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In all the revolutions of pictorial art, whether in an- || deceptive pencil. Nor is this Exhibition deficient in the tient Greece, in modern Italy, or in Europe generally, display of Architectural subjects, as may be seen in "The colouring has been the last attainment of excellence: || Gateway and CI

Gateway and Cloister of King's College, Cambridge," by thus Zeuxis succeeded and excelled Apelles in colouring, | Wilkins, now in progress, and “ Hillington Hall," by as Titian did Raffael: thus also will the artists of Britain || Donthern, &c. &c. &c. There are in all, 219 Pictures. transcend the excellence of all other schools in the chromatic department of painting, if in its progress they should even not surpass them in all other departments of the art.

TO THE Our appcal from the decisions of criticism, in favour of colouring, does not militate against the necessity the EDITOR OF THE SOMERSET HOUSE GAZETTE. painter is under of studying the higher branches of his art, nor assert the exclusive excellence of colouring: still

Sir, however, if the latter be wanting, the finest performances | ABOUT sixty years ago, an excellent treatise upon will fail to please, and as the proper end of painting is to the Art of Painting, written by Mr. Webb, excited please, and there is a higher and more effectual medium for addressing the mind, the most intellectual performance of

great interest amongst the artists and amateurs. In the painter, and the grandest efforts of his invention will fail | of their true end, if they pass not to the mind by the chael Angelo at the expense of Rubens--he, whom mediam of pleasurable effect upon their appropriate sense the British Apelles denominated the Prince of Painof sight, of which colour-and colour alone-is the immediate object: colouring is therefore the first requisite, the

ters." Highmore, the painter, contemporary and friend matter and medium of the painter's art.

of Hogarth, wrote the following strictures upon that CHROMIUS. part of the work, which I have copied from an old

Painter's Scrap Book, and offer for the amusement of

your readers, if you should consider it of sufficient NORWICH EXHIBITION.

| interest to place before them in your amusing columns. To the Editor of the Somerset House Gazette. “The first affections of the eye are always ille SIR,

placed; it is enamoured with the splendid impositions On Monday, August 9, 1824, The Norwich Society of lof Rubens, &c. Artists (in Oil and Water Colours,) opened their Twentieth Exhibition to the Public. This display of local talent is l “Why impositions, by way of reproach, when in a prosuperior to its former, and the Society have been more per sense, it would be the highest praise; for the very careful in rejecting the works of mediocrity. True, it has | business of painting is to impose, and he who does it most heen assisted by some productions of metropolitan talent.

effectually is the greatest artist. Haydon has a fine “Female Head"-sleeping--it resem

“ It may justly be said of Rubens, that, in many rebles a Holbein of the seventeenth century. It is a repre-||

spects, he has had no equal; and particularly in colouring, sentation of sublime nature, sketched in the grandest style

not only as to the truth of the local colours, but in all the of art. It is the portrait of a lady asleep, and truly the

effects produced by colours; in the chiaro oscuro, or geneeyes, lashes, and whole head seem fully under the domi ral light and shadow, in the keeping or gradation, in the nion of the drowsy god. Mulready had a small - Head of

arrangement or distribution of the parts, so as to produce John Varley'-and Varley exhibits one of his delectable | a great and beautiful whole, or tout ensemble, as the French Jong drawings “ Cader Idris.' Clent has “ Portraits of express it. And, as to drawing, in which he has been Lord and Lady Suffield,' “ The Rev. Mr. Elwin,' and Mr. thought by some to be deficient, who have dwelt too much Martineau." They are correct likenesses of the individuals on a few negligencies, owing merely to the rapidity of his

to be represented, and painted in his usual clear pencil, --in drawing, or designing, he seems as much supeand transparent manner: nor must we omit noticing a rior as in any of the other essentials, especially after some lovely, slight “ Sketch of Miss Freeman, " by the allowance made for the style of his first manner; which same artist. Davison's “ Child's Head,” reminds us of

kind of allowance, or indulgence, is never refused to any the cherubs of Sir Joshua Reynolds; but it is of the Nor other master, not even to Raphael, who stands in as much wich artists wbich we have to speak,' The coloured draw.

