Topographical Surveying: Including Geographic, Exploratory, and Military Mapping, with Hints on Camping, Emergency Surgery, and Photography

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J. Wiley & sons, 1900 - Camping - 910 pages
 

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Contents

CHAPTER II
18
Geological Survey Method of Topographic Surveying
20
Organization of Field Survey
22
Surveying Open Country
23
Sketching Open Country
28
Surveying Woodland or Plains
33
Sketching Woodland or Plains
35
Control from Public Land Lines
36
Sketching Over Public Land Lines
37
Cost of Topographic Surveys
40
The Art of Topographic Sketching
43
Optical Illusions in Sketching Topography
44
SURVEYING FOR DETAILED OR SPECIAL MAPS ART PAGE 21 Topography for Railway Location
47
Detailed Topographic Surveys for Railway Location
49
Topographic Survey for Canal Location
52
Surveys for Reservoirs
57
Survey of Dam Site
58
City Surveys
62
Cadastral and Topographic City Survey
64
Cost of Largescale Topographic Surveys
67
CHAPTER IV
68
Instrumental Methods Employed in Geographic Surveys
69
Geographic Maps
70
Features Shown on Geographic Maps
72
Geographic Reports
73
Scale and Cost of Governmental Geographic Surveys
74
Scale Cost and Relief of Government Geographic Maps
75
Exploratory Surveys
76
Exploratory and Geographic Surveys Compared
77
Methods and Examples of Exploratory Surveys
82
CHAPTER V
92
Military Reconnaissance with Guide Map
95
Detailed Military Map
100
Military Siege Maps ΙΟΙ
101
Military Memoirs
102
Cadastral Surveys
103
Scale and Cost of Cadastral Surveys
107
2
108
Origin and Development of Topographic Forms
109
Physiographic Processes
110
Classification of Physiographic Processes
112
ART PAGE 49 Erosion Transportation and Corrasion
113
Topographic Forms I 20
114
Classification of Topographic Forms
122
GLOSSARY OF TOPOGRAPHIC Forms
133
PART II
146
Planetable Surveying
147
Reconnaissance and Execution of Planetable Triangulation
149
Tertiary Triangulation from Topographic Sketch Points
151
Varieties of Planetables
152
Planetable Tripods and Boards
153
Telescopic Alidades
157
Adjustments of Telescopic Alidade
159
Gannett Planetable
160
Sightalidades
161
Folding Exploratory Planetable
163
Cavalry Sketchboard
164
CHAPTER VIII
167
Sliderule
168
Using the Sliderule
169
Planetable Paper
174
Preparation of Field Sheets
175
Manipulation of Pencil and Straightedge
178
Needle Points Pencil Holders and Sharpeners
179
CHAPTER IX
180
Error in Horizontal Angle due to Inclination of Plane table Board
181
Location by Intersection
182
Location by Resection
185
Threepoint Problem Graphically Solved
186
Tracingpaper Solution of the Threepoint Problem
187
Bessels Solution of the Threepoint Problem
188
Coast Survey Solution of the Threepoint Problem
190
Rangingin Liningin and Twopoint Problem
192
CHAPTER X
195
Traversing by Planetable and Magnetic Needle
197
Control by Largescale Magnetic Traverse with Planetable
199
Traversing by Planetable with Deflection Angles
200
Intersection from Traverse
202
Engineers Transit
203
Adjustments of the Transit
204
Traversing with Transit
207
Platting Transit Notes with Protractor and Scale
210
Platting Transit Notes by Latitudes and Departures
212
Prismatic Compass
214
Logarithms of Numbers to Four Places
215
Logarithms of Trigonometric Functions
217
Magnetic Declination
221
Secular Variation and Annual Change
222
Local Attraction
223
CHAPTER XI
223
Distances Time
226
Measuring Distance with Linen Tape
228
Odometer
229
For Converting Wheelrevolutions into Decimals of a Mile
233
Chaining
234
CHAPTER XII
236
Topography with Stadia
237
Tachymetry with Stadia
238
Accuracy and Speed of Stadia Tachymetry
240
Stadia Formula with Perpendicular Sight
243
Stadia Formula with Inclined Sight
246
ART PAGE 106 Determining Horizontal Distances from Inclined Stadia Meas ures
249
ings
250
Determining Elevations by Stadia
258
Diagram for Reducing Stadia Measures
259
Differences of Elevation from Stadia Measures
260
Diagram for Reducing Inclined Stadia Distances to Horizontal
264
Effects of Refraction on Stadia Measurements
266
Stadiarods
269
CHAPTER XIII
272
Measuring Distances with Gradienter
274
Natural Sines and Cosines
275
Natural Tangents and Cotangents
