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east to west, as is still visible to beholders. | safe from the wintry storm; but after a short This being finished, they gave that dispirited space of fair weather, he immediately vanishes people good advice, with patterns to furnish out of your sight, into the dark winter from them with arırs. Besides, they built towers on which he had emerged. So this life of man the sea-coast to the southward, at proper disappears for a short space, but of what went tances, where their ships were, because there before, or what is to follow, we are utterly also the irruptions of the barbarians were ap- | ignorant. If, therefore, this new doctrine conprehended, and so took leave of their friends, tains something more certain, it seems justly never to return again.--Book I, Chapter 12. to deserve to be followed." The other elders (Translation from the Latin, edited by J. A. and king's counsellors by Divine inspiration, Giles.)

spoke to the same effect.-Book II, ('hapter 13.

(Translation from the Latin, edited by J. A PARABLE OF MAN'S LIFE † | A. Giles.) The king, hearing these words, answered,

: THE STORY OF (ÆDMON I that he was both willing and bound to receive the faith which he taught; but that he woulu In this Abbess 's Vinster was a certain Lrother confer about it with his principal friends and extraordinarily magnified and honoured with a counsellors, to the end that if they also were divine gift; for he was wont to make fitting of his opinion, they might all together be songs which conduced to religion and piety; so cleansed in ('hrist the Fountain of life. Paul- that whatever he learned through clerks of the inus consenting, the king did as he said; for, holy writings, that he, after a little space, holding a council with the wise men, he asked would usually adorn with the greatest sweetness of everyone in particular what he thought of and feeling, and bring forth in the English the new doctrine, and the new worship that was tongue; and by his songs the mince of many preached? To which the chief of his own men were often inflamed with contempt for the priests, Coifi, immediately answered, “O king, world, and with desire of heavenly life. And consider what this is which is now preached to moreover, many others after him, in the Engus; for I verily declare to you, that the religion lish nation, sought to make pious songs; but which we have hitherto professed has, as far as yet none could do like him, for he had not been I can learn, no virtue in it. For none of your taught from men, nor through man, to learn the people has applied himself more diligently to poetic art; but he was divinely aided, and the worship of our gods than l; and yet there through God's grace received the art of song. are many who ieceive greater favours from And he therefore never might make aught of you, and are more preferred than I, and are leasing4 or of idle poems, but just those only more prosperous in all their undertakings. Now which conduced to religion, and which it beif the gods were good for anything, they would came his pious tongue'to sing. The man was. rather forward me, who have been more careful placed in worldly life until the time that he to serve them. It remains, therefore, that if was of mature age, and had never learned any upon examination you find those new doctrines, poem; and he therefore often in convivial sowhich are now preached to us, better and more ciety, when, for the sake of mirth, it was reefficacious, we immediately receive them with-solved that they all in turn should sing to the out any delay.

harp, when he saw the harp approaching him, Another of the king's chief men, approving then for shame he would rise from the assem. of his words and exhortations, presently added: bly and go home to his house. “The present life of man, o king, seems to When he so on a certain time did, that he left me, in comparison of that time which is un- the house of the convivial meeting, and was known to us, like to the swift flight of a spar- gone out to the stall of the cattle, the care row through the room wherein you sit at sup- of which that night had been committed to per in winter, with your commanders and min-him--when he there, at proper time, placed his isters, and a good fire in the midst, whilst the limbs on the bed and slept, then stood some storms of rain and snow prevail abroad; the man by him, in a dream, and hailed and greeted sparrow I say, flying in at one door, and imme him, and named him by his name, saying diately out at another, whilst he is within, is “Cædmon, sing me something." Then he an.

| This is an incident of the visit of Paulinus, who, 4 lying

in the year 625, during the reign of King! I See Eng. Lit., p. 22. The "Minster" referred te Edwin (Eadwine) of Northumbria, (ame to was the monastery at Whitby, founded by the England as a missionary from Pope Gregory. I Abbess Hilda in 658.

swered and said, “I cannot sing anything, and worldly life and take to monkhood; and he that therefore I went out from this convivial meet- well approved. And she received him into the ing, and retired hither, because I could not.” minster with his goods, and associated him Again he who was speaking with him said, with the congregation of those servants of God, “Yet thou must sing to me." Said he, “What and caused him to be taught the series of the shall I sing?! Said he, “Sing me the origin | Holy History and Gospel; and he, all that he of tòings.” When he receiyed this answer, then could learn by hearing, meditated with himhe began forthwith to sing, in praise of God self, and, as a clean, animal, ruminating, turned the creator, the verses and the words which he into the sweetest verse: and his song and his had never heard, the order of which is this: verse were so winsome to hear, that his teach

ers themselves wrote and learned from his · Now must we praise

mouth. He first sang of earth's creation, and the Guardian of heaven's kingdom, of the origin of mankind, and all the history the Creator's might,

of Genesis, which is the first book of Moses, and his mind's thought;

and then of the departure of the people of glorious Father of men!