need of it to the full, as Reubens. His best works discover ings, by Colman are rich delineations of art. His - View great knowledge of anatomy, a correctness of outline, a from Yarmouth Bridge, just after Sunset,"' is truly Clau

certain truth of character, an ease of action or metion, a dian. His “Snowdoun” is sublime; but his more remark force and spirit beyond what is to be seen in any other able pictures, in point of superior excellence are, pictures whatsoever; and such an apparent facility in the “ Dieppe," " The Albatical House of the Abbey of St. execution, as at once convinces the spectator of the readiOuer,', and his “ Mount St. Michael," with accessary ness of his apprehension, and the certainty of his prinfigures to the two latter. These are not often equalled by ciples. any representations at the London exbibitions. His pencil * When bis anatomical knowledge is mentioned, he will drawings, we need scarcely add, are masterly in the ex probably be compared with Michael Angelo, who is generally treme: there is a firmness and freedom in the handling of allowed to be the most knowing of all in this part. Michael his pencil, scarcely equalled in this country, and of which || Angelo, it is true, has marked the muscles in their places, bis published specimen of Antiquarian Buildings form a perhaps, with the greatest justness, but Rubens, only fair specimen. " The Miser," by Mendham, is cleverly seems to have known their use, and the different apbandled. “ The Beach Scene,” and “ Morning," are su pearances they exhibit in action and at rest; insomuch perior drawings, by Joy. “A Grove Scene," by Ladbrooke, that one sees their energy collected (as it were) to a point, and “ Landscapes," by Hodgon, particularly the latter, || in certain movements; and hence it follows, that his figures are delightful. " A Cottage Scene, from Nature," by a l appear more animated than those of other painters. Many Lady, is equal to many a production of the professional of their laboured figures seem motionless, though intended artist'; and Starke's “ Landscape" presents a delightful || to represent immediate action. piece of forest scenery, with a distance touched with a truly " To confirm and corroborate these observations on the genius, penetration, and spirit of Rubens, it may be added, || “Rubens has painted in imitation of the rain-bow; that he alone has succeeded in subjects that require the all the colours co-operate; the effect is good, but acci. most quick and lively conceptions, and where nothing more la could be obtained of the originals than what could be

'Il dental; but in Titian and Corregio this arrangement caught by the glance of an eye; such as animals of every || is the result of science; it is a harmony which springs kind, and particularly the most savage, wild, and indocile. || from a judicious and happy union of consenting coHe alone has represented lions, tigers, &c. in all their lours. various passions and actions, and as correctly as if they had waited the execution of his pencil, so perfectly has he been “ It seems very unjust, when the effect is allowed to be able to seize and to retain the idea; whereas, with many produced, to call in question the judgment that produced other painters of no small note, the representations of ani- || it. Why must that be pronounced accidental in Rubens, mals, compared with his, appear little better than such as which is esteemed the result of science in Titian and Correare to be seen in the compartments of heraldry.

Il sio? As no distinction is made, no reason given, none can " It has been objected, that his figures are too short and l be surmised but the prejudice of connoisseurship, since too fleshy, that is, too much of the Flemish cast. This is the author seems determined to depreciate Rubens and justly observed with respect to many of his pictures, the Flemish school, in order to exalt Corregio, Titian, especially of his first manner, as above observed; but then || and other Italians.-Can any thing good come out of it must also be acknowledged, that, in many others, his Galilee ? latter pictures, he has avoided this fault, and produced

“ Speaking of Raphael, Mr. Webb says, . - The as elegant and delicate figures as any painter whatever. His skill and judgment onght to be rated by his best

most unpicturesque action composed by him, seems to productions, and if so, perhaps upon the whole, when have been destined for paint,' &c. all his talents are taken into the account, he may, at least “ Here, and elsewhere, such lavish encomiums seem be said to be one of the greatest painters whose works

without reason or truth. How contradictory to the above remain.”

observation are several representations of this painter; “ Mr. Webb says, “I should not be so particular

particularly that in which Joseph is relating his dreams to in tracing the origin of sculpture, and, consequently,

his brethren! This picture would exhibit nothing more

I than a youth speaking to a number of auditors, the subject of painting, to this æra, were it not that Pliny confi. remaining utterly unknown, had he not, to explain it, denily affirms, that the latter did not exist in those drawn two circles in the sky, in one of which eleven times,' &c. which is very probable.

sheaves are bowing to a twellth in the midst; and in the

other circle, the sun and moon making obeisance, &c. “ There is no one excellence of design, &c.

