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-Whether the victim of the treacherous Moor,
Or from the Negro's hospitable door
Spurn'd as a spy from Europe's hateful clime,
And left to perish for thy country's crime;

Or destined still, when all thy wanderings cease,
On Albion's lovely lap to rest in peace;
Pilgrim! in heaven or earth, where'er thou be,
Angels of mercy guide and comfort thee!

Thus lived the Negro in his native land,
Till Christian cruisers anchor'd on his strand:
Where'er their grasping arms the spoilers spread,
The Negro's joys, the Negro's virtues, fled;
Till, far amidst the wilderness unknown,
They flourish'd in the sight of Heaven alone:
While from the coast, with wide and wider sweep,
The race of Mammon dragg'd across the deep
Their sable victims, to that western bourn,
From which no traveller might e'er return,
To blazon in the ears of future slaves
The secrets of the world beyond the waves.

When the loud trumpet of eternal doom
Shall break the mortal bondage of the tomb;
When with a mother's pangs the expiring earth
Shall bring her children forth to second birth;
Then shall the sea's mysterious caverns, spread
With human relics, render up their dead :
Though warm with life the heaving surges glow,
Where'er the winds of heaven were wont to blow,
In sevenfold phalanx shall the rallying hosts
Of ocean slumberers join their wandering ghosts,
Along the melancholy gulf, that roars
From Guinea to the Caribbean shores.

lyriads of slaves, that perish'd on the way,
From age to age the shark's appointed prey,
By livid plagues, by lingering tortures slain,
Or headlong plunged alive into the main,"
Shall rise in judgment from their gloomy beds,
And call down vengeance on their murderers' heads.

Yet small the number, and the fortune blest
Of those who in the stormy deep found rest,
Weigh'd with the unremember'd millions more,
That 'scaped the sea to perish on the shore,
By the slow pangs of solitary care,
The earth-devouring anguish of despair,'
The broken heart, which kindness never heals,
The home-sick passion which the Negro feels,
When toiling, fainting in the land of canes,
His spirit wanders to his native plains;
His little lovely dwelling there he sees,
Beneath the shade of his paternal trees,
The home of comfort: then before his eyes.
The terrors of captivity arise.

-'T was night-his babes around him lay at rest,
Their mother slumber'd on their father's breast:
A yell of murder rang around their bed;

They woke; their cottage blazed; the victims fled:
Forth sprang the ambush'd ruffians on their prey,
They caught, they bound, they drove them far away;
The white man bought them at the mart of blood;
In pestilential barks they cross'd the flood;
Then were the wretched ones asunder torn,
To distant isles, to separate bondage borne,
Denied, though sought with tears, the sad relief
That misery loves,-the fellowship of grief.
The Negro, spoil'd of all that nature gave
To freeborn man, thus shrunk into a slave:

His passive limbs, to measured tasks confined,
Obey'd the impulse of another mind;
A silent, secret, terrible control,

That ruled his sinews, and repress'd his soul.
Not for himself he waked at morning-light,
Toil'd the long day, and sought repose at night;
His rest, his labor, pastime, strength, and health,
Were only portions of a master's wealth;
His love-O, name not love, where Britons doom
The fruit of love to slavery from the womb!

Thus spurn'd, degraded, trampled, and oppress'd,
The Negro-exile languish'd in the West,
With nothing left of life but hated breath,
And not a hope except the hope, in death,
To fly for ever from the Creole-strand,
And dwell a freeman in his father-land.

1 On this subject the following instance of almost incredible

cruelty was substantiated in a court of justice:

Lives there a savage ruder than the slave!

**In this year (1783), certain underwritors desired to be heard against Gregson and others of Liverpool, in the case of the ship Zong, Captain Collingwood, alleging that the captain and officers of the said vessel threw overboard one hundred and: thirty-two slaves alive into the sea, in order to defraud them, by claiming the value of the said slaves, as the had been-Cruel as death, insatiate as the grave, lost in a natural way. In the course of the trial, which afterwards came on, it appeared that the slaves on board the Zong were very sickly; that sixty of them had already died; and rain fell, and continued for three days, immediately after the several were ill, and likely to die, when the captain proposed second lot of slaves had been destroyed, by means of which to James Kelsal, the mate, and others, to throw several of them they might have filled many of their vessels (a) with water, overboard, stating, that if they died a natural death, the loss and thus have prevented all necessity for the destruction of the would fall upon the owners of the ship, but that, if they were thrown into the sea, it would fall upon the underwriters.' He selected, accordingly, one hundred and thirty-two of the most sickly of the slaves. Fifty-four of these were immediately thrown overboard, and forty-two were made to be partakers of their fate on the succeeding day. In the course of three days afterwards the remaining twenty-six were brought upon deck, to complete the number of victims. The first sixteen submitted to be thrown into the sea, but the rest, with a noble resolution, would not suffer the officers to touch them, but leaped after their companions, and shared their fate.