Israel from the Egyptians' land, and of the as of every wonder he,

entrance of the land of promise, and of many Lord eternal,

other histories of the canonical books of Holy formed the beginning.

Writ; and of Christ's incarnation, and of his He first framed

passion, and of his ascension into heaven; and for the children of earth

of the coming of the Holy Ghost, and the docthe heaven as a roof;

trine of the Apostles. And also of the terror holy Creator!

of the doom to come, and the fear of hell then mid-earth,

torment, and the sweetness of the heavenly the Guardian of mankind,

kingdom, he made many poems; and, in like the eternal Lord,

manner, many others of the divine benefits and afterwards produced;

judgments he made; in all which he earnestly the earth for men,

took care to draw men from the love of sins Lord Almighty!"

and wicked deeds, and to excite to a love and

desire of good deeds; for he was a very pious Then he arose from sleep, and had fast in

| man, and to regular disciplinesc humbly submind all that he sleeping had sung, and to

|jected; and against those who in otherwise those words forthwith joined many words of

would act, he was inflamed with the heat of

great zeal. And he therefore with a fair end song worthy of God in the same measure. Then came he in the morning to the town

his life closed and ended.

For when the time approached of his decease reeve, who was his superior, and said to him what gift he had received; and he forthwith

| and departure, then was he for fourteen days

ere that oppressed and troubled with bodily inled him to the abbess, and told, and made that

firmity; yet so moderately that, during all that known to her. Then she bade all the most

time, he could both speak and walk. There was learned men and the learners to assemble, and in their presence bade him tell the dream, and

in the neighbourhood a house for infirm men, in

which it was their custom to bring the infirm, sing the poem; that, by the judgment of them

and those who were on the point of departure, all, it might be determined why or whence that

and there attend to them together. Then bade was come. Then it seemed to them all, so as

he his servant, on the eve of the night that he it was, that to him, from the Lord himself, a heavenly gift had been given. Then they ex

was going from the world, to prepare him a

place in that house, that he might rest; wherepounded to him and said some holy history,

upon the servant wondered why he this bade, and words of godly lore; then bade him, if he

for it seemed to him that his departure was could, to sing some of them, and turn them into

not so near; yet he did as he said and comthe melody of song. When he had undertaken

manded. And when he there went to bed, and the thing, then went he home to his house,

in joyful mood was speaking some things, and and came again in the morning, and sang and

joking together with those who were therein gave to them, adorned with the best poetry,

previously, then it was over midnight that he what had been entrusted to him.

asked, whether they had the eucharist? within Then began the abbess to make much of and love the grace of God in the man; and she

5 In the ceremonial sense (see Leriticus, xi). then exhorted and instructed him to forsake 1 & vinaires

7 host, or consecrated bread

They answered, “What need is to thee of the Fare above the floor of earth, burn the folkeucharist? Thy departure is not so near, now halls down, thou thus cheerfully and thus gladly art speak- Ravage all the rooms! There the reek ariseth ing to us.” Again he said, “Bring me never- Gray above the gables. Great on earth the din, theless the eucharist.”

And the slaughter-qualm of men. Then I shake When he had it in his hands, he asked, the woodland, Whether they had all a placid mind and kind, Forests rich in fruits; then I fell the trees; and without any ill-will towards him? Then I with water over-vaulted—by the wondrous they all answered, and said, that they knew


10 of no ill-will towards him, but they all were Sent upon my way, far and wide to drive along ! very kindly disposed and they besought him in On my back I carry that which covered once turn that he would be kindly disposed to them | All the tribes of Earth's indwellers, spirits and all. Then he answered and said, “My beloved all flesh, brethren, I am very kindly disposed to you and In the sand together! Say who shuts me in, all God's men.' And he thus was strengthen- | Or what is my name-I who bear this burden! ing himself with the heavenly viaticum,8 and

Answer: A Storm on Land. preparing himself an entrance into another life. Again he asked, “How near it was to the

