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public buildings are fine, and the rest is a desert. Of Hired and servile writers may abuse as much as they the president he speaks very favorably :
please the people and government of the United States;
but fortunately, whatever they may say, they cannot pre“ Shortly after my arrival at Washington, as I was one
vent the Americans from advancing by gigantic strides today coming with a friend from visiting the public offices, || wards the acme of wealth, power, and population. Who he pointed out to me a well dressed gentleman, walking by
can contemplate without astonishment the spectacle they himself. “That,' said he, is the President of the United | already offer? With a vast extent of territory rapidly coStates.' When this great personage met us, my friend in
vering with population ; and with a revenue of 23,000,000 troduced me to him. I took off my hat as a mark of
dollars (without direct taxes), and a surplus 3,000,000 dolrespect; upon which the President did the same, and shook || lars after detraying all the expenses of the country (a pheme by the hand, saying he was glad to see me. I went soon nomenon unknown in Europe); their commerce is so con. afterwards to pay my respects to him at his house, in com
siderable, that America has become the rival of Great pany with the same friend. We were shown into a hand- || Britain hersell, and is the only maritime power that can some room, where the President had been writing. When
I give her any uneasiness. Yet forty-seven years ago, this he came in, he shook us by the hand, requested us to sit |
grand nation consisted only of a few insignificant colonies, down, and conversed upon a variety of topics. I may here ||
ll supplied in all its wants by the mother country, which, for observe, that whenever, in America, you are introduced ll that purpose, employed but a lew ships. to any one, the custom is to shake bands. I like this cus
"No people, in the same space of time, has ever made a tom, as it is much more friendly, and puts you more at |
hundretli part of the progress; and to what is this progress your case, than the cold formal bow, with which, in Eng
owing? To freedom." land, and indeed in most of Europe, you are greeted at the From Washington the author proceeded across the performance of this ceremony. I was very much pleased with the unaffected urbanity and politeness of the Presi- ||
cio || Alleghany Mountains, and down the Ohio. We will dent, so entirely different from what I should have met | make a few extracts from the description of his with on being introduced to a person of anything like the route :-same importance in Europe. When going to pay my res| pects to a Duke of Tuscany, or even to a petty German
Stage Coaches. prince, whose whole territory was not larger than a county
“ The American stagc-coach on this road, and indeed in one of the United States, I have had to dress in a court || upon all other roads on which there is no opposition, is conuniform, and to pass by a whole file of soldiers, and then by structed somewhat like the market-carts in the neighbouri dozen pages, officers, and chamberlains, with gold || hood of London, being a long waggon upon
being a long waggon upon springs, with keys at their pockets, &c. But the President of the United canvass sides and a light wooden top. You enter into it States received me in my ordinary morning dress; and, from the front, and find in the inside four rows of seats though he is Commander-in-chief of the army and navy, ove behind the otber, the first of which is partly occupied has no need of sentinels at his door, being sufficiently by the driver, who is in some measure protected from tbe protected by the love of his fellow citizens.
rain by the projection of the covering. This vehicle, al“ I can safely say, that the manly simplicity of the Pre- | thou:zh an uncomfortable one, seems to be better adapted sident impressed me with much more respect, than the ab for travelling on some of the bad stony roads, than any four surd mummery of European potentates. Yet surely if | wheeled carriage The Americans always drive four-in pride can be tolerated in any man, it must be in him, who || hand, with the pole very low, and not braced up to the (like President Monroe) has been placed at the head of the collar, as in England. The horses are in general good, government of his native country, by the unanimous and the usual rate of travelling from five to six miles suffrage of eight millions of his fellow citizens. How much an hour. more has he to be proud of, than the petty distinction of
Rifle Shooters. birth or fortune; and what an immeasurable distance between him and a German Princeling! Yet, to judge by
" While the stage was stopping a short time in order to their manners and bearing, you would fancy the Prince | water the horses, and to allow the passengers to take some was the greatest man on earth, and the President merely a refreshinent at a small inn on this mountain, I oberved private individual, whereas the one is a most unimportant || two hunters, who had just come in with some turkies personage, except in his own opinion, and the other is | they had killed, were each of them carrying one of the really a great man.
