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di tanta bellezza," says Andrea Corsali, a Florentine, writing to Giuliano of Medicis, in 1515, "che non mi pare ad alcuno segno celeste doverla comparare. Es'io non mi inganno, credo che sia questo il crusero di che Dante parlò nel principio del Purgatorio con pirito profetico, dicendo,

I'mi volsi a man destra, e posi mente,
All' altro polo, e vidi quattro stelle, etc."

Note 32, page 31, col. 1.

Roc of the West! to him all empire given ! Le Condor est le même oiseau que le Roc des Orientaux.-BUFFON. "By the Peruvians," says Vega, "he was anciently worshipped; and there were those who claimed their descent from him." In these degenerate days he still ranks above the Eagle.

Note 33, page 31, col. 1.

Who bears Axalhua's dragon-folds to heaven.

As the Roc of the East is said to have carried off the Elephant. See Marco Polo.-Axalhua, or the Emperor, is the name in the Mexican language for the great serpent of America.

Note 35, page 31, col. 1.
From mines of gold-

Mines of Chili; which extend, says Ovalle, to the
Strait of Magellan. I, 4.

Note 36, page 31, col. 1.

High-hung in forests to the casing snows.

A custom not peculiar to the Western Hemisphere. The Tunguses of Siberia hang their dead on trees; *parceque la terre ne se laisse point ouvrir."-M. PAUW.

Note 37, page 31, col. 1.

—and, through that dismal night.

"Aquella noche triste." The night, on which Cortes made his famous retreat from Mexico through the street of Tlacopan, still goes by the name of LA


Note 34, page 31, col. 1.

To where Alaska's wintry wilds retire.

Northern extremity of the New World.-See fight off the coast of Portugal.-Ibid. c. 5. Cook's last Voyage.

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Call'd on the Spirit within. Disdaining flight,
Calmly she rose, collecting all her might. I
Dire was the dark encounter! Long unquell'd,
Her sacred seat, sovereign and pure, she held.
At length the great Foe binds her for his prize,
And awful, as in death, the body lies!

Not long to slumber! In an evil hour
Inform'd and lifted by the unknown Power,

It starts, it speaks! "We live, we breathe no more!" etc.

Then, inly gliding like a subtle flame,

Thrice, with a cry that thrill'd the mortal frame,

Many a modern reader will exclaim in the language of Pococurantè, “Quelle triste extravagance!" Let a great theologian of that day, a monk of the Augustine order, be consulted on the subject. "Corpus ille perimere vel jugulare potest; nec id modò, verùm et animam ita urgere, et in angustum coarctare novit, ut in momento quoque illi excedendum sit.”—LuTHERUS, De Missa Privata.

Note 42, page 31, col. 2.

And can you shrink? etc.

la-F. COLUMBUS, c. 15.
The same language had been addressed to Isabel-

Note 43, page 31, col. 2.

Oh had I perish'd, when my failing frame.

His miraculous escape, in early life, during a sea

Note 44, page 31, col. 2.

The scorn of Folly, and of Fraud the prey.
Nudo nocchier, promettitor di regni !

By the Genoese and the Spaniards he was regarded as a man resolved on "a wild dedication of himself to unpathed waters, undreamed shores;" and the court of Portugal endeavored to rob him of the glory of his enterprise, by secretly dispatching a vessel in the course which he had pointed out. "Lorsqu'il avait promis un nouvel hémisphère," says Voltaire, "on lui avait soutenu que cet hémisphère ne pouvoit exister; et quand il l'eut découvert, on prétendit qu'il avait été connu depuis long-temps."

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Note 47, page 31, col. 2.
Rose to the Virgin.-

as-service, and always sung with great solemnity. "I
Salve, regina. Herrera, I, i, 12.-It was the usual
remember one evening," says Oviedo, "when the ship
was in full sail, and all the men were on their knees,
singing Salve, regina," etc. Relacion Sommaria.—

Note 41, page 31, col. 1.

Then, inly gliding, etc.

The original passage is here translated at full The hymn, O Sanctissima, is still to be heard after ength.

1-magnum si pectore possit Excussisse deum.

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I believe that he was chosen for this great service; and that, because he was to be so truly an apostle, as in effect he proved to be, therefore was his origin ob-| scure; that therein he might resemble those who were called to make known the name of the Lord from seas and rivers, and not from courts and palaces. And I believe also, that, as in most of his doings he was guarded by some special providence, his very The wild cotton-tree, often mentioned in History. name was not without some mystery: for in it is ex-Cortes," says Bernal Diaz, "took possession of the pressed the wonder he performed; inasmuch as he country in the following manner. Drawing his sword, conveyed to a new world the grace of the Holy he gave three cuts with it into a great Ceiba, and

Ghost, etc.-F. COLUMBUS, c. 1.


