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his humble cottage exhibited every appearance of the neglect of the ordinary comforts of life. A few straggling rush-bottomed chairs, piled up with his books,-a small rickety table before the fire-place, covered with parish memoranda,—and two trunks, containing all his papers, serving at the same time to cover the broken parts of the floor,-constituted all the furniture of his sitting-room. The mouldy walls of the closet in which he slept, were hanging with loose folds of damp paper; and between this wretched cell and his parlour, was the kitchen, which was occupied by the disbanded soldier, his wife, and their numerous brood of children, who had migrated with him from his first quarters, and seemed now in full possession of the whole concern, entertaining him merely as a lodger, and usurping the entire disposal of his small plot of ground, as the absolute lords of the soil.'
Such is the picture presented to us of the life of an Irish curate! Such is the style in which the wealthiest ecclesiastical establishment in the world provides for her effective labourers! He was at length kindly forced away to Dublin, where his physician, to use his own expression, stripped him of his gown. He passed the winter of 1822 at Exeter, and in the following summer, was ordered to try the effect of a voyage to Bourdeaux; but the apparent benefit he derived from these measures, was slight and transient: the fatal disease had taken full hold of his constitution. About the end of Noveniber, it was deemed advisable that he should guard against the severity of the winter by removing to the Cove of Cork. Here he languished till the 21st of February 1823, on which day he breathed his last, in the thirty-second year of his age. For the interesting particulars of his last moments, worthy of his saintly life, we must refer our readers to the affecting narrative of his friend and biographer, who has done himself honour by the manner in which he has performed this act of affection and justice to the memory of Mr. Wolfe, and of duty to the public. These Remains will not fail to obtain the popularity which they deserve; and the bright example of this apostolic man will preach to the hearts of thousands still more impressively than even his pathetic living eloquence.
Art. III. Travels among the Arab Tribes inhabiting the Countries East of Syria and Palestine; including a_Journey from Nazareth to the Mountains beyond the Dead Sea, and from thence through the Plains of the Hauran to Bozra, Damascus, Tripoly, &c. With an Appendix, containing a Refutation of certain unfounded Calumnies against the Author of this Work. By J. S. Buckingham, Author of Travels in Palestine, &c. 4to. pp. 680. Price 31. 13s. 6d. London, 1825.
THIS volume forms a sequel to Mr. Buckingham's Travels
in Palestine, reviewed in the seventeenth volume of our Journal, a work of which we felt authorized to speak favourably on the whole, as adding materially to our information with respect to some parts of the Holy Land hitherto rarely visited. Although there was some little appearance of book-making, the diligent pains evidently taken by the Author to turn his travels to the best account by the aid of historical and scriptural illustration, sufficiently atoned for this besetting sin of travellers. As an account of the Holy Land, it is in all respects superior to the corresponding part of the travels of Dr. Clarke, by whom the art of book making was carried to perfection. Mr. Buckingham, in whatever literary or scientific qualification he may be deficient, is certainly a very clever, observant, and meritorious traveller. Into the quarrel between him and the Bankes's, we have no wish to enter; but we must say, that a more unfair, ungentlemanly, and unprincipled article never appeared in any respectable journal, than that article in the Quarterly Review, by which it was attempted to run down the Author's former volume, and for which a jury have recently brought in a verdict of damages*. Mr. Buckingham is not the only oriental traveller who has met with such treatment in the Quarterly Review. Dr. Richardson, a man whose learning and piety are both unquestionable, and whose travels are of high value and interest, was insulted as an ignoramus, and his work was represented as of less value than even the flimsy volume of Sir Frederick Henniker. That there must have been some personal motive for all this, is quite obvious: it has been supposed to proceed from the mean jealousy of a rival traveller. Whatever dictated it, nothing can extenuate the
Mr. Murray, the publisher, much to his honour, declined offering any defence. The Attorney-General said, that he was instructed by his client the defendant, not to proceed with the case, and to express his regret that his publication had been made the vehicle of private slander against the plaintiff.'-Morn. Chron. July 14, 1825.
baseness of the proceeding, which is chargeable alike with bad faith, (wilful falsehood being clearly chargeable on the Reviewer,) meanness, and cowardice. If Mr. Gifford was only the tool, we pity him.
The present volume contains an account of the Author's journey from Nazareth, where the former volume terminates, through the Haouran, to Damascus, and thence, along the coast, to Aleppo. In consequence of the disturbed state of the country at that period, he deemed it imprudent to attempt to proceed from Nazareth to Damascus direct, and therefore, (although we must confess that we do not clearly comprehend his reasons,) thought it best to turn southward, and try to reach Assalt and Kerek, with the intention of reaching Bagdadt. Laying aside his Turkish costume, he assumed the mean garb of a Bedoween, and, accompanied by a Christian Arab as his guide, set off on his singularly round-about ex
The route from Nazareth to Assalt (Szalt) is much frequented by merchants, and was travelled by Burckhardt in 1812. Instead, however, of following the valley of the Jordan as far southward as Bisan, Mr. Buckingham crossed the river about two hours below its outlet from the Lake of Tiberias, where it was not more than a hundred feet wide, but scarcely fordable. About one o'clock on the second day, he arrived at the site of considerable ruins on the eastern bank, which still bear the name of Amatha. A torrent descends from the hills above, and falls into the Jordan under the name of Wady Râjib, and a city of that name is said to have occupied the summit. Soon after fording the Zerka, he ascended a hill called Djebel Arkoob Massaloobeah, on the summit of which is a fine level and fertile plain with an ancient site, called by the Arabs Massaera or Mashaera, which he supposes to be the ancient Machaerus. This plain forms the base of the high range of hills to which is given the name of Djebel Assalt. In ascending this range, our Traveller soon came to the snow; and on the highest summit, which, Burckhardt says, is called Djebel Osha, the cold was excessive, and the snow formed one unbroken mass. Mr. Buckingham conjectures the height to be about 5,000 feet above the level of the sea.