lon, heavy rifles peculiar to the Americans. As one of “A short time before my arrival at Washington, there | them, an old man, was boasting of his skill as a marksman, occurred a fine example of Republican simplicity. Jeffer- || I offered to put up half a dollar at a distance of fifty yards, son, Madison, and Monroe, happened to meet together at | to be his if he could hit it. Accordingly I stept the disa the opening of a college at Charlottesville in Virginia. I tance, and placed the half-dollar in the cleit of a small suppose this is the only instance on record, of three men, I stick, which I thrust into the ground. The hunter, slowly two of whom had been, and one of whom actually wus, at raising his rifle, tired, and to my great astonishment struck the head of the government of the self-same country, meet the half-dollar. This was the first specimen I had seen, of ing by chance, and, in the most unceremonious and friendly | the unrivalled accuracy with which the American hunter way' passing the evening together. There were four Pre
uses his rifle, and which I had afterwards still greater reasidents alive when I was in the United States,-Adams, son to be surprised at when in Kentucky. Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe."
Kentucky Officers. There is a chapter on the government, which is not. “Old General Scott and two or three others,' said my very remarkable, except for the liberal spirit in which he liberal spirit in which I landlord, were sitting one evening in a loy-tavern, when
in came a tolerably well-dressed stranger, from the New it is written. Our author is a great admirer of the
England States, and called for a half pint of whiskey. American Republics, and speaks of them in raptures. The landlord informed him, that he did not sell it in such One blessing he tells us they enjoy, and a great one it small quantities. The old General, who was very fond of assuredly is—“I never saw a beggar in any part of
whiskey, said, Stranger, I will join you and pay half;
therefore, landlord, give us a pint of your best.' The the United States ; nor was I ever asked for charity, ll
whiskey was brought, and the General, who was to drink but once, and that was by an Irishman.” Again :- ) first, began by saying to the stranger, "Colonel, your good health.' . I am no Colonel,' replied the stranger. Well, ) and machinery of which are worked by steam, as is also then,' said the General, Major, your good health.' their mill for grinding flour. Indeed they carry on almost am no Major,' said the New Englander. Then your good every kind of useful manufacture, and make hats, shoes, health, Captain,' said the General. I am no Captain, sadlery, linen, cotton and woollen cloths, &c. Their Sir,' said the stranger, and what is more, never held a
more. never held a broad cloth is very good : and their flannel of so excellent a commission in my life.' • Well then, by heavens!' said | quality, many of the English settlers at Albion say, that it the old General, you are the first man in Kentucky that is superior to the best Welch flannel they brought out with ever wore a cloth coat, and was not a commissioned them. Every one belongs to some particular trade or emofficer."
ployment, and never interferes with the others, or even
indeed knows what they are about. The only occasion on The increase of trade and travelling on the river which they are called out, is in the event of sudden bad Ohio is amazing. Some notion may be gathered from weather, when the hay or corn is cut, but not carried. In the fact that in 1817, the first steam-boat was built on
such a case, Rapp blows a horn, and the whole community,
both men and women, leave their occupations, run out to that river, and in 1823, there were seventy-nine boats
the fields, and the crop is soon gathered in, or placed in in full employ, and the number was rapidly increasing. safety. There is a party of blacksmiths, shoemakers, Of the manners of the boatmen he does not speak very weavers, shepherds, ploughmen, or agriculturists, &c. favourably :
Over every one of these trades there is a head man, who
acts as an overseer, and who, in particular cases, as with “ I had often heard a great deal of the Kentucky boat
the blacksmith, shoemaker, &c. receives payment for any men, whose manners are notoriously rough. I was in a
work done for strangers. None of the inferiors of each ocmanner forced to drink whiskey with them; but wben
cupation will receive the money. The head man, or forethey found that I was willins to conform to their customs. Il man, always gives a receipt for the money he receives, which they treated me with a great deal of civility. The descrip
receipt is signed by Rapp, who thus knows every cent that tion usually given of these men, and of which they are
is taken, and to whom all the money colleeted is transferred. rather proud, is, that they are half-horse, half-alligator,
When any one of their number wants a hat, coat, or any with a cross of the wild cat.'
thing else, he applies to the head man of his trade or em" At New Orleans, where many boat's crews meet to ployment, who gives him an order, which is also signed by gether, they are the terror of all the peaceable inhabitants.