277
WagnerFennel Tachymeter
280
Rangefinding
282
Surveying with Rangefinder
283
Traversing with Rangefinder
284
Weldon Rangefinder
286
Accuracy and Difficulties of Rangefinding
289
Rangefinding with Planetable
290
CHAPTER XIV
292
Principles of Phototopography
296
Camera and Plates
298
Fieldwork of a Phototopographic Survey
299
Projecting the Phototopographic Map
300
PART III
305
Spiritleveling
306
Engineering Spiritlevels
308
Target Levelingrods
311
Speakingrods
313
Turningpoints
315
Benchmarks
316
Method of Running Single Lines of Levels
317
Instructions for Leveling
320
Notebooks
322
Platting Profiles
324
CHAPTER XVI
325
Geodetic Leveling
326
Precise Spiritlevel
327
Sequence in Simultaneous Doublerodded Leveling
329
Methods of Running
332
Manipulation of Instrument
336
Length of Sight
337
Sources of Error
339
Divergence of Duplicate Level Lines
343
Limit of Precision
344
Adjustment of Group of Level Circuits
345
Refraction and Curvature
347
Speed in Leveling
349
Cost of Leveling per Mile in Various States
350
Cost and Speed of Government Precise Leveling
351
Longdistance Precise Leveling
352
Handlevels
355
Using the Locke Handlevel
356
Abney Clinometer Level
357
CHAPTER XVII
359
Vertical Angulation
361
Vertical Angulation Computation
363
Differences of Altitude from Angles of Elevation or De pression
364
Vertical Angulation from Traverse
367
Trigonometric Leveling Computation
368
Logarithms of Radius of Curvature R in Meters
369
Errors in Vertical Triangulation
370
Refraction and Curvature
371
Leveling with Gradienter
372
CHAPTER XVIII
374
Methods and Accuracy of Barometric Leveling
375
Mercurial Barometer
376
Barometric Notes and Computation
378
Example of Barometric Computation
381
Guyots Barometric Tables
383
Reduction of Barometric Readings to Feet
384
Correction for Differences of Temperature
392
Correction for Differences of Gravity at Various Latitudes
393
Correction for Decrease of Gravity on a Vertical
394
Aneroid Barometer
395
Using the Aneroid
396
Thermometric Leveling
402
Altitude by Boilingpoint of Water
403
PART IV
404
Map Projection
405
Kinds of Projections
406
Cylinder Projections
410
Meridional Arcs Coordinates of Curvature
439
Scale Equivalents
446
CHAPTER XX
449
Contour Lines
455
Contour Construction
460
Conventional Signs
463
Lettering
477
Model and Relief Maps
478
Modeling the Map
480
Duplicating the Model Casting
485
WORKS OF REFERENCE ON TOPOGRAPHY
490
PART V
495
Base Measurement
497
Accuracy of Base Measurement
498
Base Measurement with Steel Tapes
500
Steel Tapes
501
Laying out the Base
505
Measuring the Base
507
Contactslide Base Apparatus
508
Icedbar Apparatus
511
Repsold Base Apparatus
514
Cost Speed and Accuracy
516
CHAPTER XXII
517
Correction for Temperature
518
Correction for Inclination of Base
519
Correction for Sag
521
Reduction of Base to Sealevel
522
Summary of Measures of Sections
523
Transfer of Ends of Base to Triangulation Signals
524
Other Corrections to Base Measurements
526
CHAPTER XXIII
527
Errors in Primary Traverse
528
Instruments Used in Primary Traverse
529
Method of Running Primary Traverse
531
Record and Reduction of Primary Traverse
532
Instructions for Primary Traverse
533
Cost Speed and Accuracy of Primary Traverse
536
CHAPTER XXIV
538
Correction for Observed Check Azimuths
539
Computation of Latitudes and Longitudes
540
Corrected Latitudes and Longitudes
542
CHAPTER XXV
545
Reconnaissance for Primary Triangulation
546
Intervisibility of Triangulation Stations
549
Accuracy of Triangulation
553
Micrometer Microscope
556
Triangulation Signals
559
Tripod and Quadripod Signals
561
Observing Scaffolds
565
Heliotrope
566
Night Signals
574
Station and Witnessmarks
575
CHAPTER XXVI
577
Observers Errors and their Correction
578
ART PAGE 251 Instrumental Errors and their Correction
580
Methods of Measuring Horizontal Angles
584
Record of Triangulation Observations
588
Instructions for Fieldwork of Primary Triangulation
590
Primary TriangulationCost Speed and Accuracy
592
CHAPTER XXVII
594
Solution of Plane Triangles
596
Given Two Sides and Included Angle to Solve the Triangle
598
Given Three Sides of a Triangle to Find the Angles
599
Threepoint Problem
600
CHAPTER XXVIII
602
Rejection of Doubtful Observations
