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LIVES OF THE
sister, is both equitable and fitting; and I promise demand from her, in my name, the black enamelled to do so as far as may lay in my power.”
ring which our sister wore day and night upon her QUEENS OF ENGLAND. With this reply she dismissed them, and they left hand. I shall then know what to believe or
returned to London little satisfied with the equivo- fear."
As soon as Sir Nicholas had bowed himself out
Shortly after, the crown jewels were sent to her of the closet of the speaker, her grace turned ELIZABETH, QUEEN REGNANT OF ENGLAND. by her sister.
towards Cecil, and demanded if she had not acted It had been previously arranged, that on the wisely. (Continued.)
demise of Queen Mary, Sir Nicholas Throgmorton “ Admirably, madam !" was the reply; "and this
should be the bearer of the intelligence to Hatfield, prudence argues well for your future reign. I Let bonfires shine in every place;
where the Lady Elizabeth still resided with all nothing doubt but that the intelligence is correct ; Sing and ring the bells apace,
becoming privacy ; but coming events will cast for three days since I knew that it was the opinion And pray that long may live her grace.
their shadows before them and the crowd of cours of the late queen's physicians that her majesty POEM WRITTEN IN THE TIME OF ELIZABETH.
tiers—those true worshippers of the rising sun- could not last more than eight-and-forty hours." IN E
the month of June following the events nar- which began to arrive, indicated that the crown was “ 'Tis possible that they may have been deceived,"
rated in the preceding chapter, Elizabeth was about to descend upon the brow of another. replied his royal mistress; "and experience warns taken so seriously ill that her life was for some time
Elizabeth was seated in her closet, in conversa- us not to trifle in matters of such moment." despaired of. On her recovery, Mary not only senttion with Cecil and her ladies, when it was The ladies, who had been dismissed during the
her a ring in token of her amity, but permitted her announced to her that a gentleman, covered with preceding interview, were summoned back to the 23
to retire to her mansion at Hatfield, under the guar. dust, whose horse had fallen from exhaustion at the royal closet-curiosity and expectation were in the dianship of Sir Thomas Popo, who, being a good entrance of the park, had arrived at Hatfield, and countenances of all. Elizabeth received them as if scholar, soon ingratiated himself with his royal humbly craved audience of her grace. The coun- nothing uncommon had occurred. charge. tenance of the future sovereign flushed, and then
“ She is queen!" whispered one ; see how her In November she was sent for to court, at the turned deadly pale—every eye was fixed upon cheek and brow are flushed !" instigation of Philip of Spain, the queen's husband, her.
“Her eye is troubled !” observed a second ; who left no means short of violence untried to
“ Your highness will see him?" observed Cecil.
“perhaps her sister has recovered!” A supposiremove her from the kingdom. The pretensions of
“Alone!” answered the princess.
tion which was anything but welcome to those Philibert of Savoy to her hand were renewed, and
“ Alone?" repeated the secretary, in a tone of
present. she found herself exposed to the solicitations not disappointment.
That same evening the princess retired to rest, only of the imperial party, but her sister. With
It was not till the apartment was cleared, that after supping at her usual hour. her usual prudence, she contrived to avoid the she permitted the entrance of the messenger, who Early the following day a deputation from the snare, by positively declaring her fixed determina
came to announce her succession to the long- privy council arrived at Hatfield, to offer their tion to lead a single life; aster which she was per- coveted crown of her sister—the object of her ambi- homage to her as their rightful sovereign. There mitted to return to her retreat at Hatfield. ion, struggles, and hopes.
was no longer room for doubt or mistrust. The During the rest of Mary's reign, the difficulties No sooner had Sir Nicholas entered the apart- | long-persecuted daughter of Anne Boleyn fell upon and persecutions of Elizabeth were from the differ-ment, than he carefully closed the door ; then, bend- her knees, and, whilst the hall resounded with ent suitors for her hand, whom Mary was continually ing the knee, pronounced in a low tone, in shouts of pressing upon her. Amongst others, Prince Eric, which exultation, however, was distinctly mani- “God save Queen Elizabeth,” the son of the great Gustavus Vasa, and heir to the fested :
Her lips murmured in reply: Danish throne, were equally rejected. Young as
“God save Queen Elizabeth !"
“O Domino factum est illud, et est mirabile in she was, the future queen did not permit her judg
“Amen!" ejaculated Cecil, at the same time
occulis nostris !" ment to be dazzled by the prospect of the crown bending the knee, and kissing the hand extended
“ It is the Lord's doing, and it is marvellous in matrimonial of either country, while the diadem of towards him.
our eyes !" England appeared like a glorious certainty beaming “Our sister Mary?” said Elizabeth, fixing her
For several days the new sovereign remained in in the future. keen glance upon him.
retirement at Hatfield House, although from the The moment at last approached when the life of “ Is dead, so please your majesty."
hour her accession was officially announced to her, Mary was drawing to a close. The events which " Art sure ?"
she entered at once upon the duties of her queenly preceded her death belong more to the reign of that “I had it from one of the gentlemen of the Earl
office. princess, than the subject of our present memoir. of Arundel !" replied the messenger. Not long before that event took place, the queen “Sir Nicholas,” replied the princess, gravely, sent two lords of her council-Arundel and Paget“ it is not upon such uncertain intelligence that we Welcome, O queen! as much as heart can think ; -to visit her at Hatfield.
can accept the title you have saluted us with. I Welcome again as much as tongue can tell ; The interview was a curious one. must have more certain proof."