Rapp, after which he goes to the store and gets what he Their favourite boast, when intoxicated, is as follows:- I
wan.. hare the best rifle, the best horse, and the prettiest sister
" They have one large store, in which is deposited all the of any man in the world; whoever denies it must fight me.'
articles they manufacture. The neighbouring settlers for This occasions numerous battles ; and should any one in
many miles round, resort to this, not only on account of terfere and attempt to stop the tumult, they would in
the excellence, but also the cheapness of the goods. This stantly fall upon the unfortunate peacemaker, saying
store is managed by Mr. Baker, who holds tbe next rank • Stranger, I see you want to quarrel : I am your
to Rapp himself. The Harmonites have also branch stores in Shawnee town, and elsewhere, which they supply with
goods, and which are managed by their agents. He visited the settlement of Birkbeck and Flower, 6. An excellent house of private entertainment is kept by and says that its advantages and disadvantages have both
one of their number, named Ekensperker. Every thing
here was so clean, comfortable, and well arranged, that I been greatly overrated. The condition of the emi
was quite delighted. grants is more tolerable than we had reason to believe, || " The house they have built for their founder Rapp, is and it would be still more so, if the judicious counsels |very large and handsome, and would be esteemed a good of our author were followed by future emigrants. He
house in any part of Europe. In the court-yard, Rapp has
I placed a great curiosity, which he brought from the s continued his route through the Illinois into the of the Mississippi, near St. Louis. It is a block of marble Missouri territory, and has given an interesting, and of the size of a large tombstone, on which are two impreswe have no doubt faithful, though not very attractive
sions of the human foot, so uncommonly well defined, picture of the manners of the Backwoodsmen. Un
perfect, and natural, as to be worthy even of Canova.
“ The religious tenets of the Harmonites are not very happily the English emigrants have contracted too
well known; but it is at any rate certain that they profess many of the ferocious habits of those with whom they equality and the community of possessions. The most exhave been obliged to associate. They have learned
traordinary part of their system is their celibacy; for the to gouge and bite as well as any native Kentuckian,
*men and women live separate, and are not allowed any in
tercourse. In order to keep up their numbers they bave and they begin to regard slavery as a blessing, and not once or twice sent agents to Germany to bring over prose-, a curse. The remarks of our author on this subject lytes, for they admit no Americans. Among those that are honourable and sound.
last came over, were a great many children of both sexes., Harmony, the name of a considerable village, set
“ Very few of the inhabitants of Harmony could speak:
English, and indeed the young boys and girls are chiefly tled by some Germans from Wurtemburg, under the
educated in the German tongue. The policy of the head guidance of Mr. Rapp, is a curious place:
men appears to be, that of preventing, as much as possible,
any of their inferiors from communicating with the Ameri66 They have indeed proceeded in every thing with the || cans, fearing no doubt, that they would see the folly of greatest order and regularity. They possessed when I was their system. there 100 brick buildings, had planted an extensive vine- || "The people, under the present system, are a set of yard, and made considerable quantities of pleasant tasted || well-fed, well clothed, hard working vassals. They are wine. They carried on a very extensive system of agricul very grave and serious. During the whole time I was at ture, and their flocks and herds were uncommonly nume- Harmony, I never saw one of them laugh: indeed they rous. There is a blacksmith's shop with two furnaces, a | appeared to me to enjoy only a sort of melancholy contentthrashing machine, a distillery, brewery, tannery, &c. || ment, which makes a decided difference between them and There is also a large woollen and cotton factory, the spindles || the inhabitants of the other parts of the country who
without fanaticism or celibacy, find themselves well off one might point to the Canal undertaken by the State of and comfortable.”
New York, and say to the worn-out and leaden despotisme Our traveller returned from the Back Settlements to
of Europe: • Behold what Freedom can accomplish !
What work can you produce of such grandeur and utility, New York, which having recovered from the ravages |
| as that of this infant Republic?'" of the yellow fever was full of activity and life. He
Aster visiting the Falls of Niagara and the Canadas, furnishes us with some important statements relating
our traveller returned to the United States, and so. to the American navy and army. They must excite
journed a short time amongst the New Englanders. not a few startling apprehensions in the mind of a British minister. The chapter on American commerce
We have no room for his sketches except for some is more general, and valuable only for its statistical
scattered regulations from the original “Blue Laws of tables.