Note 50, page 32, col. 1.
Pedro Rodrigo!-

Pedro Gutierrez, a Page of the King's Chamber; Rodrigo Sanchez of Segovia, Comptroller of the Fleet.

Note 51, page 32. col. 1.

Slowly, bare-headed, through the surf we bore
The sacred cross.

Signifying to the Infernal powers (all' infierno todo) the will of the Most High, that they should renounce a world over which they had tyrannized for so many ages-OVALLE, iv, 5.

Note 49, page 31, col. 2.

First from the prow to hail the glimmering light.

The Parrot,

A light in the midst of darkness, signifying the mal. viii, 12. spiritual light that he came to spread there.-F. CoLUMBUS, C. 22. HERRERA, I, i, 12.

Note 52, page 32, col. 1.

But what a scene was there!

Note 56, page 32, col. 1.
What long-drawn tube, etc.

For the effects of the telescope, and the mirror, on an uncultivated mind, see WALLIS's Voyage round the World, c. 2 and 6.

Note 53, page 32, col. 1
-Nymphs of romance, etc.

Dryades formosissimas, aut nativas fontium
phas de quibus fabulatur antiquitas, se vidisse arbi-
trati sunt.-P. MARTYR, dec. i, lib. v.

And an eminent Painter of the present day, when he first saw the Apollo of the Belvidere, was struck with its resemblance to an American warrior.WEST'S Discourse in the Royal Academy, 1794.

Note 57, page 32, col. 2.

Through citron-groves, and fields of yellow maize. Ætas est illis aurea. Apertis vivunt hortis. P.MARTYR, dec. i, 3.

Note 54, page 32, col. 1.

And see, the regal plumes, the couch of state! "The Cacique came down to the shore in a sort of palanquin-attended by his ancient men-The gifts, which he received from me, were afterwards carried before him."-F. COLUMBUS, c. 32.

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Note 55, page 32, col. 1.

The wondrous ring, and lamp, and horse of brass. The ring of Gyges, the lamp of Aladdin, and the horse of the Tartar king.

Note 58, page 32, col. 2.


Note 59, page 32, col. 2. There sits the bird that speaks! described by Aristotle-Hist. Ani

Note 60, page 32, col. 2.
Half bird, half fly.

Here are birds so small, says Herrera, that though
they are birds, they are taken for bees or butterflies.
Note 61, page 32, col. 2.
-the fairy king of flowers.

Note 63, page 32, col. 2.

Soon in the virgin's graceful ear to shine.

"This country excels all others, as far as the day surpasses the night in splendor.-Nor is there a better Il sert après sa mort a parer les jeunes Indiennes, people in the world. They love their neighbor as qui portent en pendans d'oreilles deux de ces charthemselves; their conversation is the sweetest imagin-mans oiseaux-BUFFON. able, their faces always smiling and so gentle, so affectionate are they, that I swear to your Highnesses," etc.-F. COLUMBUS, C. 30, 33.

The Humming-bird. Kakopit (florum regulus) is the name of an Indian bird, referred to this class by Seba.

Note 64, page 32, col. 2.

'Mid branching palms and amaranths of gold! According to an ancient tradition. See Oviedo, Vega, Herrera, etc. Not many years afterwards a Spaniard of distinction wandered everywhere nym-search of it: and no wonder, as Robertson observes, when Columbus himself could imagine that he had found the seat of Paradise.

Note 62, page 32, col. 2.
Reigns there, and revels, etc.

There also was heard the wild cry of the Flamingo
What clarion winds along the yellow sands?
Far in the deep the giant-fisher stands,
Folding his wings of flame.

Note 65, page 33, col. 1.

And guavas blush'd as in the vales of light.

They believed that the souls of good men were conveyed to a pleasant valley, abounding in guavas and other delicious fruits-HERRERA, I, iii, 3. F. CoLUMBUS, c. 62.

Note 66, page 33, col. 1.

There silent sate many an unbidden Guest. “The dead walk abroad in the night, and feast with the living" (F. COLUMBUS, c. 62); and "eat of the fruit called Guannaba."-P. MARTYR, dec. i, 9.

Note 67, page 33, col. 1.

And sires, alas, their sons in battle slain!
War reverses the order of nature. In time of peace,

says Herodotus, the children bury their fathers; in time of war the fathers bury their children! But the Gods have willed it so-I, 87.

Note 68, page 33, col. 1.