Welcome to hearts and tongues that will not shrink !
God thee preserve, we pray, and wish thee ever well! By command of Mary, they made three proposals “l'ublic rumor, madam.” to her successor.
CITY WELCOME TO QUEEN ELIZABETH. The first was, that she would May be circulated by mine enemies. It were a not change her privy council ; the second, that she childish game to play into their hands by an act of THE death of Queen Mary placed the Catholics should bind herself to make no alteration in the treason, no matter how innocently committed, at of England in an embarrassing position. Not established religion of the realm; the third, that such a moment. You must ride back with all speed only was the strength of the kingdom in their hands, Elizabeth should pay her just debts.
but every place of confidence and importance was Upon which conditions the queen promised to The messenger bowed.
filled by members of the ancient faith. Sonie foreleave her the crown.
* And see the lady of the bedchamber of the saw the downfall of the church, and the re-establish“ As for the crown," answered the daughter of queen.''
ment of the reformed religion ; others predicted civil Anne Boleyn, “ I have no reason to thank her for it “Mcan you your majesty's ?"
war; and not a few desired that the young Queen -since it is my peculiar hereditary right, my lords “Not that title,” interrupted Elizabeth ; "per- of Scots should be proclaimed queen-founding her -which none but traitors would gainsay !
haps it is not yet mine. I doubt not your fidelity, right to the crown on the supposed illegitimacy of "Touching the religion of the realm, I will not Sir Nicholas Throgmorton, hut experience has made Elizabeth. Fortunately, however, for all parties, change it-provided only that it can be proved such me careful of the wiles of Philip and his friends. these attempts were prevented, and the peace of by the word of God
You will see the party I have named, and if the England preserved, by the good sense and loyalty “ That I should pay the debts of the queen, myl event be true-if, indeed, I am Queen of England- of Dr. Heath, the Catholic Archbishop of York, and
* MELIOR EST CANIS VIVUS LEONE MORTUO."
Lord High Chancellor of England. That distin- A little further on the road towards London, the met the mute appeal by a decided frown. The new guished prelate proposed an assembly of both Lord Mayor and Aldermen met the procession, and secretary did not care to risk her favor by further Houses of Parliament, that they should at once pro- conducted the new sovereign, amid the acclamations interference. The duke, having received the order, ceed to the palace, and there and then proclaim of the people, to the Charter House, where she re- withdrew. Elizabeth as Queen-a proceeding which at once mained, holding councils and receiving addresses, The Catholic party saw, with surprise and dissatrendered her title indisputable. for several days.
isfaction, a party of the buff-coats drawn up round Rapin, with that dishonest spirit which character- On the 28th of November the queen took posses- the pulpit. They more than guessed the purport. ises his history, has foully belied this patriotic con- sion of the royal apartments, or lodgings, as they As the bishop descended, the Earl Marshal exduct of the Catholic Chancellor ; but the journals of were quaintly called, in the Tower. Elizabeth rode tended his staff towards him; and, bowing low, the House of Lords still exist to prove the falsehood on horseback, dressed in purple velvet, having Lord declared that he was his prisoner. of his assertions. Holinshed and Heyward have Robert Dudley, as Master of the Horse, on her right “ Prisoner!" repeated the prelate, scornfully ; equally preserved the speech he made on the hand. On reaching the Tower, her majesty, it is "11pon what charge, my lord duke?" occasion.
recorded, fell upon her knees, and returned thanks to “ Treason !" The proclamation was first made, in presence of Almighty God for deliverance: in her prayer she “And by whose order?" both Houses of Parliament, at the doors of West- compared herself, not over modestly, perhaps, to Mine-priest!" answered Elizabeth, in a clear, minster Hall. The new sovereign was proclaimed Daniel in the lions' den.
resolute voice, from her chair of state. “God's “Queen of England, France, and Ireland, Defender It was duly debated in council whether or not the death! dost think we are of that patient, yielding of the Faith ;” but not supreme head of the church. oath of supremacy should be exacted. But Eliza- stuff, that every knave may trifle with our dignity!