Connecticut :"Our traveller proceeded up the Hudson river on his for
“ No one shall hold any office who is not sound in the
er on nis Il faith, and faithful to this dominion ; and whoever gives al route to the Canadas, and has given us a very minute || vote to such a person shall pay a fine of one pound.-For account of the excellent Military College at West-Point, || the second oflence, he shall be disfranchised. the fortress which Arnoid intended to have sold to the || “ No Quaker, or dissenter from the established worship
of this dominion, shall be allowed to give a vote for the British in bis interviews with the unfortunate Andre.
election of magistrates, or any officer. The Grand Western Canal which connects the Hud- || " No food or lodging shall be afforded to a Quaker, son with Lake Erie, is the most stupendous useful || Adamite, or other heretic work in the world. In point of labour required, and
" If any person turns quaker, he shall be banished, and distance covered, it is inferior only to the Great Wall |
|| not suffered to return, on pain of Death.
" No Priest shall abide in this dominion. He shall be of China.
banished, and sutter Death on his return. Priests may be
seized by any one, without a warrant. “ The length of the great canal is 353 miles. The width |
“No one shall cross a river but with an authorized feron the water surface is forty feet, at the bottom twenty
rymen. eight feet, and the depth four feet. The number of locks | " No one shall run of a Sabbath-day, or walk in his garis seventy-seven, each lock being ninety feet long and || den, or elsewhere, except reverently to and from church. twelve feet wide; and it is calculated that boats carrying " No one shall travel, cook victuals, make beds, sweep 100 tons may navigate the canal. The cost of making it || houser, cut hair, or shave, on the Sabbath-day. has been 5,000,000 of dollars.
“No woman shall kiss her child on Sabbath or fasting " It is impossible to form any idea of the vast advantages which must accrue to New York and to the United States A drunkard shall have a master appointed by the in general from this magnificent work. Great as these are select men, who is to debar him the privilege of buying or even at present, one cannot attempt to calculate what they | selling. may be hereafter, as we do not know the resources of the “Whoever publishes a lie to the prejudice of his neighgreat regions around Lake Huron, Michigan, and Superior. bour, shall sit in the stocks, and be whipped fifteen stripes. It was only the other day, that some great copper-mines
" Whoever wears clothes trimmed with silver or bone were discovered near the last mentioned lake. By con lace above two shillings a yard, shall be presented by the necting the Hudson with the great Lakes, the inland grand jurors; and the select men shall tax the offender at States have, as it were, been brought nearer to the At ll the rate of three hundred pound estate. lantic,
“ No one shall read common prayer, keep Christ. “ The great river Illinois, passing through the State of mas, or saint's day, make minced pies, dance, play cards, that name, and falling into the Mississippi, takes its rise
or play on any instrument of music, except the drum, the almost on the very shore of Lake Michigan. During the trumpet, and the jew's-barp. high waters after rain, the Indians, even at the present
“No man shall court a maid without first obtaining the time, pass up this river and enter the Lake in their canoes, consent of her parents-five pounds penalty lor the first there being a complete water communication. This cir offence-ten for the second, -and for the third, imprisoncumstance is a very curious geographical fact, and shews by ment during the pleasure of the court. what a very slight dividing ridge' the waters that find " Married persons shall live together or be imprisoned. their way to the ocean through the St. Lawrence, are sepa "Every male shall have his hair cut round according to rated from those that rush into the chånnel of the Mississippi. Hence, almost without an effort, a canal could be cut, joining Lake Michigan with the Illinois river, which Some of these remain in a sort of force still. No is broad, deep, sluggish, and otherwise peculiarly adapted
one for instance is permitted to travel in the States of to navigation. I have before mentioned, that it is the intention of the State of Ohio to establish a communication
| Connecticut and New Hampshire. His opinions on with
the great Lakes, by means of a canal through its ter education, religion, and the American character, are ritory. So easily, and at so trifling an expense can this be sensible, pertinent, and acute, and deserve all the praise eflected, that the State of Ohio, though so young, has de
we have already bestowed upon the author fur fairness, termined to begin it immediately.
