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without any warning, and I saw two or three led away to the palace in as great agony as if they had been going to a place of execution. About three in the afternoon the prince pronounced sentences on those convicted, some were blinded of both eyes, had their ears, noses, and lips cut off, their tongues slit, and one or both hands chopped off; others were deprived of their manhood, their toes and fingers lopped off, and all were turned out into the streets with a warning to the inhabitants not to assist or hold any intercourse with them.” P. 214.
The route from Kirman to Sheeraz was comparatively easy, but the narrative continues both to interest and amuse. The author, on his arrival, found that General Malcolm had left that place, and the most curious part of what reinains in the narrative is the unexpected meeting with his friend and fellow traveller, Captain Christie, who, after making a circuit of two thousand two hundred and fifty miles through countries seldom if ever before traversed by Europeans, had found his way to Ispahan, which place is here written Isfahan. With this anecdote, it may be expedient to close our account of this portion of the work.
“We remained at Isfahan eight or nine days, and in the interim had the sincere pleasure of being joined by Captain Christie, from Heerat and Yezd. It seldom falls to the lot of man to experience sensations of such perfect gratification as this meeting afforded; us both, and if possible those sensations were augmented by its being quite unexpected. Captain Christie arrived in the city about dusk, unknowing and unknown, and went to the governor's palace to request a lodging, which was ordered, when, by accident, one of the attendants observed that there were two Firingees in the Chihul Setoon *; and that he would possibly like to join their party: he accordingly came to the palace and sent up a man to say that he wished to speak to one of us. I went down, and as it was then quite dark, I could not recognise his features ; and he fancying me a Persian from my dress, we conversed for several minutes ere we discovered each other. The moment we did so was one of the happiest of my life.”
The second part of the work to the extent of almost a hundred pages contains a short historical and geographical memoir of the countries through which the author passed. The memoir consists of such observations as the traveller's situation enabled him to make on the government, climate, soil and natural history of Beloochistan, and also of Sinde. One of his conclusions from his own and the discoveries of others is, that the mountains of Asia are the lighest in the world. With regard to the value of
* One of the palaces in which Doctor Cormick and myself were permitted to put up.
the author's geographical discoveries, the reader has only to remember that this portion of Asia has bitherto been a blank in all the maps which have hitherto been published. His opinions are different, in some points, both from those of M. D'Anville and Major Rennel ; but it must not be forgotten that what Lieut Potiinger says ou these provinces, is the result of personal observation.
We are obliged to pass over some curious statistical remarks, with the general assurance that they will well repay the reader's attention. At p. 331 et seq. a concise but pleasing account is given of the mission to Sinde, undertaken froin the same motives as those which induced the East India Company to send deputa. tions to Persia and to the king of Caubul. Much nearer to the English territories in Hindostan, the court of Sinde viewed every one of the transactions of the Government with a greater degree of jealousy and suspicion, and endeavoured to throw all possible obstacles in the way of the envoy and bis suite.
They were watched with unceasing vigilance; they were insulted in various ways, by withholding provisions, and ill-treating their attendants ; they were directed to dispatch to Bombay the vessels which brought them. Nevertheless, by perseverance, tirmness, and no common share of self-command, the gentlemen made their way from Kurachee, the port at which they landed, to Tallah, fornierly the capital of Sinde, and by many believed to be the Patiala of Alexander. From Tattah they proceeded to Hyderabad, the residence of the sovereigns, who are termed « Umeers."
Here fresh difficulties arose on account of the ceremonials of admission to the royal presence.
The intolerable arrogance of oriental princes always requires forms of servile degradation to which Europeans never will submit. A whole week was consumed in arranging a mode of introduction and reception which was satisfactory to both parties. It took place as follows :
“ From the first gate at which we entered the fortress, the path led up a steep ascent that was lined on both sides with ranks of matchlockmen, until we came to a second tower with a winding passage under it; whence to the palace the streets were so filled with armed men, that it was with much labour, and at the risk of tramp. ling many under our horses feet, that we made way through them. At last we got to the place where we were to dismount, and were there received by Wullee Mohummud Khan and several other offi. cers of the highest rank, who preceded us to a large open platform at the further end of which sat the three Umeers. The platform was spread with the richest Persian carpets, so that we here put off shoes, and the moment the envoy made the first step to advance to. wards the princes they all rose and stood upright until he reached his allotted place, which was distinguished from that of the remain
der of the party, by having an embroidered cloth laid over it. As soon as we had sat down a scene of confusion ensued which it is difficult to describe, and could only be attributed to a distrust of our real designs, for the mass of attendants, matchlockmen, and swords. men crowded into the place, and nearly overwhelmed us by their pressure. The foremost of them even placed their feet on the scabbards of our swords and skirts of our coats; which from the manner we were sitting, lay along the carpet; but whether this was a preconcerted plan or the effect of chance it was impossible to guess. Subseq'ient interviews however incline me to lean to the former idea. The princes, individually, made polite enquiries for all our healths. Indeed nothing but compliments and expressions of politeness took place, as it was a mere audience of ceremony ; and after ve had been in the Durbar about half an hour, the eldest verbally signified their wish that we should retire, a hint that is given at all Indian levees by the introduction of Pan Sooparee *, aud utr or oil of roses; but in Sinde they have no such custom, nor even the Persian one of thullyans and coffee.
