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Royal Society, “On the Animal Secretions," received high commendation as a production of great originality and genius.
He married in Scotland, and returned to this country in 1718, and settled in the city of New York. Although Dr, Colden, soon after his return to America, entered extensively into civil and political affairs, he never lost his love for sci. entific pursuits. He continued an extensive correspondence with the most scientific men of Europe; and was through life one of the most active individuals in America in promoting the interest of all literary and scientific institutions. He was the first, says Dr. Franklin, who suggested the idea of establishing the American Philosophical Society. He is said to have been one of the earliest advocates in this country for the cooling plan of treatment in febrile diseases. He published an able paper on the yellow fever, as it raged in New-York in 1743; a paper on cancer; and one on the malignant sore-throat, which prevailed extensively in his day through North America. Also, an inquiry into the operation of the intellect of animals. His latest production was an introduction to the study of physic, addressed to his grandson, written when he was 81 years of age. He published several other papers of great merit.- Reed' Cyclopædia, American edition : The American Medical and Philosophical Register, i. 297.
MARK CATESBY, F. R. S., an eminent naturalist, was born in England, 1679. He came to Virginia in 1712, and in 1722 removed to South Carolina. He spent nearly his whole life in the cultivation of natural science. In 1748 he published a natural history of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahama Islands, containing numerous plates.--Rees' Cyclopædia, American edition ; Miller, ii. 365,
William Douglass, M. D. an eminent Scotch physician, who came to this country as early as 1715 or 20, and settled in Boston. He was considered a man of great skill in his profession; but was extremely eccentric, rough in his manners, irritable in his temper, and possessed strong prejudices. When Dr. Boylston introduced the practice of inoculation in small-pox, Douglass inveighed violently against him, and wrote several sarcastic papers on the subject. He published, besides, a history of the inoculated small-pox, a practical bistory of a new eruptive miliary fever, with an angina ulcusculosa, which prevailed in Boston in 1735 and 1736. He is said, also, to have made a very extensive collection of indigenous plants of this country. He died in 1752.-Hutchinson, ii. 80.; Holmes' Annals, ii, 192:
Doctor John CLAYTON, an eminent botanist and physician, was born in England, in 1685. He came to Virginia in 1705, and resided near Williamsburg. He was elected a member of several of the first literary societies of Europe, and corresponded with many of the most learned naturalists of that period. As a practical botanist he was probably not inferior to any one of the age. He is the author of Flora Virginica, a work published by Gronovius, at Leyden, 8vo. in 1739, 1743, and 1762. He published in the Philosophical Transactions, several communications, treating of the culture of the different species of tobacco, and an ample account of the medicinal plants which he had discovered in Virginia. He also left behind him two volumes of manu. scripts, neatly prepared for the press, and a hortus siccus, with marginal notes and references, for the engraver, in preparing the plates for his proposed work. It is greatly to be regretted that this work was destroyed by an incendiary during the revolutionary war. Mr. Jefferson says Dr. Clayton was a native of Virginia; see his Notes on Va. p. 54; Barton's Med. and Phys. Journal, ii. 139; Rees' Cyclo. pædia, American edition.
John LINING, M. D. a distinguished physician and philosopher, of Charleston, South Carolina, was a native of Scotland, and came to this country in 1725. He published a series of statistical experiments which he made through the whole of the year 1740. In 1753 he published “ a History of the American Yellow Fever.”-Ramsay's Review of Medicine, 42.
John Bartram, an eminent botanist of Pennsylvania, was born in Chester county, in that State, in 1701. He is the first American who conceived the plan of establishing a botanic garden. He purchased a situation on the banks of the Schuylkill, five miles from Philadelphia, and enriched it with every variety of the most curious and beautiful vegetables, collected in his excursions from Canada to Florida. He corresponded with many of the most distinguished botanists of his time, and was pronounced by Linnæus to be “ the greatest natural botanist in the world." He was elected a member of several learned societies abroad, and at length appointed American botanist to his Britannic Majesty, George III., which appointment he held until his death in 1777. He published in the Philosophical Transactions several communications on zoology. He published observations on the inhabitants, climate, soil, &c. made in his travels from Pennsylvania to Onondaga, 1751. A description of East Florida, 1774.- Rees' Cyclopædia, American edition ; Barton's Med, and Phys. Journal.
Doctor Ezekiel Hersey, an eminent physician, graduated at Harvard College in 1728, and practised physic for many years in Hingham, Massachusetts. At his death, in 1770, he bequeathed to Harvard College one thousand pounds sterling, towards founding a Professorship of Anatomy and Surgery. His widow also gave an equal sum for the same purpose.—Holmes' Annals, ii. 297.
Doctor Abner HERSEY, an eminent physician of Barnstable, Massachusetts, was brother to the preceding, and died not many years after him. At the time of his decease he bequeathed to Harvard College, for the establishment of a Professorship of the Theory and Practice of Physic, the sum of five hundred pounds sterling.-Allen's Biog. Dictionary.
Doctor John MOULTRIE, a distinguished physician of Charleston, South Carolina, was a native of Europe, and came to this country. in 1733. For forty years he stood at the head of his profession in Charleston. He possessed great talents for observation, and was wonderfully successful in finding out the hidden causes of disease. He was the idol of his patients; and, at his death, in 1773, many of the ladies of Charleston went into mourning on his account. The year following his death an unusual number of females perished in childbed, and apparently from despondency.
Dr. M. had a son who graduated at Edinburgh in 1749, and was a distinguished scholar and an eminent practitioner of medicine in Charleston. At his graduation he defended a thesis, “ De Febre Flava."-Ramsay's Review of Med. 41. 43.
