flight, spe- of the science of politics, of jurispruculate on time, space, and eternity— dence, of municipal, civil, and crimion being, truth, and goodness-on nal law. In the hands of the TheoGod, angels, and demons—on moral logian he is also the subject of the good and evil—on free agency and canon law, the ecclesiastical law, the necessity-on mind and matter-on moral law, and the Christian law. thought and language. We have the His perceptive, reflective, affective, metaphysics of every science—such communicative, and mechanical powas speculative theology, speculative ers, make him the exclusive subject of morality, speculative language, specu- the science of the sciences of phrelative philosophy, &c. &c.
nology, grammar, logic, rhetoric, me3. Mechanics. Trigonometry, chanics, ethics, and religion. Mensuration, Surveying, Navigation, From these premises we may easily Gauging, Dialling, Architecture, survey the sciences that properly range Sculpture, Painting, &c. are chief under the general head of Ethics. among the science called Mechanical. According to our best schools, they Those sciences are often regarded as are Natural Theology, as it is called, Arts ; but they are Sciences first, and or the being and perfections of the Arts afterwards.
Deity, as manifested in all the designs 4. Ethics call for the whole science of material nature : Moral Science, of man, and send us back of Zoology properly so called : Political Science, for his animal existence. He is chief properly so called : the Theory of a of the science of Zoology. Of ani- Future Life-Human Rights, Wrongs, mated nature he is the end, the con- Obligations and Responsibilities, &c. summation as well as the head. But But, as Christians, we would abandon he is not all found in any one depart- the doctrine of the schools, and subment of nature. There is a spiritual stitute the Bible, the Law, the Gospel, system as well as a material system. the Adamic, the Abrahamic, and
Christian Institutions, as furnishing ledge of God. We study man in his not merely a perfect code, but the works and in his word, and we conproper motives and incentives to good template our Creator through the morals.
Imedium of what he has done and 5. Symbolics. This is our fifth said. and last head, and as might have been The works of God are his first and inferred from our previous remarks on most ancient revelation of himself ; literature, we would enumerate seven and had not man, by his apostacy, distinct sciences as comprehended lost the art of reading and studying under this head. These are Orthog- the works of God, he would not have raphy, Orthoepy, Grammar, Prosody, stood in need of any other medium Logic, Rhetoric, and every species of of knowing him, or of communicating Engraving and Chirography. This with him, than this wonderful and is usually the first branch of science greatly diversified volume of nature. taught, but it ought also to be the And even as it is, the intelligent last. The acquisition and the com- Christian makes the greatest promunication of knowledge being the ficiency in studying nature and the chief end of education, that part which Bible, by making them subservient most subserves this high end ought to each other-sometimes interpreting to be both first, middle, and last. the Bible by nature, and at other
Gentlemen, after having made the times expounding nature by the Bible. tour of so many sciences, and ranged They are two voices speaking for God at large over a field so extensive, we two witnesses of his being and perhave no time to descant upon the Arts. fections ; but neither of them is wholly I will only say, that these are both the sufficient to all the variety of human useful and the fine or liberal arts. On circumstances without the other. the useful or mechanical arts, there is But we need no more striking no need that I detain you ; and I will evidence of the intimate connexion only say that the fine arts are not between science and the Bible than contrasted with the useful, as in oppo- the well established fact, that all the sition to them ; but to distinguish great masters of science were believers them from such as are necessary or in the Bible, and cherished the hopes useful only. They are generally which it inspires. Bacon, the founder regarded as six, but I will add one to of the inductive philosophy ; Locke, them. They are poetry, music, paint- the great mental and moral philosoing, sculpture, engraving, architecture pher; and Newton, the interpreter of the different orders—to which I will and revealer of nature's secrets, are add good manners.