The ceremony was afterwards repeated in the beth and her advisers were far too cautious to pro- If the living dog,” she added, bitterly, alluding to his city, by the Duke of Norfolk, and the Lord Mayor ceed at once to abolish the ancient faith. At the sermon, “ be better than the dead lion, it is that it and aldermen.
funeral of her sister, mass was said, the queen being can use its fangs!" Whilst these rejoicings were taking place in the present. After the ceremony, the Bishop of Win
• Madam!" said the bishop, firinly, “ I am a premetropolis, Cardinal Pole, the Catholic primate, ex- chester-an intemperate prelate, but a man of irre- late of the holy Catholic Church, which, thank pired of a malignant fever, which carried off no less proachable morals—ascended the pulpit to preach heaven, is still by law the established religion of the than thirteen bishops in a few months-a mortality the funeral sermon.
realm!" which considerably lessened the influence of the He commenced by a review of the life of Mary,
“ We know it !" answered Elizabeth, with conCatholics in the Upper House of Parliament, and and her death. He next alluded to her successor as temptuous indifference.
" We also know that the rendered the changes which were shortly afterwards a lady of great worth, whom all true Englishmen same authority which made it so, can unmake it ! introduced in the religion of the realm much more were bound to obey ; but added the following dis- Away with him to the Tower !" casy of accomplishment. paraging and most uncourtier-like phrase :
“Bishops have their privileges !” continued the After having held her first council at Hatfield, in
prelate. which she appointed her long-tried friend and
(A live dog is better than a dead lion.)
“But none to insult their sovereign !” replied the counsellor Secretary of State, Elizabeth, attended by The rest of the sermon was equally disparaging queen, with ready wit; “since the Divine founder a noble retinue of lords and gentlemen, set forth to the queen.
of the Christian faith expressly says: for the metropolis. Her journey was one continued No sooner did Elizabeth hear herself compared to Render unto Cæsar the things which are Cæsar's. ovation : the population of the towns and villages a living dog than the temper of her father, Henry, Honor, obedience, and respect are due to the princes," came forth to welcome her.
rose within her--for although the discourse was in she added; "thou hast forgotten them! My lord As the royal train approached Highgate, many of Latin, she perfectly understood it. Her temples be- duke, look to your prisoner !" the bishops, attended by their clergy and office came fushed--for she keenly felt the insult to her, “Beware!” exclaimed Dr. White; "the arm of bearers, who had been awaiting her arrival, knelt by both as a woman and a sovereign. Turning towards the church is strong !" the road-side.
Lord Robert Dudley, who was standing behind her “Stronger than the sceptre ?" “ What would these men ?" she demanded of chair of state, she whispered a few words in his ear “ Yes!” replied the prelate; “the sceptre's sway Cecil, who rode a little behind his mistress, on her —they were brief and decisive.
extends but o'er the bodies—that of the crosier over left hand.
“ Send Norfolk to me!"
the souls of men! Let but a hand be laid upon my “Gracious queen,” replied the new minister, bow- Her favorite--for the Master of the Horse, it is person, and here, proud woman-here in the face of ing to the bow of the saddle ; "they are a deputa- shrewdly suspected, even at that time, was her lover all thy court, and in thy dead sister's presence—I tion of the prelates and clergy of the realm, come to -ventured to remonstrate. He foresaw her design, cancel thy share in the inheritance of heaven, release proffer their allegiance to your majesty."
but the dark cloud upon the brow of the lion queen thy subjects from all allegiance to thee, and pro“Which we are pleased to accept,” said Elizabeth, -as she has most unaptly been styled-warned him nounce upon thy head the awful curses of Rome "" with a cheerful smile ; “rise my lords,” she added; that he was treading upon dangerous ground. “Our royal father braved it, bishop," answered “We thank you for your love and loyalty with all “God's death, Dudley !" she exclaimed, interrupt- Elizabeth, with a satirical smile ; "and he died King our hearts !”
ing him ; "art thou, too, turned fool or traitor ? Must of England. We fear neither Rome nor Roman's In further token of her favor, she ungloved her we speak, even to thee, our pleasures twice ? Send curse a rush, when conscious of the integrity of our right hand, which was of marvellous whiteness, and the Earl Marshal to me !"
own heart and purpose! See if curses will break extended it to the bishops to kiss.
In a few moments the duke, who at that period thy bonds, or release thee from the Tower, where, as Bonner, the worthless Bishop of London was the was a very young man, stood respectfully before her, I am a queen, thou shalt sleep this night, after thy jast to approach. The queen fixed her eyes sternly holding the staff of office in his hands.
most traitorous discourse levelled against allegiance upon him, and deliberately drew on her glove, there- "You heard that mitred traitor?" said the queen. and good government!" by intimating that he alone of the prelates was ex- “Would I had not, gracious madam!" replied the Several of the Catholic nobles began to intercede cluded from that honor. Considering the position of youthful noble ; “ his zeal has outrun his discretion !" for the Bishop of Winchester, assuring her Majesty the new sovereign, it was boldly and royally done, “Say rather his loyalty !” interrupted Elizabeth, that, despite his indiscretion, he was both a learned to mark her abhorrence of the foul persecutions and bitterly; " but priest though he is, he shall find my and a pious man, and well-affected to her person; cruelties he had been guilty of. Abashed by the sceptre is not a distaff! If I cannot wield my but the queen repeated her commands, in a tone af silent but humiliating rebuke, which was doubly father's sword, my enemics at least shall find that 1 voice and gesture which reminded her hearers so mortitying from having been given in the presence know how to support the dignity and prerogative of much of her imperious father, that they felt there of the principal nobility of the realm, Bonner with his crown! As he descends from his preaching would be danger in disobeying her. drew to his mansion near Farringdon Street-part of arrest the knave !"