“Let any one, with the map of the United States before impartiality and good sense. him, contemplate this vast chain of inland navigation. The Great Lakes, and the interior of the North Western territory, will be connected with New Orleans and the ON DRAWING THE ACADEMY FIGURE. Gulf of Mexico on one side ; on the other with New York, by the Great Canal ; and with Lower Canada and the St. The study of the academy figure is, undoubtedly, most Lawrence by means of the Champlain Canal. Were it not essential, but unless conducted with some regard to science, useless in the present age, to insist upon the well known || it necessarily leads to error. advantages of free institutions and popular governments, In the first place, it may be remarked, that the academy
figure can give no aid in the study of the countenance. Il of the muscles, he should attentively observe the play of Here the lessons of anatomy, taken along with the descrip- || the muscles when thrown into action and attitudes of viotions of the great poets, and the study of the works of emi lent exertion ; but, chiefly, he should mark the action of nent painters, afford the only resource.
the muscles during the striking out of the limbs. He will But even for the anatomy of the body and limbs, the soon, in such a course of observation, learn to distinguish academy figure is very far from being an infallible guide. between posture and action, and to avoid that tameness
The display of muscular action in the human figure is but which results from neglecting the play of the muscles. And momentary, and cannot be retained and fixed for the imi in this view, the painter, after having learnt to draw the tation of the artist. The effect produced upon the surface figure, as it is usually termed, would do well to make the of the body and limbs by the action of the muscles, the academy figure go through the exercise of pitching the bar, swelling and receding of the fleshy parts, and that drawing Jor throwing or striking. He will then find that it is chiefly of the sinews or tendons, which accompanies exertion, or in straining and pulling in a fixed posture, that there is an change of posture, cannot be observed with sufficie
with sufhicient accu- l) universal tension and equal prominence of the muscles; racy, unless the artist is able to class the muscles engaged and that in unrestrained actions only a few muscles rise in the operation; and unless he have some other guide strongly prominent, and are distinctly characteristic of that than the mere surface presents, which may enable him to action. He will not, perhaps, be able to catch the characrecollect the varying form.
ter of muscular expression, and commit it to paper at once: When the academy figure first strips himself, there is a || but with accurate notions of the classification of the muscles, symmetry and accordance in all the limbs; but when he is and of the effect of each action in calling into exertion parscrewed up into a posture, there appears a constraint and || ticular sets of them, knowing to what point his observation want of balance. It cannot be supposed, that, when a man Il should be applied, and correcting his perceived notions by has the support of ropes to preserve him in a posture of the actual appearance of the limb, each succeeding exhibiexertion, the same action of inuscles can be displayed as | tion of strength will accelerate his progress in the knowif the limbs were supported by their own energy; and, || ledge of anatomical expression, and in correctness of in all academy drawings, we may perceive something ll design. wrong where the ropes are not represented along with the || The true corrective for the faults we have pointed out, is figure. In natural action there always is a consent and || to be found in the study of anatomy. It may well be said, symmetry in every part. When a man clenches his fist in that anatomy is the true basis of the arts of design; and it passion, the other arm does not
cant relaxation :
infallibly, lead to perfection those who, blessed with When the face is stern and vindictive, there is energy in || true genius, can combine correctness and simplicity with the whole frame: When a man rises from his seat in impas- || the higher graces and charms of the art. It bestows on the sioned gestures, there pervades in every limb and feature a || painter a minuteness of observation, which he cannot othercertain tension and straining. This universal state of the Il wise attain: and. I am persuaded, that while it will enable body it is difficult to excite in those who are accustomed to || him to give vigour to the whole form, it will, also, teach sit to painters; I see them watch my eye, and where they || him to represent certain niceties of expression, which, see me intent, they exert the muscles. The painter, there- ll otherwise, are altogether beyond his reach. fore, cannot trust to the man throwing himself into a natu- Even in drawing from a particular model, the artist, who ral posture; he must direct him, and be himself able to || is versed in anatomy, has a great superiority. When I catch, as it were intuitively, what is natural, and reject || have seen a person, unacquainted with anatomy, drawing what is constrained. Besides, those soldiers and mecha-|| from the naked figure or from a statue, I have marked the nics who are employed as academy figures are often stiff difficulty which he experienced in representing the course and unwieldy; and hard labour has impaired in them the l of a swelling muscle, or the little depressions and convexinatural and easy motion of the joints.