604
Probable Error of Arithmetic Mean
607
Reduction to Center
608
Station Adjustment
611
Routine of Station Adjustment
612
Formation of Table of Correlates
614
Formation of Normal Equations and Substitution in Table of Correlates
615
Figure Adjustment
616
Routine of Figure Adjustment
617
Notation Used in Figure Adjustment
618
Angle Equations
619
Side Equations
623
Solution of Angle and Side Equations
625
Correlates and Normal Equations
627
Algebraic Solution of Normal Equations
628
Substitution in Normal Equations
632
Weighted Observations
633
CHAPTER XXIX
636
Computation of Distances
637
Formulas for Computing Geodetic Coordinates
638
Example
642
Knowing Latitudes and Longitudes of Two Points to Compute Azimuths and Distances
646
CHAPTER XXX
672
Length of the Meter in Inches
674
Interconversion of English and Metric Measures
675
Logarithms and Factors for Conversion of English and Metric Measures
676
PART VI
678
Geodetic Astronomy
679
Astronomic Notation
683
Fundamental Astronomic Formulas
684
Finding the Stars
686
Parallax
688
Refraction
689
CHAPTER XXXII
695
Interconversion of Time and Arc
698
ART PAGE 305 Determination of Time
700
Time by a Single Observed Altitude of a Star
702
Approximate Time from Sun
703
CHAPTER XXXIII
707
Approximate Solar Azimuth
708
Azimuths of Secondary Accuracy
712
Primary Azimuths
719
Reduction of Azimuth Observations
720
Azimuth at Elongation
721
CHAPTER XXXIV
723
Approximate Solar Latitude
724
Latitude from an Observed Altitude
725
Astronomic Transit and Zenith Telescope
726
Latitude by Differences of Zenith Distances of Two Stars
728
Errors and Precision of Latitude Determinations
729
Fieldwork of Observing Latitude
730
Determination of Level and Micrometer Constants
732
Corrections to Observations for Latitude by Talcotts Method
738
Reduction of Latitude Observations
743
CHAPTER XXXV
744
Longitude by Chronometers
745
Longitude by Lunar Distances
746
Longitude by Chronograph
748
Observing for Time
751
Reduction of Time Observations
752
Record of Time Observations
754
Longitude Computation
757
Comparison of Time
774
CHAPTER XXXVI
777
Adjustment of Sextant
778
Using the Sextant
780
Solar Attachment
781
Adjustment of Burt Solar Attachment
782
Smith Meridian Attachment
785
Adjustment of Smith Meridian Attachment
786
Determination of Azimuth and Latitude with Solar Attachment
789
Solar Attachment to Telescopic Alidade
791
CHAPTER XXXVII
793
The Camera and its Adjustments
794
Measurement of the Plate
797
Computation of the Plate
801
Sources of Error
804
Precision of Resulting Longitude
808
REFERENCE WORKS ON GEODESY
809
PART VII
811
Subsistence and Transportation of Party in Field
813
Selecting and Preparing the Camp Ground
814
Tents
817
Specifications for Army Wall Tents
820
Specifications for Army Walltent Flies
821
Specifications for Army Walltent Poles
822
Erecting the Tent
825
Camp Stoves Cots and Tables
827
Specifications for Army Sibley Tent Stoves
829
How to Build Campfires
830
Camp Equipment
831
Provisions
833
CHAPTER XXXIX
836
Pack Animals and Saddles
837
Moore Packsaddles
840
Throwing the Diamond Hitch
841
Packmen
847
Transportation Repairs
848
Veterinary Surgery
849
CHAPTER XL
850
Care of Health
852
Drinkingwater
855
Medical Hints
856
Diarrhea and Dysentery
857
Drowning and Suffocation
858
Serpent and Insectbites
860
Medicinechest
861
CHAPTER XLI
864
Cameras
865
Lenses and their Accessories
867
Dry Plates and Films
869
Exposures
872
Developing
875
Fixing
878
Printing and Toning
880
Blue Prints and Black Prints
883
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Page 214 - ... in the same direction as the motion of the hands of a watch (see also the rules outlined in Div.
Page 456 - In the space between any two contours are found elevations above the lower and below the higher contour. Thus the contour at 150 feet falls just below the edge of the terrace, while that at 200 feet lies above the terrace; therefore all points on the terrace are shown to be more than 150 but less than 200 feet above sea. The summit of the higher hill is stated to be 670 feet above sea; accordingly the contour at 650 feet surrounds it. In this illustration...

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