“Be it so!" said the prisoner; “I am ready to which still remains-the locality in wnich it is Cecil, who guessed what was taking place, cast seal my faith to Rome with the blood of its servant !! situated being known by the name of Bonner Lane. 'an imploring glance towards his royal mistress—who “No!” exclaimed the queen, tartly; " we mas
punish an insolent traitor, but we make no martyrs ; she consulted the famous impostor, Dr. Dec. Dur- said they were borrowed from the persecuting Bonner mercy is the sign of the true church, which abhors ing the greater part of her life, that impudent char- for the occasion. bloodshed and cruelty ! We raise not an intem- latan exercised the most unbounded influence over After being presented by two noblemen to the preperate fool, or mischief-seeking knave, to the dignity her—the source of which was his having, by a late, who gave her the patten and chalice to kiss, she of the crown of martyrdom ; such cruelty we leave happy guess, predicted the short life and reign of returned to her chair of state, where the coronation to Rome and its ministers !" her sister Mary.
oath was administered to her, in which she swore to Despite the murmurs of many present, the prison- An arrangement having been brought about at last maintain the Holy Catholic Church. er was immediately removed from the church, and with Oglethorpe, Bishop of Carlisle, to consecrate The Protestants explain the charge of perjury the queen retired to the palace.
her, Sunday, the fifteenth of January, was at last which the Catholics have brought against this queen, Shortly afterwards the oath of supremacy was fixed upon for that important ceremony: the day by alleging that, at the time Elizabeth took the oath, exacted. Many who refused to take it, were de- preceding being the recognition day.
she considered the church she was about to found, prived of their offices and places at the council board. The new queen left the Tower in her robes of or had already partially established, as entitled to Amongst others, the Archbishop of York, from state, seated in a chariot hung with crimson velvet the appellation of Catholic. The Church of England whose custody the great seal was removed to that of draperies and cloth of gold, having a canopy borne retains it to the present day. Nicholas Bacon, who at first bore only the modest over her head by six knights. Never did the maiden After the bishop had anointed her majesty, she title of my Lord Keeper.
monarch display more tact than on this occasion. retired with her ladies of honor to change her dress; In her progress she had a kind word for most-a on which occasion, she petulantly observed : “ that smile for all. Flowers were scattered on her path, say what they would, the oil was only common
and pageants enacted at every step. One of these, grease, and had an ill-favored and distasteful smell.” A crown, the bright reward of ever daring minds.
in Gracechurch Street, was the most remarkable. On her return, the prelate placed the crown upon
A huge rose tree was erected at the sign of the her head, girded a sword upon her loins, and the NOTWITHSTANDING the decided step which Eliza
Eagle. In an immense white rose was seated Eliza- abbey rang with the shouts of “God save the Queen beth had taken in resenting the insulting conduct of
beth's paternal grandmother, Elizabeth of York; Elizabeth.” Dr. White, the Bishop of Winchester, it was resolved
next to her her husband, King Henry VII., stuck in in council to proceed cautiously towards the secret
At the sacrament, her majesty received the a huge rose.
eucharist, but did not communicate as Protestants aim of the new sovereign-the restoring of the re
Proceeding from the stem upon which were these do, from the cup. formed religion: to bring about which, the queen two personages, were two more roses—Henry VIII. the world is permitted to communicate under both
Only one Catholic sovereign in displayed consummate tact and ability. Her first and Anne Boleyn-from whom proceeded a third kinds--and that is the King of France on the day of open sccession from the Catholic church took place on the morning of Christmas Day. She went to the crowned and robed, in regal state. The entire pa- eldest son of the church.
branch, in which Elizabeth herself was seated, his coronation-an honour conceded to him as the Royal Chapel in great state, accompanied by the
geant was decorated with white and red rosesgreat officers of her household and ladies of honor, emblems of the once regal houses of York and made the usual challenge to all who disputed the
Sir Edward Dymock, as champion of England, but withdrew at the conclusion of the gospel. Lancaster.
title of the new sovereign to the crown: who, in the This was prudently, as well as cleverly done
A Scriptural pageant, performed by children, next proclamation made by Garter King-at-arms during for if it had been received with marked disapproba
met the gaze of the queen. tion by the people, it could have been easily ex- recited, of which the following specimen may suffice
Some verses were the banquet in Westminster Hall, styled her majesty :
“ The most high and mighty princess our dread plained away by saying that her majesty had been
to show the taste and style of the poets of the sovereign Lady Elizabeth, by the grace of God suddenly taken ill. As it was, her conduct was
period : hailed with approbation : the horrors perpetrated by
Queen of England, France, Ireland, defender of the the Catholic party during the reign of her sister, Thou hast been eight times blest, О queen of worthy fame! true ancient and Catholic faith, most worthy Empress had set the nation generally against their church, By meekness of thy spirit when care did thee beset- of the Ossade Isles, to the mountains Pyranèe."