A good account of Hyderabad, and the surrounding region is given at p. 369 et seq. The result of the negotiation was honourable to the individuals employed, and satisfactory to the supreme British authority in India.
The people of Sinde are described as avaricious, deceitful, cruel, ungrateful, and, above all, notorious liars. The beauty of the women is proverbial. A concise history of Siode is subjoined, and the author is of opinion that this country greatly resembles Egypt.
Mention is made of a battle at p. 389, in which the rajah appeared on an elephant, in a chair covered with a canopy set with precious stones, and that he had two beautiful slave girls with him, one to serve him with wine and the other with beetel leaf and areca uut. This is followed by an anecdote recording a fact of horrible barbarity. An appendix concludes the volume which exhibits an abstract of Captain Christie's journal after parting with Lieut. Pottinger at Nooshky. It is greatly to be lamented that the author did not live to fill up the brief outline which is here given. The regions which he traversed are almost totally unknown in our books of geography, and of Heerat, the capital of klorasan, we were till now entirely ignorant. It occupies a space of four square miles ; has more irade than any city in Asia under a native government: at this place Capt. Christie remained a month under his assumed character of a horse-dealer. Of Heerat therefore as well as of the interesting country between
• The pan is the leaf of the piper betle ; the sooparee, the fruit of the areca tree.
this place and Yezd, and between Yezd and Ispahan, we might reasonably have expected much curiousinformation. Most unfortunately Capt. Christie was killed in Persia in a night attack on the Persians by a body of Russian cavalry. A most excellent map is prefixed to this work, of which the space allotted to it in our Review will sufficiently demonstrate our opinion. We highly approve, and strongly recommend it.
Art. IV. A Series of Discourses on the Principles of religious
Belief, as connected with Human Happiness and Improvement. By the Rev. R. Morehead, A. M. of Baliol College, Oxford, Junior Minister of the Episcopal "Chapel, Cowgate, Edinburgh. Vol. II. Constable and Co. Edinburgh, and
Longnian and Co. London. gs. 1816. MR. Morehead has already acquired considerable reputation as a writer of sermons. His first volume was read with uncommon avidity, and passed, we believe, through three editions in the short space of ten mouths. The present volume, regarded as a bookseller's commodity, has not perhaps met with the same degree of success; but we are certain that it is neither less deserving of patronage nor less likely to do good to the reader than its more fortunate companion.
The objects which the author appears to have proposed to himself in writing these discourses, is not to explain difficult passages in holy writ, nor to support the opinions of any one body of christians, as differing from the tenets of others; it seems rather to have been to recommend an attentive study of the scriptures as the best rule of life, and to ensure the cultivation of ihat mild spirit and of those good works, which the gospel is so eminently calculated at once to inspire and exemplify. He accordingly dwells with eloquence and delight on the various pictures of goodness which are shewn forth in the Bible, as drawn from the history of our Lord and of his immediate followers, and describes, with no small felicity of expression, the happy effects which would be produced upon the intercourse of society at large, were christians to keep stcadily in view those exalted models of piety and virtue. It is not inconsistent with these remarks to observe, that nearly one half of this volume is taken up with lectures on the gospel of St. Mark, bearing an avowed resemblance, both in object and manner, to the well known discourses on Si. Matthew, publislied by Bishop Porteus; for yeither jo this department of his theological labours
has Mr. Morehead entered into much disquisition in point of, doctrine, nor into extended criticism in point of biblical lan. guage. Throughout the whole he has given a decided preference to practical teaching, urging with the greatest simplicity, and warmth of manner, the weighty matters of the law, and unfolding the import of the first and great commandment, as well as of the second, which is like unto it.
In his first sermon, which has for its subject “ the character of religion in the present age," the author sets forth what may be called a reason or an apology for recommending, in these enlightened times, a special attention to the character and evi. dences of the christian religion. He justly observes, that at the period when the (Porteus's) lectures on St. Matthew were coinposed, a very fatal spirit of infidelity had spread itself over the christian world, and that, not confined to the higher and more licentious orders of men, it had even crept into the retirement of the cottage, and was threatening to blight all the hopes and to wither all the virtues of the human race. He like. wise adds his suffrage to the conviction which was very generally felt, that much good was effected by the exertions of the venerable prelate just alluded to, as well as by those of the powerful auxiliaries who laboured with him in the same arduous field. Lessons, however, of still greater efficacy, says he, have since been collected from the course of human affairs; and a voice more eloquent than “ the tongues of men and of angels, has been heard amid the storms which since that epoch have agitated the world. The rich and the powerful have at leugth seen the danger of unhinging those principles on which the stability of society depends; and the poor have found nothing but additional wretcheduess in the fancied illumination which seemed to be opening upon them. The progress of infidelity bas consequently been arrested, and the spirit of its apostles either converted or subdued. There are few men who are now desirous to keep it alive. They who have themselves but little religion, are yet ashamed of the cause, which has been rendered familiar to the lowest and most illiterate ; and accordingly the ingenious writers of the present day seldom venture to indulge in any liberties with revelation, which at no distant period was one of the most common topics upon which fashionable ridicule was displayed. The better description of men among those whose opinions were thus unfortunately perverted, have now no feeling of vanity in their emancipation from what they once supposed to be mere vulgar opinion, but would very willingly return to the simple creed of their fathers.
Contrasted with this ill-founded fabric of religious scepticism, which has pride rather than sincerity for its basis, Mr. Morehead