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for the West Indies. But no particular account is given of either of these physicians.-Stith's Hist. Va. 62. 74. 121.
Doctor SAMUEL FULLER was the first physician who came to New-England, He formed one of the company who landed at Plymouth, December 22, 1620, and was a deacon of the Rev. John Robinson's church. It is not certain that he had enjoyed the benefits of a collegiate education ; but he is said to have been well qualified in his profession, and eminently useful as a surgeon and physician: extending his benevolent labours, not only to the sick among his immediate friends at Plymouth, and the aborigines in the vicinity, but, by the desire of Governor Endicot, twice visited the new settlement at Salem, where he manifested his skill and success in practice, among the numerous sufferers under the scurvy and other diseases. His great success was attested by Governor Endicot, who spoke highly in his praise as an able physician.—Letter from Dr. Thacher, 1825.
Doctor CHARLES CHAUNCEY, a distinguished scholar, a respectable physician, and eminent divine, came from England to America in the year 1638, and resided some time at Plymouth and at Scituate ; but how extensively he entered into the practice of medicine, we are not informed.
He was chosen president of Harvard College in 1654, and held the office till his death in 1672. He had six sons, all of whom were eminent physicians and divines.- Ibid.
Doctor John Fisti, was educated at Cambridge University, England. Having studied the medical profession, after a suitable examination he obtained a license for public practice, and came to New-England in 1637. He resided successively at Salem, Wenham, and Chelmsford, where he was distinguished, and greatly esteemed as a skilful physician, a useful preacher, and a teacher of youth. He died in 1676. -Ibid.
Doctor Thomas THACHER was a native of England, and came to America in the year 1635. He finished his education in this country, and resided first at Weymouth, and afterwards at Boston, where he died in 1678. He was considered the best Greek and Arabic scholar of his time, and was held in high estimation as a successful practitioner of medicine, as well as a popular preacher. In 1677 he published a pamphlet, entitled “ A Brief Guide in the Small. pox and Measles.”—Magnalia, iii. 148–153.
The preceding physicians came over to America with the early colonists; and, although they devoted themselves to the duties of the profession, as far as the condition of the country at that period admitted, it is evident that they emi.
grated for other purposes than those of the practice of medicine, or the improvement of the science; and therefore form a distinct class from those regular and well educated physi. cians who commenced practice at a later period, and whose objects were exclusively professional.
Note D.–Page 10. It is to be regretted that the historical records of our country contain so few notices of our early physicians ; and especially that so little authentic information has been preserved of the diseases which prevailed during the early settlement of the country, the subsequent changes they underwent, and the mode of practice adopted, with its particular results. Yet, when we consider that the want of medical libraries, connected with the arduous duties of an extensive practice, in a new country, and among a scattered population, afforded but little opportunity for reading, and much less for writing on medical subjects, and that no medical journal was published in America until nearly the commencement of the present century, through which our physicians could communicate the results of their experience, or make known their improvements and discoveries, we cannot be surprised that no more of the early history of medicine and its practitioners has come down to us.
It appears that nearly all the most eminent physicians who commenced practice in the country before the Revolution, received their medical education in foreign schools; and a large proportion of them, particularly those of the southern provinces, emigrated from Great-Britain : for, although the Medical School of Philadelphia was established as early as 1765, it was not till the political connexion of the two countries was broken off, that an opinion generally prevailed that medicine could be taught in America. Since that period, the number of our physicians has rapidly increased, and most of them have been educated in our own schools.
This note contains a brief account of a few of those who have given a direction to the practice of medicine, or contributed to the advancement of the science.
Those who have held professorships in our schools, or have been otherwise engaged in teaching medicine, are generally known, and the influence of their labours is duly appreciated. They are not, therefore, included in the present sketch.
LEONARD HOAR, M. D. a distinguished scholar and physirian, of Massachusetts, was graduated at Harvard College,
in 1650. He soon after went to England, and having com pleted his course of medical studies, received the degree of Doctor of Medicine at the University of Cambridge, in 1653. He was probably the first native American who graduated in Medicine. How far he entered into the active duties of the profession on his return to America, is not known; but probably he never engaged extensively in practice, as a considerable portion of his time was occupied with the duties of the ministry, and scientific pursuits. In 1672, he was elected President of Harvard College, which office he held till his death in 1675.-Magnalia, iv. 129.
Dr. Thomas WYNNE, an eminent Welsh physician, who practised medicine several years, with high reputation, in London. He and his brother, who was also a physician, came to this country in 1682, with the original settlers of Pennsylvania. They both settled in Philadelphia, and were the earliest physicians of that city.
These gentlemen were followed by a succession of regular and well educated physicians, among whom were Dr. Ed. WARD Jones, Dr. Owen, Dr. KearsLY, Dr. GRÆME, Dr. ZACHARY, Dr. SHIPPIN, Senior, and Dr. Evans.
These were all eininent practitioners, and did much, even at the early period in which they lived, to give that respectabil, ity to the profession, for which Philadelphia has been so long and so pre-eminently distinguished.-- Wistar's Eulogy on Shippin.