At the very time the new sovereign assumed thus The seeds of persecution generally bring forth sweet By mourning in thy grier–by mildness in thy blame
By hunger and by thirst, when right thou could’st not get. publicly the style and title of defender of the ancient and bitter fruit: sweet to those who suffer for conscience sake ; bitter to those who illustrate their faith By mercy showed, not proved-by pureness in thine heart, Catholic faith, and swore by oath to maintain it, she
By seeking peace alway-by persecution wrong ; by deeds of cruelty, instead of mercy.
had written not only to the Kings of Sweden and Therefore trust thou in God, since he hath helped thy smart ; Denmark, but to the principal Protestant princes of Her next step was to issue a proclamatiox, com- That as His promise is, so He will make thee strong. manding that, from the first day of the ensuing year,
Germany, to assure them of her adherence to the
In another pageant Truth presented her Majesty reformation, and propose an alliance offensive and both the the Litany and Gospel should be said or with a Bible, which she graciously received and
defensive between them. sung—not only in the Royal Chapel, but in the
kissed. churches throughout the kingdom-in English ; an
In her astute policy, she directed Carne, her
At Temple Bar where Gog and Magog and a troop ambassador at the Court of Rome, to announce her ordinance which gave great satisfaction to some, and
of children, who, in the words of the chronicler, sang accession to the reigning pontiff, Paul IV., at the was highly disapproved of by others.
to their sovereign a sweet song, the last words of It is uncertain how far in her zeal the new queen which were not without a peculiar signification of
same time charging her minister to assure him that might not have been induced to proceed, had not one the wishes of the citizens, and an encouragement to science of any of her subjects.
it was not her intention to offer violence to the conimportant consideration restrained her-her corona
proceed in the work of the reformation. tion. The Cardinal Pole, primate and Archbishop
Never did the court of Rome commit a more sigof Canterbury, was dead. Dr. Heath, Archbishop Farewell, O worthy queen, and as our hope is sure, nal error than in the present instance. The Pope, a of York, positively refused to place the crown upon
That into erroris place thou wilt the truth restore, proud and despotic prince, instead of conciliating
So trust we that thou wilt our sovereign queen endure, her head, as supreme head of the English church.
the new sovereign, who was firmly seated upon her
And loving lady stand from henceforth evermore, The remaining prelates—and there were not more
throne, informed the ambassador that he could not than half a dozen who had survived the pestilential That night Elizabeth slept at Whitehall, from comprehend the right of the illegitimate daughter of fever which had thinned the ranks of the hierarchy which place she proceeded, at an early hour the fol- the late king to reign-that he considered the young --not only declined to perform the ceremony, but lowing morning, in her barge, to Westminster, where Queen of Scots, the descendant of Henry VII., as refused to consecrate any new bishops, unless they she robed herself in a mantle of crimson velvet, the true heiress of the crown-but that if his mistress were persons examined and selected by themselves. faced with ermine, with a train and surcoat of the would renounce her pretensions, and submit her It is singular to mark the superstition of the age. same rich material.
claims to his judgment, she should be treated with Elizabeth, who rejected the dogmas of Romanism, On approaching the church, she was met by one mercy and indulgence. could not divest herself of her belief in astrology and solitary bishop-Oglethorpe-who wore the mitre This reply broke the last ties which had induced alchemy. Before she fixed the day for her coronation, I and vestments of a Catholic prelate ; indeed, it is the Protestant Queen to tamper with her connections.
She instantly recalled her ministers; but Carne, up, was to obtain a little popularity with the citizens With Elizabeth to decide was to act. The fact having been threatened with excommunication by of London.
that Rouen had actually fallen appears to have been the pontiff, if he ventured to obey her orders, chose The great Protestant queen, as she is styled, concealed from her. The following letter, which to remain, and lived and died a dependent upon the loved pomp and ceremonial, and willingly retained she wrote with her own hand to the Earl of Warbounty of the papal court.
as much as or more than was consistent with the wick, was worthy the queen of a great and powerIt had long been a custom for the English sove- simple tenets of the reformed church, of which she ful nation like England; and is one of the best reigns, on the event of their coronation, to release had declared herself the head.