An ancient Cacique, in his life-time and after his death, employed by the Zemi to alarm his people. See F. COLUMBUS, c. 62.

Note 69, page 33, col. 1.

Unseen, unheard!-Hence, Minister of Ill.
The Author is speaking in his inspired character.
Hidden things are revealed to him, and placed before
his mind as if they were present.

Note 70, page 33, col. 1.
-too soon shall they fulfil.

Nor could they, (the Powers of Darkness) have more effectually prevented the progress of the Faith, than by desolating the New World; by burying nations alive in mines, or consigning them in all their errors to the sword.-Relacion de B. DE LAS CASAS.

Note 71, page 33, col. 1.

When forth they rush as with the torrent's sweep. Not man alone, but many other animals, became extinct there.

Note 72, page 33, col. 2.
Who among us a life of sorrow spent.

For a summary of his life and character, see "An
Account of the European Settlements."-P. I, c. 8.
Note 73, page 33, col. 2.

Signs like the ethereal bow-that shall endure.

Note 74, page 33, col. 2.

He stood, and thus his secret soul address'd.
Te tua fata docebo. Virg.
Saprai di tua vita il viaggio.


Note 76, page 33, col. 2.

And Thee restore thy Secret to the Deep.

I wrote on a parchment that I had discovered what I had promised; and, having put it into a cask, threw it into the sea.-Ibid. c, 37.


Note 79, page 33, col. 2.
Thy reverend form.

Note 77, page 33, col. 2.

To other eyes, from distant cliff descried. Balboa immediately concluded it to be the ocean for which Columbus had searched in vain; and when, at length, after a toilsome march among the mountains, his guides pointed out to him the summit from which it might be seen, he commanded his men to halt, and went up alone.—HERRERA, I, x, 1.

His person, says Herrera, had an air of grandeur His hair, from many hardships, had long been grey. In him you saw a man of an unconquerable courage, sity, ever trusting in God:--and, had he lived in anand high thoughts; patient of wrongs, calm in advercient times, statues and temples would have been erected to him without number, and his name would have been placed among the stars. Note 80, page 34, col. 1.

By dogs of carnage.

One of these, on account of his extraordinary sagacity and fierceness, received the full allowance of a soldier. His name was Bezerillo.

Note 83, page 34, col. 1.

Here, in His train, shall arts and arms attend. "There are those alive," said an illustrious orator, "whose memory might touch the two extremities. Lord Bathurst, in 1704, was of an age to comprehend such things-and, if his angel had then drawn up the curtain, and, whilst he was gazing with admiration,

It is remarkable that these phenomena still remain had pointed out to him a speck, and had told him, among the mysteries of nature.

Young man, there is America-which, at this day, serves for little more than to amuse you with stories of savage men and uncouth manners; yet shall, before you taste of death,' etc."-BURKE in 1775.

Note 81, page 34, col. 1.

Swept-till the voyager, in the desert air.

ple, as hives are full of bees; and now where are With my own eyes I saw kingdoms as full of peothey?-Las Casas.

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Note 82, page 34, col. 1.

Starts back to hear his alter'd accents there. No unusual effect of an exuberant vegetation.The air was so vitiated," says an African traveller, "that our torches burnt dim, and seemed ready to be extinguished; and even the human voice lost its natu ral tone."

Note 84, page 34, col. 1.
Assembling here, etc.

Note 75, page 33, col. 2.

And dash the floods of ocean to the stars.

How simple were the manners of the early colonists! The first ripening of any European fruit was

BUS, c. 40.

When he entered the Tagus, all the seamen ran distinguished by a family-festival. Garcilasso de la from all parts to behold, as it were some wonder, a Vega relates how his dear father, the valorous Anship that had escaped so terrible a storm.-F. COLUM-dres, collected together in his chamber seven or eight gentlemen to share with him three asparaguses, the first that ever grew on the table-land of Cusco. When the operation of dressing them was over (and it is minutely described) he distributed the two largest among his friends; begging that the company would not take it ill, if he reserved the third for himself, as it was a thing from Spain.

North America became instantly an asylum for the oppressed; Huguenots, and Catholics, and sects of every name and country. Such were the first settlers in Carolina and Maryland, Pennsylvania and New England. Nor is South America altogether without a claim to the title. Even now, while I am writing, the ancient house of Braganza is on its passage across the Atlantic,

Cum sociis, natoque, Penatibus, et magnis dîs.
Note 85, page 34, col. 1.

Note 78, page 33, col. 2.