Without this expedient, which is surely very unpicturesque, " What follows, to the end of this paragraph, is very the story could not have been told. Surely the author will judicious, particularly where the author remarks that not say, that this action seems to have been destined for careless decency, and unaffected grace, which ever attend

maint. These are subjects not fit for the pencil, and which e motions and gesture of men unconscious of observa only can be related, particularly where there is a succestion.'

sion of circumstances. On the contrary, where the princi

pal incidents are crowded into a moment, and are, as it “Can paint express a quickening perspiration ?

were, instantaneous, there is room for the display of the The mellowest tints of the Venetian school furnish no painter's skill. such ideas.

Such, for instance, as Alexander taking the potion from

the hand of his suspected physician Philip, who knows “No--but the spectator furnishes them to himself.

not that he is suspected; Alexander giving to Philip the How often have we heard a man of warm imagination,

letter of accusation at the same time that he is swallowing though of sense and genius, pretend to see excellencies

the draught; the astonishment and indignation of Philip in pictures which the painter never intended ? Nothing

at reading it; his admiration of the generosity and conis more common than for such to find all the delicacies of

fidence of Alexander; and the amazement of the attenexpression which they conceive should be attempted, and

dants, &c. All these circumstances subsist in the same impute to an artist (especially if otherwise celebrated) not

moment. only the utmost perfection, but often what is not within the

“The choice of subject is of as much consequence in compass of the art. Many reflections of this kind may

painting, as the choice of fable in an epic poem. Such a be made in reading Pliny, who, at other times also, dis

story is better and more emphatically told in picture than covers great ignorance in the observations that escape him,

in words, because the circumstances that happen at the particularly where he remarks of a certain painter that he

same time, must, in narration, be successive, was the first who, in a portrait, drew the eyes with so peculiar a skill, that they seemed to follow the spectator as he

“ Of the Laocoon, he says admirably, nie trace chinged his place, and still to look at him; whereas this || in it the labour of years, we feel from it the impreseffect is constant, and impossible to be otherwise. The

sion of a minute.' most ignorant painter does the same thing without intention; and the most skilful can never represent the eyes

" His whole description is judicious, striking, and exlooking at the spectator, standing in any one place, but | pressive, and he had one of the finest productions of antithey will also appear to have the same direction to him quity to describe. standing in any other. The cause of this effect it is plain “ But he adds, It is not probable that men of he did not know. It is that the direction of the eyes towards the spectator, remains the same in whatsoever place

taste and letters, while they were eye-witnesses, &c. he stands; for that direction, or turn of the pupil, bears should celebrate those very qualities in the works of still the same relation to the position of each feature, and | their painters, were they not eminently possessed of to all the parts of the face, which being on a plane, suffer

them.' no apparent change; and it is on this relation that whole depends; whereas, in a living face, or statue, that U “Here, however, is great room for distinction. Starelation is continually changing with every change of tuary is a much more obvious art than painting, and rose place of the spectator."

much earlier to perfection, though if it be allowed that the

painters drew as correctly, and expressed the passions as chain of circumstances is equal to a narration; and justly as the sculptors, by lines only, (which, it is supposed ll that he cannot but think that the wbole would have was the practice for a long time before the eflects of light and shadow were known,) this will be but a small advance

been an example of invention and conduct even in in the art of painting. The famous story of Apelles and the happiest age of antiquity.' This whole paragraph Protogenes, as related by Pliny, gives no very advantageous is admirable. idea of the progress they had made; the most that can be drawn from it is, that Apelles excelled in the correctness

64 The well-known story of the contest between Zeuxis or in the beauty of the outline, and by that Protogenes is

and Parrhasius, furnishes another argument of the modesaid to have discovered him. Now every step beyond this

rate progress of this art, at that time. It is recorded, that in the infancy of an art so complicated, must surprise : and ll the birds were deceived by the painted grapes of the one, the encomiums bestowed on those who introduced sbadow

and that the competitor was himself deceived by the painted ing and colouring, especially with any degree of roun

curtain of the other. Now that the birds were deceived (if or projection, may be admitted as just for the time; but to

they really were) must be owing to the perfection of the reproduce all the effects of colouring, as described under the

presented grapes; but it is no difficult matter to represent article of Rubens, required the experience of more than an

fruit or flowers so perfectly as to deceive even men. age. Rubens, it is true, bad all the materials before him,