"The plea which was set up in behalf of this atrocious and unparalleled act of wickedness was, that the captain discovered, when he made the proposal, that he had only two hundred gallons of water on board, and that he had missed his port. It was proved, however, in answer to this, that no one had been put upon short allowance; and that, as if Providence had determined to afford an unequivocal proof of the guilt, a shower of

"Mr. Sharpe was present at this trial, and procured the attendance of a short-hand writer to take down the facts which should come out in the course of it. These he gave to the public afterwards. He communicated them also, with a copy of the trial, to the Lords of the Admiralty, as the guardians of minister of state. No notice, however, was taken by any of justice upon the seas, and to the Duke of Portland, as principal these of the information which had been thus sent them."Clarkson's History of the Abolition, etc., page 95–97.

1 The Negroes sometimes, in deep and irrecoverable melancholy, waste themselves away, by secretly swallowing large quantities of earth. It is remarkable that "earth-eating," as it is called, is an infectious, and even a social malady: plantations have been occasionally almost depopulated, by the slaves, with one consent, betaking themselves to this strange practice which speedily brings them to a miserable and premature end. (a) It appeared that they filled six.

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False as the winds that round his vessel blow,
Remorseless as the gulf that yawns below,
Is he who toils upon the wafting flood,
A Christian broker in the trade of blood:
Boisterous in speech, in action prompt and bold,
He buys, he sells, he steals, he kills, for gold.
At noon, when sky and ocean, calm and clear,
Bend round his bark, one blue unbroken sphere;
When dancing dolphins sparkle through the brine,
And sunbeam circles o'er the waters shine;
He sees no beauty in the heaven serene,
No soul-enchanting sweetness in the scene,
But, darkly scowling at the glorious day,
Curses the winds that loiter on their way.

des When swoln with hurricanes the billows rise,
To meet the lightning midway from the skies;
When from the unburthen'd hold his shrieking slaves
are Are cast, at midnight, to the hungry waves:
Not for his victims strangled in the deeps,
Not for his crimes, the harden'd pirate weeps,
But grimly smiling, when the storm is o'er,
Counts his sure gains, and hurries back for more.'

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Lives there a reptile baser than the slave??
-Loathsome as death, corrupted as the grave,
See the dull Creole, at his pompous board,
Attendant vassals cringing round their lord:
Satiate with food, his heavy eye-lids close,
Voluptuous minions fan him to repose;
Prone on the noon-day couch he lolls in vain,
Delirious slumbers rock his maudlin brain;
He starts in horror from bewildering dreams,
eda His bloodshot eye with fire and frenzy gleams.
He stalks abroad; through all his wonted rounds,
The Negro trembles, and the lash resounds,
And cries of anguish, shrilling through the air,
To distant fields his dread approach declare.
Mark, as he passes, every head declined;
Then slowly raised,-to curse him from behind.
This is the veriest wretch on nature's face,
Own'd by no country, spurn'd by every race;
The tether'd tyrant of one narrow span,
The bloated vampire of a living man.
His frame,-a fungous form, of dunghill birth,
That taints the air, and rots above the earth:
His soul;-has he a soul, whose sensual breast
Of selfish passions is a serpent's nest?

Who follows, headlong, ignorant, and blind,
The vague brute-instinct of an idiot mind;

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E'en from his mother's lap was chill'd to stone;
Whose torpid pulse no social feelings move;
A stranger to the tenderness of love;
His motley haram charms his gloating eye,
Where ebon, brown, and olive beauties vie;

His children, sprung alike from sloth and vice,
Are born his slaves, and loved at market price.
Has he a soul?-With his departing breath,
A form shall hail him at the gates of death,
The spectre Conscience,-shrieking through the gloom,
"Man, we shall meet again beyond the tomb."