William Bull, M. D. a physician of South Carolina, and a native of the State, distinguished for his literary attainments, as well as for an extensive knowledge of the science of medicine. He was the pupil of Boerhaave, and received the degree of M. D. at the University of Leyden, in 1734, at which time he defended a thesis on “ Colica Pictonum." He is quoted by Van Swieten as his fellow-student, with the title of the learned Dr. Bull. He spent a few of the last years of his life in England, and died in London in 1791, aged 82. -Ramsay's Review of Med. 42.
Dr. John Tennant, a respectable physician of Port Royal, Virginia, who first brought into view the virtues of the Seneca snake-root. In 1736, he published, at Williamsburg, an essay on pleurisy, in which he treats of the Seneca snakeroot as an efficient remedy in the cure of this disease. This article has since been introduced into the Materia Medica, and extensively employed in the treatment of that and other diseases. Dr. Tennant, it is believed, was a family connexion of the late celebrated Dr. Richard Mead, of Lon
don. He held a medical correspondence with Dr. Mead for many years, and it was to him that he first communicated his account of the Seneca.-Ramsay's Review of Med. 36 ; Miller, i. 318, Letter from Dr. Spence, 1825.
John BRETT, M. D. was a pupil of Boerhaave, and a graduate at the University of Leyden. He emigrated to this coun. try, and settled at Newport, in the state of Rhode Island, about 1740. He acquired great reputation in consequence of the extended fame of his preceptor.
Dr. Thomas Rodman, came over to America, and settled at Newport, Rhode Island, at the same time; and
Dr. MAGRAW, a physician of the Radcliff school, accompanied them, and settled at New-York.
THOMAS MOFFAT, M. D. a learned Scotch physician, emigrated to this country, and settled in Rhode Island in 1750. He was often consulted, and appealed to in difficult cases; but was driven out of the country in 1772, on account of his political opinions.
Doctor Thomas CADWALLADER, an eminent physician of Philadelphia, after acquiring the rudiments of his profession in America, repaired to Europe to complete his education, and spent some time in London and Paris. In the former place he studied anatomy under the celebrated Cheselden. On his return to Philadelphia he made dissections and demonstrations of the human body for his pupil, the elder Shippin. He published, about the year 1740, a treatise “ On the Iliac Passion,” in which he explodes the practice which till that time was common in the country, of giving quicksilver and drastic purges. He recommends in their place mild cathartics, and the use of opiates.—Ramsay's Review of Med. 36 ; Wistar's Eulogy on Shippin.
John Redman, M. D. a distinguished physician of Philadelphia, was born in that city in 1722. After studying medicine with Dr. Kearsly, he settled in Bermuda; but in a few years visited the medical schools of Edinburgh, Paris, and Leyden, to complete his education, and graduated at the latter University in 1748. He returned to America, and settled in his native city, where he soon acquired an extensive practice, and rose to high distinction in his profession. He was elected the first President of the College of Physi. cians of Philadelphia.
He was a strong advocate for a bold and decided practice, and considered a more energetic practice necessary in the cure of American diseases than in those of Europe. He bled freely in the yellow fever of 1762, and gave his whole influence in support of the practice in 1793, In the diseases
of old age, he considered moderate bleedings as the first of remedies. He made free use of mercury in all chronic diseases, and introduced the use of the turpeth mineral, as an emetic in gangrenous sore-throat, in 1764. No physician, probably, of his day, exerted a more extensive and controlling influence over the practice of medicine in the country; than Dr. Redman. He published an inaugural disserta
“Abortion," in 1748, and a defence of inoculation in small-pox, in 1759.- American Medical and Philosophical Register ; Philadelphia Medical Museum, v. 49-56.
ARTHUR LEE, M. D. was a native of Virginia, and brother to Richard Henry Lee, the celebrated patriot of the revolution. Doctor Lee received his classical education at Edinburgh, and afterwards studied medicine in that University. As soon as he graduated he returned to his native state, and settled at Williamsburg, where he practised medicine for several years ; but afterwards abandoned the profession, went to England, and commenced the study of the law in the Temple. He soon entered into political life, and rendered important services to his country during the revolutionary war. To the abilities of the statesman he is said to have united the acquisitions of the scholar. He. was a member of the American Philosophical Society, and published several papers, mostly of a political character. He died in Virginia in 1792.-Allen's Biog. Dictionary.
LIONEL CHALMERS, M. D. was a native of Great-Britains and came to this country, and settled in South Carolina. He was an eminent physician, and distinguished for his various and extensive attainments. He made and recorded observations on the weather of South Carolina, for ten successive years, viz. from 1750 to 1760. He communicated to the Medical Society in London, a paper on “Opisthotonos and Tetanus” in 1754, which was published in the first volume of the Transactions of the Society. He also wrote “A treatise on the Weather and Diseases of South Carolina,” which was published in London, in 1776, and “ an Essay on Fevers," a valuable work, published in Charleston, in 1767.--Ramsay's Review of Med. 42.
Dr. HAMILTON and Dr. THOMPSON, two eminent Scotch physicians, emigrated to this country at an early period, probably about 1700, and settled in Maryland, where they practised for many years; the former in Calvert county, and the latter in Prince George's county. They were both men of great celebrity in their time. Nearly cotemporary with these, were Doctors SPRIGG, WEISENTHALL, Pue, ScØTT, MURRAY, and TOOTELL ; and, at a later period, Drs. THOMAS,