'Tradition confirms the Arabs of the country in the belief that this is the summit of Mount Nebo. On the very peak of the highest eminence stands a tomb, with several common graves about it. This is called the tomb of Nebbe Osha, the prophet Joshua; and the belief is general, that the successor of Moses was buried here. The humbler graves around it are said to be those of Jews who had chosen this as their place of sepulture. The tomb appeared to me a
Mahommedan structure, differing little in exterior appearance from the reputed tomb of Rachel, between Jerusalem and Bethlehem ; but we did not go near enough to examine it closely.'
Whether this be Mount Nebo or not, it is certainly no part of Mount Ephraim, and therefore has no pretensions to the honour of containing the bones of the successor of Moses. But Nebby Osha is the prophet Hosea, and the blunder is in this case chargeable on the Traveller. All sorts of tombs, however, Roman, Saracen, and Turkish, are objects of veneration among the Arabs, under the name of some Jewish patriarch or Mahommedan sheikh. Not the slightest dependence can be placed on their traditions. In fact, no structure of any kind can claim the character of a Hebrew monument, as it is clear from the sacred records, that the primitive places of sepulture were caves.
The town of Szalt (certainly not "the city of Salt," Josh. xv. 62, as Mr. Buckingham imagines) has a very imposing appearance, surmounted by a large castle, as old, probably, as the time of the Crusades, but which is said to have been almost rebuilt by the celebrated Sheikh Dahher, whose history is given by Volney. Much of the original pile is in ruins, but a portion of a square tower remains. In different parts of the motley building, the Roman and the Saracen arch are seen together; but both appear, Mr. Buckingham says, to be modern additions to the original building. Within the castle is a fine spring of water. Near a small mosque at one corner of the citadel are two small European swivels, apparently not more than fifty years old.
So rapidly, however, are things and events forgotten in countries where no written or printed records of them are kept, that no person at Assalt knew any thing of the history of these guns; although, from the difficulty of bringing such articles to an isolated spot like this, and from their being probably the only cannon that were ever known here, the circumstance of their first arrival at the town must have been an event of great importance at the time, and have been talked of for months and years afterwards.'
They were probably transported here by Dahher. Burckhardt says, that this place sustained a siege of three months from a pasha of Damascus; but the Arab sheikh who governs here, still maintained his independence. The population consists partly of Arabs, partly of Greek Christians, refugees originally from Nazareth. They mix together on the most friendly terms, and the one class are quite as good Christians as the other. Their dress, their mode of salutation, and their exterior appearance are the same, and, in return for this un
usual tolerance on the part of the Moslems, the Greeks abstain from pork, wine, and spirits, for which they indemnify themselves by eating flesh and butter in Lent. Though free from all burdens, and in the full enjoyment of civil and religious liberty, the people of Assalt, however, are excessively rude, ignorant, and idle, as fond of gossip as the ancient Athenians, but, in their manners, ruder than even the modern Egyptians. The Christians, being all of the Greek Church, consider the Russians as the first people in the world, and Bonaparte as the greatest of heroes; but the English, it seems, were allowed to be a very superior race of infidels. Many of the inhabitants, Mr. Buckingham says, have lightcoloured eyes, soft auburn hair, and fair complexions. The women would be pleasing if they did not follow the Arab fashion of staining their lips and marking other parts of the face with a deep indigo blue! They dress like the Syrians, but are more profuse in their display of strings of gold and silver coin. Their language, Burckhardt says, is the true Bedoween dialect. Mr. Buckingham attended the service of the Greek church on the Sunday. It is a vaulted room, about thirty feet by fifteen, and between twelve and fifteen feet high, resembling the House of Peter at Tiberias. The altar, which stands at the east end, is separated by a screen with two arched door-ways closed by sliding curtains. Empty ostrich eggs suspended on cords from the roof, and glass tumblers serving for lamps, are among the ornaments; while three small pictures of Greek saints, containing more gilding than painting, and a large wooden cross, complete the ecclesiastical furniture.
At our first entrance,' says our Traveller, we found the room so crowded that it was difficult for us to make our way in. There were assembled at least a hundred persons, which was a large congregation for so small a church: the men were placed in front, with the women behind them; and every individual, whether old or young, was seen standing. When we got near the altar, we were presented with crutches; and as the service is extremely long, and all are required to stand during its performance, we found them very acceptable. The service appeared to me nearly the same as I had before witnessed in the Greek churches of Asia Minor, and differed only in being performed in the Arabic, instead of the Greek language. The priest wore a coat of many colours, a garment apparently as much esteemed throughout these parts in the present day, as it was in the days of the patriarch Jacob, or in the time of Sisera. In the exercise of his functions, the priest remained mostly at the altar, while young boys, bearing censers, were constantly waving them round his sacred person. On the outside of the screen were two side altars, at each of which a person repeated passages of the Psalms to another