NATHANIEL WILLIAMS, an eniinent physician of Massachusetts, was educated at Harvard College, where he graduated in 1693. After studying medicine, he entered into business, and for many years enjoyed a very extensive practice. He was one of the most popular and successful practitioners of his time. In 1721, he published a pamphlet, is On the Method of Practice in the Small-pox.” He died in 1739.-Letter from Dr. Thacher, 1825.
John Mitchell, M. D. F. R. S. a distinguished physician and botanist, came from England to this country in about 1700, and settled in Virginia, at the small town of Urbanna, situated on the Rappahannock. While he was occupied in an extensive practice, he spent considerable time in the cultivation of botany, and wrote a useful work on the general principles of the science, containing descriptions of several new genera of plants, published in 1769. In 1743, he wrote an interesting and original essay on the causes of the different colours of people of different climates, which was published in the Philosophical Transactions.
He attributes the difference of complexion in the human species to the influence of climate, and the modes of life;
and thinks that the whites have degenerated more from the original complexion of Noah and his family, than the Indians, or even Negroes. The colour of the descendants of Ham, he considers a blessing rather than a curse, as without it they could not well inhabit Africa. His principles were afterwards adopted by President Smith, of Princeton College, New-Jersey, who wrote a more extended essay on the subject.
He wrote various other essays, which did him great credit as a man of genius and observation ; but his most valuable production, perhaps, is a paper which he drew up on the Yellow Fever, as it appeared in Virginia in 1737, 1741, and 1742. This paper, left by him in manuscript, fell into the hands of Dr. Franklin, who communicated it to Dr. Rush. Dr. Rush not only read the essay with interest, but acknowledges that he derived from it hints which assisted him in detecting the true nature and method of treating the yeilow fever, as it appeared in Philadelphia in 1793. But few physicians who have lived in our country have been more justly celebrated for originality of genius and accuracy of observation, than Dr. Mitchell. He lived to practise his profession nearly fifty years in Virginia.-Rush's Enquiries, iii.; Miller's Retrospect, i. 318; ii. 367.
John Nicoll, M. D. a distinguished physician of NewYork, was a native of Scotland, graduated in medicine at the University of Edinburgh, and came to this country about the year 1700. He was distinguished as a successful practitioner, and beloved for his private virtues. After having spent a lise devoted to the works of benevolence and piety, he died in 1743, aged 63 years. -Smith's New-York, 191.
Zabdiel Boylston, F. R. S was born in Brookline, Massachusetts, in 1680. After a good private education he studied medicine with Dr. Cutler, then an eminent physician of Boston, and soon after commenced the practice of his profession in that town. By close application to study, and great attention to his patients, he soon raised himself to the head of his profession, and acquired a high reputation as a successful practitioner.
Dr. B. will ever be remembered with gratitude by his countrymen, as the first physician of America who introduced the practice of inoculating in small-pox. His first experiment was made in June, 1721. Previous to this time the small-pox had spread through the colonies at different periods, and particularly in-1678, 1692, and 1702, and had made dreadful ravages wherever it extended. The idea of inoculation was farst suggested by the Rev. Cotton Mather,
who had read in the Philosophical Transactions two communications on the subject, one from Constantinople, and another from Smyrna. When the small-pox appeared in Boston in 1721, carrying with it great mortality and alarm, Dr. Mather addressed a letter to the physicians of the town, presenting them with an account of the two papers from the East, requesting them to take the subject into consideration; but they treated the request with neglect. Dr. Boylston, who was distinguished for his boldness and decision, as well as humanity, took up the subject of inoculation on his own responsibility, and commenced the experiment by inoculating three of his own family; an only son and two servants. These cases all terminated favourably, and established in his own mind the preventive power of inoculation. For this innovation in practice, Dr. B. drew down on himself the opposition and resentment of his professional brethren, the disapprobation of the selectmen of the town, and the indigna: tion of an offended populace. He had his windows broken by the mob, and was pelted with stones as he walked the streets. But he could not be diverted from his purpose : and by the aid of the clergy he carried the experiment fairly ihrough. During the years 1721 and 1722, he inoculated iwo hundred and forty-seven persons, and thirty-nine were inoculated by others. Of this number only six died; while, of five thousand seven hundred and fifty-nine who in the same period took the disease the natural way, eight hundred and forty-four died. This experiment established the utility of inoculation, and the practice became general in America. Previous to this period, but few had been inoculated in England, and those chiefly convicts. But from the success which attended the practice in America, the physicians of that country were encouraged to its more general introduction. Dr. B. visited England in 1725, and had the pleasure to see inoculation in general use, as the result of his own example. He was, while upon this visit, treated with great kindness and respect, and elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. He died at his native town in 1766, aged 86, universally respected and beloved. He published an historical account of the inoculated small-pox in New England, besides several papers in the Philosophical Transactions.-Holmes' Annals, ij. 103 ; Hutchinson, ii. 273. 276.
CADWALLADER COLDEN, an eminent physician and botanist, was a native of Scotland, and graduated at Edinburgh, in 1705. He came to this country with William Penn, in 1708 ; and, after having practised physic in Philadelphia for several years, with great success, he returned to his native country. While in England, a paper of his, read before the