specimens extant of her epistolary style, which was certain prisoners. One of the Protestant nobles, the Like all of the Tudor line, Elizabeth, throughout not always remarkable either for brevity or clearmorning after her coronation, as her majesty was her protracted reign, evinced the most determined ness. proceeding to chapel, knelt and presented a petition hostility to all who stood in the order of succession
MY DEAR WARWICK, to Elizabeth.
to the crown. Margaret, Countess of Lennox, after " What is thia ?" she demanded. the youthful Queen of Scots the next heir, was the loss of the needfullest finger I keep, God so help
If your honor and my desire could accord with “ The humble petition, gracious madam,” replieu arrested and committed to the Tower, upon the most the noble, “of four most notable and praiseworthy frivolous pretext_namely, that of sorcery.
me in my utmost need, as I would gladly lose that men, who for years have been most unjustly held in Elizabeth's hatred and persecution of her beauti- one joint for your safe abode with me ; but since I captivity by their enemies." ful and unfortunate rival, Mary, amounted almost to cannot, that I would, I will do, that I may and will
rather drink in an ashen cup, that you and yours “Without our royal warrant ?"..
a species of insanity, and occasioned the foulest “Even so, madam !” stain upon her character, both as a queen and a
should not be succored, both by sea and land, and “God's death!"-her usual oath-exclaimed the woman. These feelings of hatred and jealousy
that with all speed possible ; and let this my scribqueen, “how name you the gentlemen? We will appear to have been purposely kept up by the artful bling hand witness it to them all. have no such injustice in our realm. Their names, representations of one of the maids of honor-a
“ Yours as my own,
“ E. R." my lord ? their names ?" Mistress Sands, who had formerly been in the ser
[To be continued.) * Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John,” replied the vice of the Queen of Scots. petitioner ; "imprisoned in the Latin tongue."
One great cause of the popularity of Elizabeth, Elizabeth smiled at the conceit, and answered that, was the uncertainty which existed in the minds of
jesty should marry
THE silk trade, of which the poplin manufacture own, extinguish the conflicting claims of the Queen
is a branch, was first introduced into Ireland WITH
ITH the accession of Elizabeth to the throne of Scots, the Poles, and the Suffolk family. Par- in the reign of William the Third, by some of the
of her sister, all our sympathy with her as a liament even ventured to address her upon the French Huguenot refugees; and amongst the earliwoman ends. She had suffered persecution, but it subject, expressing the wish of the nation-a
est silk-makers who established themselves in what
prohad not taught her mercy. Occasionally, indeed, position which was coldly received: Elizabeth reply
were then (and are still) called the Liberties” of she will excite our admiration as a sovereign, by ing that, in a matter of such importance, she would Dublin, was the family of Latouche, ancestors of the the display of firmness and courage, too often con- be advised.
present well-known bankers, the Latouches of Castrasted, alas ! with the debasing qualities of mean- On the death of her French husband, Mary Stu
tle street. “ The Liberties” of Dublin were the ness, treachery, and revenge.
art, persecuted by the Queen Mother of France, south-western suburbs, chiefly belonging to the All relations having been broken off with the who governed in the name of her imbecile son,
Earls of Meath and Milltown; and, lying as they court of Rome, the new sovereign, like her father, returned to her own kingdom, despite the hostile did outside the city, and the lords of the soil being endeavored to establish a certain uniformity of reli- attempt of Elizabeth—who sent a fleet for that pur- gifted with certain large immunities by charter from gion. Toleration was a stranger to her heart and pose—to intercept her. She afterwards devoted all the Crown, the inhabitants were freed from the nature, and the Nonconformists were persecuted her energies and intrigues to prevent the beautiful laws which regulated the traders of the municipalwith as much bitterness as the Catholics. Soon widow from entering into the bonds of a second ity, and were enabled to carry on their trades withafter her coronation, Elizabeth repaired in great marriage : and the consummate art and treachery by out having that which probably would not have been state to St. Paul's—and a curious scene is related which on several occasions she carried her point, at that time granted to them by the extremely Conof the sound rating which she gave the dean, even may be fairly considered as one of the causes of the servative citizens—the freedom of the city. The in the church itself, for having placed a Prayer downfall of her rival-since it drove her at last into Earl of Meath's liberty lying nearest to the trading Book, adorned with curious prints, upon the cushion an ill-assorted marriage with Henry Darnley—a portion of the town, close to the Cathedral of St. intended for her use: the poor man intended it as a prince not less vain and frivolous than heartless and Patrick, was of course the most eagerly sought New Year's gift. The royal virago called him & ungrateful.
after, and the most quickly laid out and populated. most ignorant person, and demanded how he dared
But we must not anticipate events.
A small river called the Poddle, running through it, -after her proclamations against pictures, relics, In order to mark her ill-feeling towards France, gave peculiar facilities to dyers and scourers ; and and the images of saints—to place such an abomina- Elizabeth had been induced to send an expedition to supplied even a few mill sites with light watertion before her.