" It is a thousand times more difficult to represent truly besides the works of his predecessors, without which the

the human figure; and we find, by, the same story, that

I these grapes were in the hand of a boy, whom, il the painprogress he made would have been impossible, even with his yenius,

ter had represented as well as he had the fruit, the birds "And, indeed, it appears from Pliny, that many of those

would scarcely have ventured to peck at it. And the curcircumstances related as wonderful effects of this art, must

tain of the other painter being in a place where a curtain have been then new to the beholders (by their admiration)

might probably hang, if it were not very perfectly reprethough they are generally very trifling, and such as modern

sented, (though such representation is by no means difliartists easily execute. But this is said not to depreciate

cult) might easily deceive a person who expected no such the genius or skill of the ancient artists, (who might

thing, and therefore did not scrupulously examine it. And, notwithstanding, be equal or superior to any moderns) but

indeed, very indifferent representations, even of human merely to shew the small advance this slow-paced art then

figures, do sometimes deceive, in places where the original

might probably be; as centinels, and other figures in garmade. “ It is not at all improbable that among the most unlet

dens, painted in wood, and cut out at all the extremities; tered and barbarous people, attempts may have been made

and figures painted in sham windows. These, and such in statuary, either by cutting in wood, or forming in clay,

like, have often deceived the spectators, though not well or wax, or otherwise, where, perhaps, it has never entered

executed, because, as was said, originals might probably be their heads to attempt raising the image of any object, on a

in these places. But the best portrait that ever Titian flat superficies, by means of light, and shade, and colour.

drew, if hung up in a frame, on the side of a room, would The one presents itself readily to the imagination, while

not deceive; that is, would not be taken for the person rethe other is never thought of, or thought impracticable..

presented, which, however, it infallibly would, if placed “ But if, besides the knowledge of the effects of light in

where that person might be expected. And on the conall possible directions, of shadows, and reflections, of both

trary, were a living face to appear through a canvass, inlight and shadow, in the several degrees of distance (which

closed in a frame, and mounted up as high as pictures are may be called the aerial perspective) of preserving the same

generally hung, it would very probably be taken for a pictints of colouring in all these degrees of light, shade, and

ture; an instance of which is recounted of the famous reflection; if to these be added the true linear perspective,

Marshal Luxembourg, who, having had his picture drawn all which are essentials of the art, and with which statu

by one of the best painters in Paris, carried his mistress to ary has nothing to do; if these things are considered, it will

see it, in hopes of prevailing on her to sit for her own. not be thought strange that painting should require much

Sbe immediately condemned it, asserting at the same

Il time, that she never saw any picture like a human face. more time, study, and experience to arrive at perfection, than so simple and uncomplicated an art as statuary; and

He, knowing that this was mere prejudice, persuaded the that a small progress in the one, should excite an equal ad

lady to call once more at the painter's house, after the last miration and praise with the greatest in theother(especially

sitting, and assured her, that if she should not be then if at the same time the outline of the picture be as correct

perfectly satisfied, he would never more importune her. as that of the statue), and though these circumstances su

He had contrived, with the painter's assistance, just at the peradded in painting, be but in a moderate degree of perfec

time the lady was appointed, to thrust his own face through tion, they might, at that time, seem to be all that art was

a canvass hung where the picture had before been placed. capable of producing, to those who had never yet seen

She, on viewing it, persisted in asserting, that it was no more produced. And thus we may, in some measure, ac

more like than before. Upon this he could not keep his count for the testimonies transmitted down to us of the

countenance, but, by laughing out, discovered his own works of the ancient painters, who might notwithstanding,

stratagem, and her obstinacy. be far inferior to many modern artists, though with equal,

“ This story is introduced, to shew how necessary the

concomitant circumstances, either of a picture, or of naor perbaps superior natural talents. “ As a case in point, we see what painting the Chinese

ture, are, in order to produce the proper effects of the one produce, though esteemed a learned and polite people, and

| or the other, on the spectator.” who bave long cultivated this and other arts ; at the same time that they are no bad statuaries, at least in portraits, s veral of which we have seen that were modelled from the

NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS. | life, as like as could be done by any European statuary; which is an ocular proof how much more easy one is than the other

Artistical Scraps, and other articles upon the arts, are " The author's encomium on Raphael, in relation to the || postponed for want of space. cripple healed by Paul and Barnabas, is very judicious.” * The contributions of R. R. will be attended to.