RIDDLE VI. hour that the brethren must rise and teach the I am all alone, with the iron wounded, people of God, and sing their nocturns?'?9 | With the sword slashed into, sick of work of They answered, “It is not far to that." He battle, said, “It is well, let us await the hour.” And Of the edges weary. Oft I see the slaughter, then he prayed, and signed himself with Oft the fiercest fighting. Of no comfort Christ's cross, and reclined his head on the bol ween I, ster, and slept for a little space; and so with So that, in the battle-brattling, 1 help may bring stillness ended his life. And thus it was, that itself to me; as he with pure and calm mind and tranquil Ere I, with the warriors, have been utterly fordevotion had served God, that he, in like man

done. ner, left the world with as calm a death, and But the heritage of hammers? hews adown at went to His presence; and the tongue that had composed so many holy words in the Creator's Stark of edges, sworded-sharp, of the smiths praise, he then in like manner its last words the handiwork, closed in His praise, crossing himself, and com- On me biting in the burgs! Worse the batmitting his soul into His hands. Thus it is tle is seen that he was conscious of his own depart-I must bear for ever! Not one of the Leechure, from what we have now heard say.-Book kin,3 IV., Chapter 24. (Translated from Latin into | In the fold-stead, could I find out, Anglo-Saxon by Alfred the Great. Modern Who, with herbs he has, then should heal me of English translation by Benjamin Thorpe.)

my wound! | But the notching of my edges more and more

becomes CYNEWULF (A. 750)*

Through the deadly strokes of swords, in the

daylight, in the night. RIDDLE II.

Of the Shield.

RIDDLE XV. Who so wary and so wise of the warriors lives, That he dare declare who doth drive me on my I a weaponed warrior was! Now in pride way,

bedecks me When I start up in my strength! Oft in stormy A young serving-man all with silver and fine wrath,

gold, Hugely then I thunder, tear along in gusts. With the work of waving gyres!4 Warriors

sometimes kiss me; 8 provisions for a journey (in this case the eu

Sometimes I to strife of battle summon with charist)

my calling 9 service before daybreak

Willing war-companions! These extracts from

Whiles, the horse Cynewulf's writings are translations by Mr. Stopford Brooke, and

doth carry have been taken from Mr. Brooke's History of Early English Literature by permission of the 1 battle uproar

3 physicians publishers, Messrs. Macmillan & Co.

2 swords

4 circles

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Me the march-paths over, or the ocean-stallion | Speak to those who once on earth but obeyed Fares the floods with me, flashing in my jew

him weakly, els

While as yet their Yearning pain and their Often times a bower-maiden, all bedecked with Need most easily I armlets,

Comfort might discover. ... Filleth up my bosom; whiles, bereft or covers,

Gone is then the TV insomeness I must, hard and heedless, (in the houses) of the Earth's adornments! What to Us as

men belonged

Then, again, hang I, with adornments fretted, Of the joys of life was locked, long ago, in
Winsome on the wall where the warriors drink. Lake-Flood,6
Sometimes the folk-fighters, as a fair thing on All the Fecr on Earth. ...

warfaring, On the back of horses bear me; then bedecked

Mickle is our need with jewels

That in this unfruitful time, ere that fearful Shall I puff with wind from a warrior's

Dread, breast.

15 | On our spirit's fairness we should studiously Then, again, to glee-feasts I the guests invite bethink us!

850 Haughty heroes to the wine-other whiles Now most like it is as if we on lake of ocean, shall I

O'er the water cold in our keels are sailing, With my shouting save from foes what is stolen And through spacious sea, with our stallions away,

of the Sound,8 Make the plundering scather flee. Ask what is Forward drive the flood-wood. Fearful is the my name!

Of the Horn. Of immeasurable surges that we sail on here,

| Through this wavering world, through these FROM THE CHRIST.†

windy oceans, Then the Courage-hearted quakes. when the O'er the path profound. Perilous our state of

life King he hears Speak the words of wrath-Him the wielder of

FE’er that we had sailed (our ship) to the shore

(at last), the Heavens,

O'er the rough sea-ridges. Then there reached † The Christ is a poem dealing with the Nativity

us help, and Ascension of Christ, and the Day of That to hitheof Healing homeward led us Judgment. Our extracts are from the hymnlike passage which presages the Judgment


860 and the poet's dread upon that day, and which closes with a vision of the stormy voyage of life ending in serenity. Cynewulf signed

grace, some of his poems acrostically by inserting So that we should be aware, from the vessel's runes which spelt his name. Runes were characters which represented words as well

deck, as letters, just as our letter "B" might stand Where our stallions of the sea we might stay for the words be or bcc. Those used in this passage of which we give a portion are :

with ropes,

Fast a-riding by their anchors--ancient horses h = C --- cone - keen, bold one

of the waves!.