Normandy, under the command of Warwick : but power. Large streets, squares, and markets, with The dignitary replied, that he had done so with although her resentment induced her to take such a innumerable courts, lanes, and alleys, sprang quickthe humble hope of pleasuring her majesty—that a step, the natural parsimony of her disposition ly up, and within a century a vast hive of industry the prints were both rare and costly; wittily adding, prevented her doing the only thing which could surrounded the places where a few French refugees that if he were an ignorant person, her grace ought render it effectual-namely, supplying it with had planted the manufactures of silk, tapestry, the better to pardon him.
money-in war, as in peace, the sinew of every wollen-cloth, and stuffs. At the time of the Union, What rendered the conduct of Elizabeth the more enterprise.
and for some years afterwards, the Liberties preinconsistent on this occasion was, that up to the The consequence was that Rouen was taken, and sented a scene like the business part of Manchester. very time of her thus publicly insulting the dean, upwards of three hundred of the English auxiliaries Fully forty thousand people lived by the employ. she retained in the Chapel Royal a large silver cru- put to the sword, by the troops of the king of ment given there. Now it is a City of the Dead, cifix, suspended over the altar, together with candle- France : on the receipt of which intelligence, there where, from the long lines of gaunt, sepulchral, sticks and other ecclesiastical ornaments, such was great discontent in London-most men blaming gaping houses, crumbling into ruins, there only flits are generally used in the Catholic church. The the avarice of the queen, in not supporting her occasionally, with noiseless, shoeless feet, some hunintention of the whole scene, which was well got generals and troops in a befitting manner.
gry, spectrous figure draped in rags, to whom one
might suppose a workhouse would be a palace, but entire number of masters at any one time engaged duced little more than a century and a half ago, in who nevertheless prefers the fearful struggle with in their production varied between five and ten or full perfection, into Ireland. That the branch for gnawing hunger, and destitution, and sickness, and twelve. Shortly after the Union in the year 1800, which Ireland is now famous grew out of it in the the eaming by precarious employment of an occa- the silk trade declined so considerably that the last quarter of the past century, and that within the sional scanty meal which may be enjoyed with the "throwing” branch disappeared altogether. With first quarter of the present century the whole bad half-naked little ones, to the disruption of all fami- the decline of the woollen trade at the same period, well nigh withered from the country, root and liar ties, and the separation from all loved objects, the fine worsted spinning vanished also; so that, branch. Yet it evidently suits the genius of the which the tenderness of our laws for the charitable although the poplin survives, and has even begun people, who combine the artistic taste of the French support of our poorer brethren compassionately and again to flourish, the materials used in it are all im- with the solid workmanship of the English ; and considerately enjoins!
ported from London and Yorkshire, and only about we trust that the revival of manufacturing industry The manufacture introduced by the Latouches one-third of the total cost of the fabric is expended which will follow from the present Exhibition will was what is called “whole silk :" that is to say, in wages in Ireland.
be felt by the silk and poplin manufacturers, as well there was no other fibre mixed with it. But it is The prestige which became attached to the name as by the linen and woollen, and all others; and probable that in a very little while, mixed fabrics of of Jacob Geoghegan was worthily sustained through that Irish tabinets will henceforth take their place various kinds were introduced. It was not, how- more than half a century. As he was the father of amongst the tasteful goods of general consumption ever, until about the year 1780 that we find a native the Irish tabinet manufacture, it was fit that his in England. Irish manufacturer-Jacob Geoghegan, of Francis sons should be the first to introduce the use of the The peculiarity in the manufacture of poplin constreet, attaining celebrity for “ Mode,” a fabric then Jacquard loom. In the year 1825 the first Jacquard sists in the formation of the pattern as well as the in great demand for ladies' cloaks. “Mode” was a loum made in Ireland was got up by Richard Robin- entire surface of the cloth solely from the "web" material precisely similar to the plain tabinet, or son, of the Phænix Iron Works, for the Messrs. or “warp.” The web or warp is the set of threads poplin, of the present day : that is to say, it was Geoghegan ; and to the present hour, they have lost which pass longitudinally through the loom. They made with a silk warp, shot with a worsted west of none of their characters for excellence, although are wound upon a cylinder fixed at the back of the great thickness, the material being heavier than others give more extensive employment. The entire loom; the various colors being properly arranged even that which is now known as “double tabinet.” | number of looms (all Jacquard now) engaged in side by side. They are then drawn separately We have an early recollection of a peep into grand- Dublin in the manufacture of poplin, is about 200. through the loops in what is called “the harness ;" mama's wardrobe treasures, amongst which was a Of these, the Messrs. Pim—an engraving of whose thence between the wires of the “sleigh” which is mode cloak, that quite fulfilled the highest order of loom and show-case, at present in the Great Dublin in the going part or “ beam" of the loom-over a praise that used to be bestowed upon such fabrics Exhibition, accompanies this article-employ be- fixed beam in front and on to a lath to which their
standing alone upon the floor." And there tween forty and fifty. Messrs. Atkinson employ ends are attached. As the piece begins to be was also a Court dress of brocade, with a train of nearly as many; Messrs. Keely and Leech about woven, this lath is gradually drawn down to the extraordinary richness, made in the Liberty, to twenty. Both of these latter firms have very beau- winding cylinder on which the piece is finally rolled. which a legend was attached of some wonderful tiful looms working in the Exhibition. The other. The “ weft” is the thread which is “shot” upon Flemish weaver which has quite escaped our nie- manufacturers, are Messrs. Fry, Reynolds, Judge, the “ warp;" that is to say, which is carried mory; but the bunches of flowers wrought by his Dunn, Miss Reynolds, and Moran. It may not be by the shuttle between the threads of the warp, hands used certainly to call forth strong expressions unworthy of notice that Mr. Leech, of the firm of which are alternately raised and depressed by the of wonder and praise from those who were compe- Kcely and Leech, designed and drew the pattern“ harness," and each shoot of the west thread is tent to form a judgment upon artistic design and for
, and wove, the first piece of brocaded poplin in “struck home” by the wires of the “sleigh.” In finish.