ties about a joint ; and this difficulty I have traced to his Until the artist has gained a perfect knowledge of the total ignorance of the course and action of the muscle, the muscles, and is able to represent them in action without
of which he was endeavouring to make out. The losing the general tone of the figure, he is apt to produce same difficulty is often felt in drawing the knobbed end of a an appearance like spasm or cramp in the limbs from one bone, or the insertion of a tendon, which being under the part being in action, while the other is loose or relaxed. || integuments of the limb, are but very faintly distinguishFor it is always to be remembered, that whether the body ll able
able on the surface. be alive or dead, whether the limbs be in action or relaxed | cations of the anatomy, though easily traced by one acin sleep, a uniform character must pervade the composition. I quainted with the structure of the limb, appear to the Whether the gently undulating line of relaxed muscle be | uninformed only as unmeaning variations in the outline, of the prevailing outline; or the parts be large and strong, ll the importance of which he has no means of judging, and in and the muscles prominent, bold, and angular; there must the imitating of which he feels the greatest difficulty, and be perfect accordance, otherwise there will be no beauty of is exposed to continual mistakes. While the knowledge of expression.
anatomy gives to the painter a spirit of minute observation, I think that in the sketches, and even in the finished and leads him to mark those little niceties which add to the paintings of some artists, I have observed the effect of con- || beauty of the whole, it also enables him to preserve correcttinuing to draw from the model, or from the naked figure, || ness, and infuse vigour into his drawing; to catch that without due attention to the action of the muscles. I have diversity which nature sets before him, and to avoid the seen paintings, where the grouping was excellent, and the representation of what is monstrous and deformed. proportions exact, yet the figures stood in attitudes when
Suppose that a young artist is about to sketch a figure or they were meant to be in action; they were fixed as statues, || a limb, feeble indeed will his execution be, if without knowand communicated to the spectator no idea of exertion or ledge he endeavours merely to copy what is placed before of motion. This sometimes proceeds, I have no doubt, || him. In thus transcribing, as it were, a language which from a long continued contemplation of the antique, but he does not understand, how many must be his errors and more frequently from drawing after the still and spiritless inaccuracies! He sees an undulating surface; the bones academy figure. The knowledge of anatomy is necessary || and processes of the joints but faintly distinguishable ; he to correct this; but, chiefly, a familiar acquaintance with neglects the peculiar swelling of the muscles, to which he the classification of the muscles, and the peculiarities and I should give force, as implving motion : he makes swellings effect of their action.
merely; he is incapable of bestowing the elegant undulating The true use of the living figure is this;---after the artist | outline of beauty with force and accuracy, and of preserving has learnt the structure of the bones and the classification at the same time the characters of motion or exertion.
ess definite indi.
Drawing what he does not understand, he falls into imbe- || Instead of a young warrior pushing on with great energy, cility or deviates into caricature.
let their task be to represent him receiving a blow of his But if with a knowledge of anatomy, he attempts the antagonist, which forces down his shield upon his breast, or same task, his acquaintance with the skeleton enables him || brings him with bis knee to the ground; as it is beatifully with truth and with facility to sketch his first outline of the represented on some medals. Can we doubt for a moment figure, and to take down its various proportions; while his which will excel? The one will copy from recollection his knowledge of the muscles enables him to represent forcibly original drawing, or twist with great difficulty the erect the fleshy parts, simplifying and massing where it is neces- || limbs of the statue into a couching posture, while the other sary, and at the same time preserving a minuteness of will gain by his greater freedom. Retaining the general intention.