Let us in that haven then all our hope estah= Y - yfel -- wretched


Which the ruler of the Æther there has roomed = N – nyd – need

for us,

When He climbed to Heaven-Holy in the = E = eh =- horse



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W = wyn = joy

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= U -: ur =: our


Forth then fared the folk-troop, and a fighting.

o The Deluge 7 property 8 ships 9 harbor
| The Elene is the story of St. IIelena, the mother

of ('onstantine the Great, who made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem in search of the Holy Cross. The lines quoted describe the battle in which Constantine is victorious over the Huns. See Brooke's Early English Literature, pp. 405-406.

lagu -- water

feoh = wealth


Sang the Wolf in woodland, wailed a slaughter- | built. Altogether they ruled in Britain four rune!

| hundred and seventy years since Caius Julius Dewy-feathered, on the foes' track,

first sought the land. Raised the Earn10 his song. . . .

Anno 418. This year the Romans collected

all the treasures that were in Britain, and some Loud upsang the Raven

they hid in the earth, so that no one has since Swart, and slaughter-fell. Strode along the been able to find them; and some they carried war-host;

with them into Gaul. Blew on high the horn-bearers; heralds of the

battle shouted; Stamped the earth the stallion; and the host

Anno 413. This year the Britons sent over assembled

sea to Rome, and begged for help against the

| Picts; but they had none, because they were Quickly to the quarrel! . . .

themselves warring against Attila, king of the

Sang the trumpets Iluns. And then they sent to the Angles, and Loud before the war-hosts; loved the work the entreated the like of the athelingsl of the raven:

110 | Angles. Dewy-plumed, the earn looked upon the march; | . . . . . . . . Song the wolf uplifted, Anno 449. This year Martianus and ValenRanger of the holt!11 Rose the Terror of the tinus succeeded to the empire, and reigned battle!

seven years. And in their days Hengist and There was rush of shields together, crush of Horsa, invited by Vortigern, king of the Britmen together,

ons, landed in Britain, on the shore which is Hard hand-swinging there, and of hosts down called Wippidsfleet; at first in aid of the Brit

| ons, but afterwards they fought against them. After that they first encountered flying of the King Vortigern gave them land in the southarrows!

east of this country, on condition that they On that fated folk, full of hate the hosters12 should fight against the Picts. Then they fought grim

against the Picts, and had the victory wheresoSent the showers of arrows, spears above the ever they came. They then sent to the Angles; yellow shields;

| desired a larger force to be sent, and caused Forth they shot then snakes of battle13

them to be told the worthlessness of the BritThrough the surge of furious foes, by the ons, and the excellencies of the land. Then strength of fingers!

120 they soon sent thither a larger force in aid of Strode the stark14 in spirit, stroke on stroke the others. At that time there came men from they pressed along;

three tribes in Germany; from the Old-Saxons, Broke into the wall of boards15, plunged the from the Angles, from the Jutes. From the bill16 therein:

Jutes came the Kentish-men and the WightThronged the bold in battle! There the banner warians, that is, the tribe which now dwells in was uplifted;

| Wight, and that race among the West-Saxons (Shone) the ensign 'fore the host; victory 's which is still called the race of Jutes. From song was sung.

the Old-Saxons came the men of Essex and Glittered there his javelins, and his golden Sussex and Wessex. From Anglia, which has helm

ever since remained waste betwixt the Jutes On the field of fight! Till in death the heathen, and Saxons, came the men of East Anglia, MidJoyless fell!

dle Anglia, Mercia, and all North-humbria.

Their leaders were two brothers, Hengist and

| Horsa: they were the sons of Wihtgils; WihtFROM THE ANGLO-SAXON gils son of Witta, Witta of Wecta, Wecta of

Woden: from this Woden sprang all our royal CHRONICLE*

families, and those of the South-humbrians Anno 409. This year the Goths took the city also.* of Rome by storm, and after this the Romans Anno 455. This year Ilengist and Horsa never ruled in Britain; and this was about fought against King Vortigern at the place eleven hundred and ten years after it had been which is called Ægels-threp2 and his brother

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10 eagle
11 wood
12 soldiers, host
13 darts

14 firm
15 shields
16 sword
* See Eng. Lit., p. 28.

1 princes

2 Aylesford + The language here appears to be that of a north

ern chronicler. The MS. of this portion has beep traced to Peterborough,

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