well known to the religious, as well There remains but one point to as to the scientific world, as believers consummate our plan—the connexion in the Bible, and expounders of its of science, all true science, with reli- doctrine, its precepts, types, and progion. One might as rationally seek mises. They are as eminent for their to comprehend an effect without any homage to the Bible, as for their deknowledge of its cause, as to compre- votion to the studies of nature. Phihend any part of the science of the losophy, with them, and Christianity universe without some knowledge of were not at variance. its Author. God and his works are They saw the immutable and inimithe basis of all the science in the table traces and characters of one and world. But as the universe is not the same Supreme Intelligence clearly without God, nor God now without and boldly written on every page of his universe ; so no science, whether the volumes of Creation, Providence, physical or ethical, can be thoroughly and Redemption. They were perlearned without the revealed know- suaded that the still small voice which
whispered in every star and in every Of this sort were Dr. Fust, or flower, speaks aloud in the language Faust, a goldsmith of Mentz, who inof authority and of love in all the vented the art of printing on wooden precepts and promises of the Law blocks, and gave it to the world in and of the Gospel. Such were the 1430 ; Schäffer, his son in-law, who, great founders of the reigning philo- in 1442, invented the casting of mesophy and sciences of the present day. tallic types ; Christopher Columbus, But I speak not of the first class only; born at Genoa, 1436, who discovered for it seems as if the Father of Lights a new world in 1492 ; Copernicus, had vouchsafed all useful sciences, born at Thorn, in Prussia, 1472, who discoveries, and arts to those who displaced the Ptolemaic system of the acknowledged his being and perfec-universe, and suggested the elements tions, and to none else. So general, of the present demonstrative system; if not universal, is this feature of his Tycho Brahe, of Sweden, born in 1546, providence, that I know not the name and Kepler of Wiel, of Wurtemberg, of the founder of any science, or the born in 1571, who, though of someinventor of any useful art, or the dis- what conflicting opinions in some coverer of any great master truth in branches of the Copernican system, any department of human thought, greatly advanced it by their discoverwho did not acknowledge the God of ies; Galileo, born at Florence, 1564, the Bible, and cherish the hope of a who first discovered the gravity of the future life.
lair and sundry new astronomical I have permitted mind to take a truths, inventor of the pendulum and long retrospect into the annals of the the cycloid, and an able defender of great inventions and discoveries, the the Copernican system ; Descartes, authors and founders of those sciences too, a native of Tourraine, born 1696, and arts that have since the dark ages, though erroneous in his doctrine of new-modelled society and the world, vortices and in some metaphysical to see if there was any one of them speculations, nevertheless in mathewho had divorced nature and religion, matics, algebra, and in his analytics, or who had rejected the being, per- greatly advanced the cause of science, fections, and providence of God, or and became the founder of the Cartedenied the authenticity and inspiration sian Philosophy, now reviving in some of his word. By the examination of its branches in Europe ; Boyle, inI have been greatly confirmed in my ventor of the air-pump, born 1626_ theory, that “ the secrets of the Lord one of the most retiring and devout are with them that fear him,” even philosophers; Isaac Barrow, the light the great secrets of nature, as well as of the age in mathematics, philosophy, of his purposes and will in reference and theology—the instructor of Newto the future. Beginning with the in-ton-born in England, 1630. Passvention of the mariner's compass, in ing over the famous epocha of Sir the early part of the 14th century, by Francis Bacon, born 1561 ; Locke, Flavio Giovia, born A.D. 1300, and born 1632; and Newton, born ten descending in a direct line down to years after, 1642, we can only name Sir Humphrey Davy, who but a few Franklin the American sage and disyears since passed the Jordan of time, tinguished philosopher, born 1706 ; I observe that all the sciences and arts Euler born 1707 ; Ferguson, born that have been introduced or perfected 1710; Sir William Herschel, born during the last five hundred years~ 1738 ; James Watt, LL.D. born 1730, which have made this century so unlike improver of the steam-engine first inthe year 1830—have been given to us vented by the Marquis of Worcester, by men who looked through Nature, 1660, and author of various useful inSociety, and Art, up to Nature's God. ventions ; Robert Fulton, the inventor and constructor, not of the steam-en- knowledge is found in the fact, that gine, but of the steam-boat, born in all the sciences run into each other, Pennsylvania, 1765 ; and Sir Hum- and are separated rather by gradations phrey Davy, born 1778, the enlarger than by clear and prominent lines of and perfecter of the science of Che- demarcation. Now, if this be true in mistry-all mighty men of science ; physics or ethics, it is most certainly or of the useful arts and discoveries and evidently true of their connexion which have really new-modelled the and intimacy with religion. In the world. These, however, are not all natural sciences, we cannot advance the men of renown that should be a single step without the perception mentioned in a full catalogue of public of adaptation and design. The cosbenefactors in science and art. Some, mical adaptations are so numerous, indeed, might plausibly think that we obvious, and striking, that we are ought to have begun with Roger Bacon, compelled to notice them, and see almost a century before the age of that, like the leaves that envelope the Giola, and have given him and rose-bud, from the inmost petal that Schwartz a conspicuity in this class /enfolds the germ, to the outermost of renowned and noble spirits-Bacon, covering, they are all shaped and for his many new discoveries ; and fitted, not only to one another, but to Schwartz, for his invention of gun-the central stamina, for whose protecpowder ; but we have been rather tion they seem to have been made. too particular, our object being only Thus the whole solar system seems to name the mighty chiefs in each de- to exist for our earth ; our earth for partment, and to adduce them in proof its vegetable and animal productions ; of this important point that true and these again for man. Our earth, science and religion are most inti- however, appears to be adapted to the mately associated both in theory and universe as the universe is to it ; and practice ; otherwise we should have after it has subserved human existence embellished our cloud of witnesses as its ultimate end, it again repays to with such men as Harvey, Gall, the system of nature the aids and Spurzheim, &c. &c.