Hung in thy chamber, buried in thy grave. Untouch'd, shall drop the fetters from the slave. I always saw them in his room, and he ordered Je me transporte quelquefois au-delà d'un siècle. them to be buried with his body.-F. COLUMBUS, c. 86. J'y vois le bonheur à côté de l'industrie, la douce

tolérance remplaçant la farouche inquisition; j'y vois, un jour de fête, Péruviens, Mexicains, Américains libres, François s'embrassant comme des frères, et bénissant le régne de la liberté, qui doit amener partout une harmonie universelle.-Mais les mines, les esclaves, que deviendront-ils? Les mines se fermeront, les esclaves seront les frères de leurs maîtres. BRISSOT. There is a prophetic stanza, written a century ago by Bp. Berkeley, which I must quote, though I shall suffer by the comparison.

Westward the course of empire takes its way.
The four first acts already past,

A fifth shall close the drama with the day.
Time's noblest offspring is the last.

Note 86, page 34, col. 1.

The spoiler spoil'd of all.

Cortes. "A peine put-il obtenir audience de CharlesQuint; un jour il fendit la presse qui entourait la coche de l'empereur, et monta sur l'étrier de la portière. Charles demanda quel étoit cet homme: 'C'est,' répondit Cortez, 'celui qui vous a donné plus d'états que vos pères ne vous ont laissé de villes.""-VOLTAIRE.



A FEW copies of this Poem were printed off in the autumn of the year before last, while the Author was abroad. It is now corrected, and republished with some additions.

Note 87, page 34, col. 1.
-the slayer slain.

Cortes, Pizarro.-" Almost all," says Las Casas, "have perished. The innocent blood, which they had shed, cried aloud for vengeance; the sighs, the tears of so many victims went up before God."



DAY glimmer'd in the east, and the white Moon
Hung like a vapor in the cloudless sky,
Yet visible, when on my way I went,
Glad to be gone-a pilgrim from the north,
Now more and more attracted as I drew
Nearer and nearer. Ere the artisan,
Drowsy, half-clad, had from his window leant,

Note 88, page 34, col. 1.

'Mid gems and gold, unenvied and unblest. L'Espagne a fait comme ce roi insensé qui demanda que tout ce qu'il toucheroit se convertît en or, et qui fut obligé de revenir aux dieux pour les prier de finir sa misère.-MONTESQUIEU.



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With folded arms and listless look to snuff
The morning air, or the caged sky-lark sung,
From his green sod up-springing—but in vain,
His tuneful bill o'erflowing with a song
Old in the days of Homer, and his wings
With transport quivering, on my way I went,
Thy gates, Geneva, swinging heavily,

Whatever may be its success, it has led him in Thy gates so slow to open, swift to shut; many an after-dream through a beautiful country; As on that Sabbath-eve when he arrived,' (1) and may not perhaps be uninteresting to those who | Whose name is now thy glory, now by thee have learnt to live in past times as well as present, Inscribed to consecrate (such virtue dwells and whose minds are familiar with the events and In those small syllables) the narrow street, the people that have rendered Italy so illustrious. His birth-place-when, but one short step too late, He sate him down and wept-wept till the morning; (2) Then rose to go-a wanderer through the world.

The stories, taken from the old Chroniclers, are
given without exaggeration; and are, he believes, as
true to the original text as any of the Plays that may
be said to form our popular history.
May 1st, 1823.

"T is not a tale that every hour brings with it.
Yet at a City-gate, from time to time,
Much might be learnt; and most of all at thine
London-thy hive the busiest, greatest, still
Gathering, enlarging still. Let us stand by,
And note who passes. Here comes one, a Youth,
Glowing with pride, the pride of conscious power,
A Chatterton-in thought admired, caress'd,
And crown'd like Petrarch in the Capitol;
Ere long to die-to fall by his own hand,
And fester with the vilest. Here come two,
Less feverish, less exalted-soon to part,
A Garrick and a Johnson; Wealth and Fame
Awaiting one-even at the gate, Neglect
And Want the other. But what multitudes,
Urged by the love of change, and, like myself,

Note 90, page 34, col. 2.
Though in the western world His grave.

An anachronism. The body of Columbus was not yet removed from Seville.

It is almost unnecessary to point out another, in the Ninth Canto. The telescope was not then in use; though described long before with great accuracy by Roger Bacon.

1 Rousseau.

Adventurous, careless of to-morrow's fare,
Press on though but a rill entering the Sea,
Entering and lost! Our task would never end.