the loom which we have already mentioned as the whole silk goods, the pattern is formed partly by Geoghegan's tabinets soon became the rage. He first Jacquard made in Ireland for the house of the warp and partly by the west, both being the introduced brocaded work into the looms, and it was Geoghegan. And another matter deserving men- same material. But the weft of poplin being wool, quickly discovered that woollen wests, completely tion here, in connection with our subject, is the dis- it can never be allowed to show on the surface. hidden by throwing the body of silk warp to the sur- play in Messrs. Atkinson's show-cases, amidst a Some poplins, however, have "shoots” of silk faco, the threads lying in one direction, produced a gorgeous collection of gold and silver brocaded and thrown at intervals among them. The effect therericher face than that which appeared on whole silk flowered tabinets, of a beautiful specimen of tapes- by produced is a surface resembling that of • Terry articles where the cross shades of the west inter- try weaving. It is a portrait of George II., execut- velvet,” the silk sinking deeply in between the ribs rupted the lines of warp rays. Several silk manu- ed in Dublin in the year 1738, in the best style of formed by the thick woollen weft. Sunken patfacturers got up poplin looms, and various experi- the lapisseries of Gobelins or Beauvais. It is set in terns are also thus produced. Most of our readers ments were tried for the purpose of increasing
a very richly carved and gilt franse, and inscribed have seen the Jacquard looms working in the great beauty or decreasing cost of production. Cotton, " ye workmanship of John Vanbeaver, ye famous Exhibition ; and they will remember the huge bales flas, and hempen wests were tried, but none were tapestry weaver.”. The portrait was executed for of cards pierced with holes in various patterns, and found to mingle so successfully with the silk as the hall of the guild of weavers in the street called connected together so far as to form one long piece, wool. It was likewise discovered that the fine
“ The Combe,” in the Earl of Meath's liberty ; and which hung at the top of each loom and moved worsted used for the making of poplin should be the frame bears likewise the inscriptions of the one link down at each blow of the beam and pres
names of the then Master of the Guild (Alexander sure of the weaver's foot on the treadle. This bunspun from “hogget " wool, that is, the first shearing of yearling sheep; that it should be long in the Rikey), and of the wardens (Richard Wheliing and dle of cards will be recognised in our illustration. staple and close in its texture, inasmuch as star-William Beasley), with the date 1738. The Guilds Their application is very curious and ingenious. It ing or hairy worsted utterly spoiled the face of the of Dublin were finally broken up at the time of the formed one of the grand features of Monsieur Jacpoplin ; and that a well manufactured tabinet was Reform Bill. Their once beautiful halls are in ru- quard's invention. The designer of a pattern for the most enduring, as well as the most lustrous ins. The Weavers' Hall is let out to several poor a brocade must bear in mind the requirements of
tenants. The splendid tapestries with which it was the loom. Having drawn his pattern, he pierces it and beautiful, of all fabrics in which silk was
once adorned, have been destroyed or dispersed, in proper places. It is then divided into portions, used.
The heavy protective duties that prevailed until and the chief ornament of the building—the portrait and card-boards, cut to the proper length and width, very recently kept Irish poplin out of the English of the royal patron of the Guild, has passed for a
are placed under it and pierced similarly. As many market ; and as their quality and price made them trille into the hands of one of the last of the mem- cards as completely cover the design having been
bers. articles of luxury only suited to the atmosphere of
thus prepared, copies of them are made, so as to
Thus it appears that a manufacture which, more repeat it until a sufficient number for the length the Court, their chief consumption was confined to Dublin. The result was, that no considerable ex
than any other, combines the labours of the high of a piece have been formed. They are then contension of the manufacture could take place, and the artist with those of the simple workman, was intro- nected or hinged together, and placed in the loom