advantages furnished it by its neighThere are but the names of La bouring planets. Thus the whole Place and Franklin concerning whom universe, both in its general laws and infidelity itself could have the hardi- in all its particular arrangements, is hood to complain. They might say one immense system of means and that the Athiest La Place is worthy ends, suggesting to the true philosoof a rank amongst the greatest philo- pher one great First Cause and one sophers ; but I ask, What new truth, grand Last End, between which all or science, or new art, did he discover things exist. or teach ? Newton opened the door. It is as impossible, then, to underand led the way for him into the study stand any portion of such a system of nature.
with a clear comprehension, viewed “But Franklin,” says the sceptic, apart from this great First Cause and “belonged to us.” Strange arrogance, Last End of all things, as to underindeed! Read the epitaph on his stand a human finger without a human tomb-stone, sketched by his own hand, hand, a hand without an arm, an arm and see his hope of a future life, and without a body, a human body withhis acknowledgment of his Creator out a mind, a mind without the Suand Benefactor unequivocally ex-preme Intelligence. pressed in it.
If it be folly, plain palpable folly, It was observed that one of the to pronounce an opinion upon a part, principal difficulties in the proper when ignorant of the whole to which classification of science and of human that part belongs, what shall we say of his philosophy who dogmatically ment of the arcana which science repronounces upon science in general, veals—how any one can in ecstacy who has not studied any one fully; or and rapture contemplate the celestial of him who has studied but a single and the terrestrial wonders of creachapter in the volume of Nature, and tion, and yet be indifferent either to yet presumes to judge the whole li- the character or will of Him who is brary of the universe! And is not himself still infinitely more wonderful this, gentlemen, his character who and glorious than they-how any one would presume to divorce the study can admire the developments of the of Nature from the knowledge of its Creator, and forbear himself to adore. First Cause, or from the science of the Assuredly there is something wrong, Bible, on the pretence that it is un- some superlative inconsistency or misnecessary, or, which is the same thing, take in this matter-else it would be that any one science may be as fully impossible to delight in the works, and comprehended without, as with, the neglect or despise the workman. knowledge of Him who is himself, his When education shall be adapted to being, perfections, and will, the sum the human constitution, and conducted and substance, the Alpha and Omega in full reference to the rank and dig. of them all ?
Inity of man, then will the connection But who, of unperverted reason and of science and religion, of nature and of uncorrupted affections, could wish God, be made not merely the subject to study science without tracing its of an occasional lecture, but a constant connection and its intimacies with the study ; the universe will then be but most magnificent, sublime, and inte- a comment on the Supreme Intelliresting of all sciences—the knowledge gence ; the being, perfections, proviof God, of our own origin, destiny, and dence, and will of the Almighty Faduty ? If there be beauty, grandeur, ther will always be the text; and sublimity, immensity, infinity in this every science but a practical view of stupendous temple of the universe, how Him in whom we live, and are moved, infinitely beautiful, lovely, grand, and and have our being, and of our reglorious must be that august and ado-sponsibilities and obligations to Him rable One who had from all eternity who has endowed us with these noble the archetypes of every system, and of faculties and powers, on account of every creature, existing in his own which we rejoice and triumph in exmind, unexpressed-awaiting the mo- existence. ment which infinite wisdom and be- Meanwhile, young gentlemen, I nevolence had pitched upon as the would remind you that there is one most fitting to speak them forth into science, and one art springing from it, being. To make the universe and all which is chief of all the sciences and its science the way, the means to know of all the arts taught in all the schools him, would to us appear the true wis- in these broad heavens. That science, dom and the true happiness of man. as defined by the Great Teacher, is He clothes himself with light as with the knowledge of God and of Jesus a garment ; nay, he has clothed him- Christ whom he has commissioned. self with his own creations, insomuch This, he says, is eternal life. And that the clear intelligence of them is that art which springs from it, is the the clear intelligence of himself. noblest and the finest in the universe ;
To me it has ever been a paradox, it is the art of doing justly, of loving a mystery, how any one can feast on mercy, and of walking humbly with nature, or luxuriate in the high enjoy- our God.