. The query of Z. relative to the building of the churches " He says truly, "That the wit of man could not || by Sir C. Wren, will be answered in a note, to be lest at devise means more certain of the end proposed ; such a | the Publisher's, on Wednesday next.

This day is published, with a frontispiece, in 12mo. price 6s, a popu. Just published in demy 8vo. price 128.-royal Sro. 188.- and ditto lar and highly interesting work, entitled

with proofs on India paper, 248. TAE CONCHOLOGIST'S COMPANION; comprising | Dedicated by permission to the Right Hon, the Earl of Chichester.

the instincts and constructions of Testaceous Animals ; with a I THE HISTORY and ANTIQUITIES of the TOWN and general sketch of those extraordinary productions which connect the PORT of HASTINGS. Illustrated with 20 Engravings from Vegetable and Animal Kingdoms,

original Drawings, by W. G. Moss, Draughtsman to His Royal Printed for G, and W. B. Whittaker, Ave Maria Lane, of whom | Highness the Duke of Cambridge. may be bad, by the same author, a second edition of " THE WON. U Published by W. G. Moss, Kennington ; West, Bookseller, Hast. DERS of the VEGETABLE KINGDOM DISPLAYED." 12mo. lings: Simpkin and Marshall, Stationers Court, Ludgate-street, and price 6s, and a CATECHISM OF CONCHOLOGY, price 9d.

sold by all Booksellers.

TO THE ADMIRERS OF THE TYPOGRAPHIC ART. Just Published, iu two volumes, 18mo. price Thirty Shilings in

IMPORTANT WORKS, boards, embellished with numerous Engravings on Wood, TYPOGRAPHIA, or, the Printers' Instructor. By J.

Printed for Harding, Triphook, and Lepard, Finsbury-square. JOHNSON, Printer. Dedicated, by permission, to the Roxburghe Club.

In I very larre octavo volume, to be divided into Two at the Pur. Published by Messrs. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orine, Brown, and ||

chase,'s Option, for which purpose Two Sets of Title-pages will

chaser's Option, for w Green, Paternoster-row, London.

be delivered The Proprietors liave the pleasing gratification of announcing to ITHE LIBRARY COMPANION; or, the Young Man's the Literati, the Profession, and the public in general, that this long Guide and the Old Man's Comfort in the Choice of a Library. expected and most anxiously wished for production is at length

By the Rev. T. E. DIBDIN, F.R.S. S. A. brought to a close : and notwithstanding six years have now passed ... In this work the Author has endeavoured to furnish his away since the first notice, yet we have never once relaxed in our l Countrymen with a Manual towards the Acquisition of Uselal ani exertions, even though it has extended upwards of three hundred Il valuable, as well as rare and curious Works in the several Depart. pages beyond the limits to which we had proposed to confuse our ments of Divinity, History, Biography, Voyages and Travels, the selves; and we confidently hope, that the very interesting and highly Belles Letters, Poetry, and the English Drama. Prices of the more important information therein contained, will be a sufficient anology Il valuable and uncommon Works are noticed for the convenience for our having carried the subject to its present extent. We are of Purchasers; there is also a Synoptical 'Table of Contents, ready to admit, that our Title may induce many to imagine that its ll and a General Index. A few Copies are struck off on large paper, Contents would interest the Profession only, and not the Public ge. Il to arrance with the other Works of the Author. nerally ; but of this, we doubt not they would think otherwise it they gave the work a candid perusal, it having been our aim to

2. make it well deserving the countenance and support of ail classes,

Dedicated, by Permission to His Majesty. but more particularly those who have a relish for the works of anti

In 3 vols, crown 8vo, 12. 168. boards. quity, and delight in seasting on ancient lore. It is respectfully announced, that there are also two other editions,

LORIGINAL LETTERS, illustrative of ENGLISH AISin 'Twelves and Octavo, with borders round the pages, of which the TORY. Including numerous Royal Letters, from Autographs imressious are limited, particularly the latter ; the price of the in the British Museum, and one or two other Collections. With Twelves is Three Pounds, and the Octavo, Four Guineas :-of these Notes and Illustrations. editions we shall forbear making any comment, but leave the appreciation of their merit to the candour and judgment of an impar.