Oh, Africa! amidst thy children's woes,
Did earth and heaven conspire to aid thy foes?
No, thou hadst vengeance-From thy northern shores
Sallied the lawless corsairs of the Moors,
And back on Europe's guilty nations hurl'd
Thy wrongs and sufferings in the sister world:
Deep in thy dungeons Christians clank'd their chains,
Or toil'd and perish'd on thy parching plains.

But where thine offspring crouch'd beneath the yoke,
In heavier peals the avenging thunder broke.
-Leagued with rapacious rovers of the main,
Hayti's barbarian hunters harass'd Spain,'
A mammoth race, invincible in might,
Rapine and massacre their dire delight,
Peril their element; o'er land and flood
They carried fire, and quench'd the flames with blood;
Despairing captives hail'd them from the coasts,
They rush'd to conquest, led by Carib ghosts.

Tremble, Britannia! while thine islands tell
The appalling mysteries of Obi's spell; 2
The wild Maroons, impregnable and free,
Among the mountain-holds of liberty,
Sudden as lightning darted on their foe,
Seen like the flash, remember'd like the blow.

While Gallia boasts of dread Marengo's fight,
And Hohenlinden's slaughter-deluged night,
Her spirit sinks;-the sinews of the brave,
That crippled Europe, shrunk before the Slave;
The Demon-spectres of Domingo rise,
And all her triumphs vanish from her eyes.

God is a Spirit, veil'd from human sight,
In secret darkness of eternal light;
Through all the glory of his works we trace
The hidings of his counsel and his face;
Nature, and time, and change, and fate fulfil,
Unknown, unknowing, his mysterious will;
Mercies and judgments mark him, every hour,
Supreme in grace, and infinite in power:

Whose heart, 'midst scenes of suffering senseless Oft o'er the Eden-islands of the West,

In floral pomp, and verdant beauty drest,
Roll the dark clouds of his awaken'd ire:
-Thunder and earthquake, whirlwind, flood, and fire,
'Midst reeling mountains and disparting plains,
Tell the pale world," the God of vengeance reigns."

Nor in the majesty of storms alone,"
The Eternal makes his dread displeasure known;

1 See Note 1, page 16, col. 1.

2 The character of the Creole Planter here drawn is justified both by reason and fact: it is no monster of imagination, though, for the credit of human nature, we may hope that it is a monster as rare as it is shocking. It is the double curse of slavery to degrade all who are concerned with it, doing or suffering.

2 See Dallas's History of the Maroons, among the moun

The slave himself is the lowest in the scale of human beings,tains of Jamaica; also, Dr. Moseley's Treatise on Sugar.
except the slave-dealer. Dr. Pinkard's Notes on the West
Indies, and Captain Stedman's Account of Surinam, afford ex-
amples of the cruelty, ignorance, sloth, and sensuality of Creole
planters, particularly in Dutch Guiana, which fully equal the
epitome of vice and abomination exhibited in these lines.

3 For minute and afflicting details of the origin and progress of the yellow fever in an individual subject, see Dr. Pinkard's Notes on the West Indies, vol. iii, particularly Letter XII, in which the writer, from experience, describes its horrors and sufferings.

1 Alluding to the freebooters and buccaneers who infested the Caribbean seas during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and were equally renowned for their valor and brutality.

At his command the pestilence abhorr'd

Spares the poor slave, and smites the haughty lord;
While to the tomb he sees his friend consign'd,
Foreboding melancholy sinks his mind.
Soon at his heart he feels the monster's fangs,
They tear his vitals with convulsive pangs:
The light is anguish to his eye, the air
Sepulchral vapors laden with despair;
Now frenzy-horrors rack his whirling brain,
Tremendous pulses throb through every vein;
The firm earth shrinks beneath his torture-bed,
The sky in ruins rushes o'er his head;
He rolls, he rages in consuming fires,
Till nature, spent with agony, expires.



The Moravian Brethren.-Their missions in Green-
land, North America, and the West Indies.
Christian Negroes.-The Advocates of the Negroes
in England.-Granville Sharpe,-Clarkson,-Wil-
berforce,-Pitt,-Fox,-The Nation itself.-The The bold base savage, nature's harshest clod,
Abolition of the Slave Trade.-The future State Rose from the dust the image of his God.
of the West Indies,-of Africa,-of the Whole
World. The Millennium.