Day glimmer'd and I went, a gentle breeze
Ruffling the Leman Lake. Wave after wave,
If such they might be call'd, dash'd as in sport,
Not anger, with the pebbles on the beach
Making wild music, and far westward caught
The sun-beam-where, alone and as entranced,
Counting the hours, the fisher in his skiff
Lay with his circular and dotted line,
Fishing in silence. When the heart is light
With hope, all pleases, nothing comes amiss;
And soon a passage-boat swept gaily by,
Laden with peasant-girls and fruits and flowers,
And many a chanticleer and partlet caged
For Vevay's market-place-a motley group


NIGHT was again descending, when my mule,
That all day long had climb'd among the clouds,
Higher and higher still, as by a stair
Let down from Heaven itself, transporting me,
Stopp'd, to the joy of both, at that low door

Seen through the silvery haze. But soon't was gone. So near the summit of the Great St. Bernard;
The shifting sail flapp'd idly for an instant,
Then bore them off.

Still along the shore,
Among the trees I went for many a mile,
Where damsels sit and weave their fishing-nets,
Singing some national song by the way-side.
But now 't was dusk, and journeying by the Rhone,
That there came down, a torrent from the Alps,
I enter'd where a key unlocks a kingdom,'
The mountains closing, and the road, the river
Filling the narrow pass. There, till a ray
Glanced through my lattice, and the household-stir
Warn'd me to rise, to rise and to depart,

I am not one of those
So dead to all things in this visible world,
So wondrously profound-as to move on
In the sweet light of heaven, like him of old (3)
(His name is justly in the Calendar)
Who through the day pursued this pleasant path
That winds beside the mirror of all beauty, (4)
And, when at eve his fellow-pilgrims sate,
Discoursing of the lake, ask'd where it was.
They marvell'd, as they might; and so must all,
Seeing what now I saw; for now 't was day
And the bright Sun was in the firmament,
A thousand shadows of a thousand hues
Chequering the clear expanse. Awhile his orb
Hung o'er thy trackless fields of snow, Mont Blanc,
Thy seas of ice and ice-built promontories,
That change their shapes for ever as in sport;
Then travell'd onward, and went down behind
The pine-clad heights of Jura, lighting up
The woodman's casement, and perchance his axe
Borne homeward through the forest in his hand;
And, in some deep and melancholy glen,
That dungeon-fortress never to be named,
Where, like a lion taken in the toils,

On the same rock beside it stood the church,
Reft of its cross, not of its sanctity;
The vesper-bell, for 't was the vesper-hour,

Toussaint breathed out his brave and generous spirit. Duly proclaiming through the wilderness,

Ah, little did He think, who sent him there,
That he himself, then greatest among men,
Should in like manner be so soon convey'd
Across the ocean-to a rock so small
Amid the countless multitude of waves,
That ships have gone and sought it, and return'd,
Saying it was not!

1 St. Maurice.

A stir unusual and accompanied
With many a tuning of rude instruments,
And many a laugh that argued coming pleasure,
Mine host's fair daughter for the nuptial rite,
And nuptial feast attiring-there I slept,
And in my dreams wander'd once more, well-pleased.
But now a charm was on the rocks, and woods,
And waters; for, methought, I was with those
I had at morn, at even, wish'd for there.

That door which ever on its hinges moved
To them that knock'd, and nightly sends abroad
Ministering Spirits. Lying on the watch,
Two dogs of grave demeanor welcomed me, (5)
All meekness, gentleness, though large of limb;
And a lay-brother of the Hospital,

Who, as we toil'd below, had heard by fits
The distant echoes gaining on his ear,
Came and held fast my stirrup in his hand,
While I alighted.

Long could I have stood,
With a religious awe contemplating
That House, the highest in the Ancient World,
And placed there for the noblest purposes.
"T was a rude pile of simplest masonry,
With narrow windows and vast buttresses,
Built to endure the shocks of Time and Chance ;
Yet showing many a rent, as well it might,
Warr'd on for ever by the elements,
And in an evil day, nor long ago,

By violent men-when on the mountain-top
The French and Austrian banners met in conflict


All ye who hear, whatever be your work,
Stop for an instant-move your lips in prayer!"
And, just beneath it, in that dreary dale,
If dale it might be call'd, so near to Heaven,
A little lake, where never fish leap'd up,
Lay like a spot of ink amid the snow;
A star, the only one in that small sky,
On its dead surface glimmering. 'T was a scene
Resembling nothing I had left behind,
As though all worldly ties were now dissolved;-
And to incline the mind still more to thought,
To thought and sadness, on the eastern shore
Under a beetling cliff stood half in shadow
A lonely chapel destined for the dead,
For such as, having wander'd from their way,
Had perish'd miserably Side by side,
Within they lie, a mournful company

All in their shrouds, no earth to cover them;
Their features full of life, yet motionless

In the broad day, nor soon to suffer change,

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