By Henry ELLIS, F. R. 8. SEC. 9. a. tial and enlightened British public.

Keeper of the Manuscripts in the British Museum. The First volume commences with a complete history of the

... This Work contains Portraits of King Henry the Eighth and Origin, Rise, and Progress of the Typographic Art, wherein is clearly shewn the pretensions of the different partisans who have

bis Jester, Will Somers, from an Illumination in that Monarch's own stepped forward in favour of the persons and places which have

Psalter, still rreserved among the Royal Manuscripts in the British been mentioned as having given birth to this grand and noble inven

Museum ; a Far-simile of the Plan drawn by Lord Burghley's own tion: in discussing which, we have introduced the arguments and

Hand, for the Arrangement of the Trial of Mary Queen of Scots; opinions of those gentlemen by whom so many volumes have been

and a fac-simile of the Seal and Signature to the Carte-blanche which written, and from which we have drawn our conclusions, by bring.

Prince Charles sent to the Parliament to save his father's Life: ing the matter into a very small focus, thereby confining all contention

also from Autographs in the British Museum, respecting it to one simple question, which we doubt not will for ever

3. set this long contested point completely at rest. This is followed by a In 2 vols. 8vo. with a Fac-simile of the rare whole length Portrait of list of the persons by whom, and the places at which the Art was ex.

Henry, by Gaultier, 11. 48. boards. ercised during the remainder of the century, after the dispersion of the Mentz Printers; these are succeeded by Biographical Notices of II MEMOIRS of the COURT of HENRY the GREAT. the early Printers of Great Britain, and lists of their productions down to near the close of the sixteenth century, with copious ex.

... No Epoch in the History of Europe is so pregnant with events tracts from the Colophons, Prefaces, &c. of the works of Caxton, of consequence to subsequent Relations of Society, as the reigns of De Worde, and Pynson, illustrated with such Portraits and Devices

Elizabeth of England and of Henry the Grea of France, contempo. as have hitherto been discovered in the early productions of the

raneous in Period and Rirals in the Splendour and Genius of their Press of this country.

respective Courts. Miss Aikin's elegant rolumes bare introduced The Second Volume opens with an account of the different articles us to a close Acquaintance with the Policy and Intrigues of the great necessary in the exercise of the art; also Schemes for Imposing, ofhcers who directed the Councils of Elizabeth, and those of the with a general outline for laying down all irregular malter of Court of France during the same period, are recorded only in the every description; likewise directions to Authors for the correcting Works of Sully, Peretixe, and in the lighter Productions which develope of proofs; Tables of Signatures and Folios ; Domesday Characters, the Memoires Secrets during the Reign of Henry the Great, and which Greek Ligatures, &c. &c.; an account of the origin and progress of form the Basis of the present History of his Reign. the Ancient and Modern Alphabets, illustrated by engravings and "Tbat the present work is ably written, and exhibits a spirited other characters, and a key to the reading of the Egyptian Hiero narrative of facts, will be manifest from the extracts which follow. glpybics, &c.; descriptions and engravings of various presses, with The account of the massacre of St. Bartholomew is the fullest in remarks upon them; Tables for calculating the prices of work, and our language, and so curious, that we have judged it proper to transfer a complete elucidation of every subject connected with this most in the entire article for its own sake, as well as to exhibit the talents valuable and inestimable art. The work is enriched by copious and of the Author."-Monthly Magazine. explanatory indexes to each volume.

Upon the whole, the Proprietors flatter themselves that such a body of curious, useful, and highly important information on this

London: Printed by SHACKELL and ARROWSMITH, Juisvery interesting subject, is not to be met with in any one work at

son's Court ; and published by W.WETTON, 21, Fleet Street; present extant.

to be had also of all Booksellers and Nexoemen.

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And Literary Museum:

OR, WEEKLY MISCELLANY OF FINE ARTS, ANTIQUITIES, AND LITERARY CHIT CHAT. No. XLVIII.] By Ephraim Hardcastle.