air, like one who had understood what he copied, he is aware But it is in composing much more than in copying what that a new class of muscles come into action, while those is exhibited, that the knowledge of anatomy is truly useful. formerly in exertion are relaxed; he knows that the bendWithout such knowledge, all the original exertions of genius ing of the limbs increases their measurements; he knows are repressed. Every alteration of posture is accompanied how to represent the joints in their new postures; in short, with muscular exertion and change of form, and in propor he gives energy and effect as a compensation for slighter tion to the painter's ignorance of these changes, are all his | errors.-F'ide Bell's Anatomy of Expression. designs cramped and restrained. Leonardo da Vinci gives
(To be continued.) formally, as a precept, what is self-evident to an anatomist. " In naked figures, those members must shew their muscles most distinctly and boldly, upon which the greatest stress is laid; in comparison with which, the rest must appear
ON COLOURING. enervate.''-Remember, further, to make the muscles most visible on that side of any member which it puts forward to action.” Such rules and precepts are rather the result of
To the Editor of the Somerset House Gazette. anatomical knowledge, than useful as pointing out to one
SIR, unacquainted with anatomy the effect he is to produce. It The principles of light, shade, and colour, in painting, is not by following such a precept, that the end is to be l appear to have been understood by the ancient Greeks, accomplished, but by enriching the mind with the conti but to have been lost at the restoration of painting in nual contemplation of the anatomical changes, which mark Europe: thus M. Angelo, Rafiael, and all the Roman each motion; and by forming, as the result of such study, I and Florentine painters, 80 eminent in other respects, rules for the representation of human action. The uses of were, almost without exception, destitute of these princithis study will best appear from an illustration. In vigo ples, and of all just feeling of the effects of colours. rous action, while there is generally a tension in the whole The restoration of this branch of the art, is not even its frame, there is also, in order to produce the particular l invention, seems to have been coeval with oil painting, motion, a certain class of muscles brought into stronger and the glory of it belongs to the Venetians, among whom action than the rest; the delineation of which is the true || Gio Bellino laid its foundation, and Titian carried it to indication of the action itself. If a man be merely pointing high perfection. From the Venetian it passed to the upwards, an elegant simplicity may be all that the painter || Flemish school." can attain, or should attempt; but if, in the same posture, It is to be doubted notwithstanding, whether there was he is bringing down a heavy sword to make a blow, the not more of feeling than principle in the practice of these muscles start into strong exertion; and by representing schools, and that colouring remains yet to be established as those swelling muscles wbich pull down the arm and give a science. the sweep to the whole body, the idea of mighty action is If the excellence of the Roman and Florentine schools conveyed. Thus it is necessary, in order to compose with || in the superior departments of figure, composition, and truth and correctness, not only that the painter should expression must be admitted, they fail nevertheless of the know the place and form of the bones and muscles, but that just effect of an art, which addresses itself to the mind he should also have an accurate conception of the classing through the sight. Their works have, accordingly as litof the muscles in their action.
tle effect upon the eye as the finest poetry badly set to Perhaps I shall best impress my idea of the advantage music has upon the ear; and as this would be better to be derived from this study, by contrasting two young without the music, so those would perhaps be better withartists employed in drawing from a figure; the one trusting ll out their colour.. to his untutored genius, the otber assisted by the study of True taste, which admits of no discordance in its objects, anatomy. The first, after much labour, is seen copying bit || will therefore prefer the Venetian to the Roman and Floby bit, and measuring from point to point; and the effect is rentine schools, because it excels in that which is the an accurate outline. The other catches the attitude with | essential basis of the art and its end, facility, because a knowledge of the skeleton has enabled Upon the same principle, the sublimest sentiments him to balance the trunk upon the limbs, and to give the delivered, however accurately, in language unmeasured outline with boldness; the turn of the limbs, the masses of l and in harmonious, will never redeem the performance of muscular flesh, and the general character of the joints, are || the poet, norr
poet, nor raise it above more ordi
oughts delitouched with a slight but accurate hand. If you look upon | vered in the true measure and melody of speech; for these his sketch, you will find the attitude, the cbaracter, the || are the first essential, the constituent matter, the very spirit, and life of the original. Even in the early stage of colour of the poet's art. So also according to a correct his drawing, and whilst his opponent is copying parts, he || analogy, colouring may be called the eloquence of paintpresents you with the foundation of an accurate and spirited ing-the animating principle which gives life to a picsketch; and if the anatomical student has the advantage in |ture. conveying the general idea in a few lines, he has a much greater superiority in drawing the minute parts. But this superiority which anatomy bestows, is still bet
• The Historical distribution of Painting according to the
schools, is not exactly coincident with its true natural and scientific ter exemplified, if you remove the model from these two
classification, according to which there are but THREE CLASSES OR young painters, and make them draw the figure from recol
SCHOOLS: viz. the gross and material, to which belongs the Dutch lection; or if, keeping the model before them in its original
and Flemish schools,--the sensible, as the Venetian, and the intel. posture, you make them alter the attitude of the figure. Il lectual or Roman ; and it is somewhat remarkable that in a scienSuppose, for example, that we take the fighting gladiator. || tific sense these three schools should have retrograded,