Where roll Ohio's streams, Missouri's floods,
Beneath the umbrage of eternal woods,
The Red Man roam'd, a hunter-warrior wild ;
On him the everlasting Gospel smiled;
His heart was awed, confounded, pierced, subdued,
Divinely melted, moulded, and renew'd;

Was there no mercy, mother of the slave!
No friendly hand to succor and to save,
While commerce thus thy captive tribes oppress'd,
And lowering vengeance linger'd o'er the west?
Yes, Africa! beneath the stranger's rod
They found the freedom of the sons of God.

Ages roll'd by, the turf perennial bloom'd
O'er the lorn relics of those saints entomb'd;
No miracle proclaim'd their power divine,

No kings adorn'd, no pilgrims kiss'd their shrine ;
Cold and forgotten in the grave they slept :
But God remember'd them :-their Father kept
A faithful remnant;-o'er their native clime
His Spirit moved in his appointed time;
The race revived at his almighty breath,
A seed to serve him, from the dust of death.
"Go forth, my sons, through heathen realms proclaim
Mercy to Sinners in a Savior's name:"

Thus spake the Lord; they heard, and they obey'd,
-Greenland lay wrapt in nature's heaviest shade;
Thither the ensign of the cross they bore;

The gaunt barbarians met them on the shore;
With joy and wonder hailing from afar,
Through polar storms, the light of Jacob's star.

Laid waste God's heritage through every land.
With these the lovely exile sojourn'd long;
Soothed by her presence, solaced by her song,
They toil'd through danger, trials, and distress,
A band of Virgins in the wilderness,
With burning lamps, amid their secret bowers,
Counting the watches of the weary hours,
In patient hope the Bridegroom's voice to hear,
And see his banner in the clouds appear:
But when the morn returning chased the night,
These stars, that shone in darkness, sunk in light
Luther, like Phosphor, led the conquering day,
His meek forerunners waned, and pass'd away.'

When Europe languish'd in barbarian gloom,
Beneath the ghostly tyranny of Rome,
Whose second empire, cowl'd and mitred, burst
A phoenix from the ashes of the first;
From Persecution's piles, by bigots fired,
Among Bohemian mountains Truth retired;
There, 'midst rude rocks, in lonely glens obscure,
She found a people scatter'd, scorn'd, and poor,
A little flock through quiet valleys led,

A Christian Israel in the desert fed,

From isle to isle the welcome tidings ran;

While ravening wolves, that scorn'd the shepherd's The slave that heard them started into man:


Like Peter, sleeping in his chains, he lay,—

The angel came, his night was turn'd to day;
Arise!" his fetters fall, his slumbers flee;

He wakes to life, he springs to liberty.

1 The context preceding and following this line alludes to the old Bohemian and Moravian Brethren, who flourished long before the Reformation, but afterwards were almost lost among the Protestants, till the beginning of the eighteenth century, when their ancient episcopal church was revived in Lusatia, by some efugees from Moravia.-See Crantz's Ancient and Modern |

And thou, poor Negro! scorn'd of all mankind;
Thou dumb and impotent, and deaf and blind;
Thou dead in spirit! toil-degraded slave,
Crush'd by the curse on Adam to the grave;
The messengers of peace, o'er land and sea,
That sought the sons of sorrow, stoop'd to thee.
-The captive raised his slow and sullen eye;
He knew no friend, nor deem'd a friend was nigh,
Till the sweet tones of Pity touch'd his ears,
And Mercy bathed his bosom with her tears;
Strange were those tones, to him those tears were


He wept and wonder'd at the mighty change,
Felt the quick pang of keen compunction dart,
And heard a small still whisper in his heart,
A voice from Heaven, that bade the outcast rise
From shame on earth to glory in the skies.

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No more to demon-gods, in hideous forms,
He pray'd for earthquakes, pestilence, and storms,
In secret agony devour'd the earth,

And, while he spared his mother, cursed his birth: '

History of the Brethren. Histories of the missions of the
Brethren in Greenland, North America, and the West Indies,
have been published in Germany: those of the two former have
been translated into English.-See Crantz's History of Green-
land, and Loskiel's History of the Brethren among the Indians
in North America. It is only justice here to observe, that Chris-
tians of other denominations have exerted themselves with great
success in the conversion of the negroes. No invidious prefer
ence is intended to be given to the Moravians; but, knowing
them best, the author particularized this society.
1 See Notes, page 16.

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