[SixPexcE. d stamped Edition for Country Circulation, postage free, Price Tenpence. OF POLISHED AND GRAINED STONES. ll the light will catch all the little asperities, and shew

the grain very distinctly. An artist who will take the

trouble to do this with every stone he works upon, | THE TWO PRINCIPAL STYLES USED IN LITHOGRAPHY, ARE TAE INK AND THE CHALK STYLE.

will learn to know, by eye, whether the grain is too

fine or too coarse. INK drawings are generally made on polished stones,

Portraits, however, admit of, and even require a as the grain necessary for a chalk drawing makes it I coarser grain than landscape, particularly if drawn in unpleasant to draw with the hair pencil or the pen.

the stippled manner. Success is more certain, and the Some persons, from ignorance, have often made chalk

impressions will possess a degree of brightness which drawings an a polished stone; these invariably fail,

can never be attained with a finer grain. By employ. as a stone with a proper grain is the first requisite for

|ing a sharp-pointed pencil for the more delicate tints, the success of a chalk drawing.

and occasionally opening and picking with a needle It is of the greatest importance that the grain of a

those small specks which occur in working on a coarse stone for a chalk drawing be not too fine, and a little

stone, a clever artist can produce drawings which bear practice will very soon shew the artist which is the

being placed next to the best specimens of copper-plate proper grain ; for if too coarse, the drawing, particu

engraving. larly the delicate tints, will look sandy and open, and

1 It must, however, be well borne in mind, as a most the execution will be attended with great trouble, par- l important rule, that in every case, whether figures or ticularly in making out the minute parts. On the

| landscape, a coarse-grained stone is by far a less evil other hand, if the grain be too fine, the chalk slips, and

than too fine a one, as a failure is often the consequence draws greasy, the stone does not appear to bite, and

of too fine a grain, whereas a little more trouble in the there is a difficulty in producing dark tints. Moreover,

execution of the drawing, is the only risk which the in the printing, the darker parts soon clog up, and from artist runs in working on a coarse grain. the stone approaching the polished state, the delicate

Vide Hullmandel's Art of Drawing on Stone. tints do not hold, and soon break up. The ease with which chalk works on a well-grained stone, will soon teach an artist to know when the grain is as it ought to

REVIEWS. be, and its pleasantness is such as to make drawing with pencil on paper appear afterwards meagre and poor; for there is a richness and fulness in drawing on

The Book of Fallacies; from unfinished Papers of Jeremy a good stone, which, from the nature of the material,

Bentham. By a Friend. London: J. and H. L. Hunt, has more the feel of painting with a brush than of drawing with chalk. I mention this circumstance, as JEREMY BENTHAM is an acute thinker and an this peculiar feel is the best criterion to judge of the original-minded man. There are few men living that right grain of a stone.

are more so. His knowledge is vast, and his power of There is no difficulty in ascertaining the proper pre- || melting down that knowledge, so as to make it properly paration of a polished stone, as it is sufficient that the | his own, is equally singular. Yet, from some unhappy face be well smoothed and free from scratches.

malformation of his intellectual faculties, he is deficient This last defect is also to be avoided in a grained in the power of conveying his ideas to the public in a stone, as scratches are often produced by a coarse clear and efficient way. There is a jumble and confugrain of sand, which invariably print as a white hair | sion about him which might be considered wholly inline.

consistent with the acuteness and clearness of percepAlthough, as I have said above, it is impossible to lition for which we have already given him credit. His draw with chalk on a polished stone, ink may be, if | style and manner of expression are so uncouth and reemployed with judgment, applied with great advantage || pulsive, that the most obstipate readers can scarcely enin chalk drawings. I will treat this subject more in dure the labour of digging out his thoughts. Hence it detail hereafter.

is that Mr. Bentham's reputation is generally taken on The best way to see the grain of a stone, is to in- | trust. Those who cannot read his works, believe him cline it to the horizon, nearly at an angle of 45 de- || to be a clever and deeply-informed man, on the report grees; by varying the position slightly, above and be of those who have. This is very unlucky for him, in low this angle, a certain point will be found, at which more than one respect. It lays him open to ridicule,

1824.

Vol. II.

LONDON, SEPTEMBER 4, 1824.

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