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JOHN LEWIS 1737.
ble many excellent performances, now lost, would have MR. CAXTON appears to have been a very humble, mo- || been secured to us, especially if he had recourse to some dest and virtuous man. He often styles himself a rude of the most ancient pieces; but, as it is, Caxton's works and simple person, confesses his ignorance, and humbly lare valuable for little else than as being early performances beseeches the pardon of his readers, and their patience to cor- || in the art of printing, and as wrought ofl by him. rect bis works; and expresses himself in other terwys so submissive and sell-abasing as are very uncommon, and more
THOMAS WARTOX, 1778. casily admired than imitated, &c. He was a man of no French versions enabled Caxton, our first printer, to more learning, than, as he ingeniously confessed, he had lenrich the state of letters in this country with many vaby liis knowledge of the English and French languages, in | luable publications. He found it no difficult task, either which he modestly acknowledged, he remembered himself by himself or the help of his friends, to turn a considerable of his rudeness and unperfitness. By the account which number of these pieces into English, which he printed. he gave of his printed books, it sufficiently appears in how || Antient learning as yet made too lit progress among us, great favour and request he was with the princes and great to encourage this enterprising and industrious artist to men of his own time.
publish the Roman authors in their original language: and
had not the French furnished him with these materials, it S. PALMER (OR G. PSALMANAZAR) 1733.
is not likely that Virgil, Ovid, Cicero, and many other I CAN'T but observe, that the faults of his English are || good writers, would, by the means of his press, have been owing more to his long continuance abroad, than to the || circulated in the English tongue, so early as the close of place of his birth; which will easily appear from an accu- | the fifteenth century. rate observation of his language, and manner of spelling, which discover a foreigner more than a broad-spoken Ken
DR. KIPPIS, 1781. tishman, &c. Besides his accomplishments as a merchant, || CAXTON, by translating, or procuring to be translated, Mr. Caxton acquired a great deal of politeness, partly by || such a number of the books from the French, greatly conhis travels for thirty years, and partly by his frequent || tributed to promote the state of literature in England. residence at the court of the Duchess of Burgundy, sister || It was only in this way that he could introduce his counto King Edward IV. who caressed and patronized him very || trymen to the knowledge of many valuable publications, much, &c. As he was a person indefatigable and ambitious at a time when an acquaintance with the learned languages of applause, as well as earnest in promocing the glory of was contined to a few ecclesiastics. Antient learning had
ad incessantly the history of his own ll as vet made too little progress among us, to encourage him and other nations; which at proper times he digested into to publish the Roman authors in their original tongue. order.
DR. HENRY, 1785,
All our historians and other writers, who flourished in And indeed that a man should, for twenty years toge- || or near those times, and mention the introduction of print
age had crept over, and begun to make impres- ||ing into England, unanimously, and without hesitation, sions upon him, when others naturally covet a cessation ascribe that honour to Mr. William Caxton, Mercer and from labour, especially of the brain; that he (William | Citizen of London. This modest, worthy, and industrious Caxton) should still, after he had given between fifty and || man, hath been already noticed as an historian : be was threrscore testimonies of his indefatigable diligence, in the || also the translator of many books out of French into Enpublications he had made, which are computed to have I glish; but he merited most of his country by introducing amounted to that number, and now, as he could be little the art of printing. less than fourscore years of age, that he should be desirous of giving still fresh and further instances of his zeal to
EDWARD GIBBON, 1796. promote and disperse the most virtuous examples and It was in the year 1474, that our first press was estapious instructions among his countrymen ; these, as they || blished in Westminster Abbey, by William Caxton : but in are no ordinary proofs of the painful services he bestowed I the choice of his authors, that liberal and industrious lipon them, so they have deserved no common acknow artist was reduced to comply with the vicious taste of bis ledgments.
readers; to gratify the nobles with treatises on heraldry,
hawking, and the game of chess, and to amuse the popular JOSEPH AMES, 1747.
crcdulity with romances of fabulous knights, and legends Mů. CAXTON was a Citizen and Mercer of London; at of more fabulous saints. The father of printing expresses the death of his master he travelled abroad in the Low || a laudable desire to elucidate the history of his country. Countries, as an agent or merchant, for the space of thirty years; his good accomplishments, and great knowledge of
THOMAS ASTLE, 1803. foreign traffic, procured him so much esteem at bome, || WILLIAM CAXTON hath been generally allowed to have that he was joined in a commission with Richard White- I first introduced and practised the ait of printing, in hill, Esq. to conclude a treaty of trade and commerce England, in the reign of King Edward IV. He became a between King Edward IV. and the Duke of Burgundy, reputable merchant, and in 1464, he was one of the persons whose son afterwards married the Lady Margaret, King employed by King Edward IV. in negociating a treaty of Edward's sister, in 1468; this lady was our printer's great commerce with the Duke of Burgundy, and was afterwards friend and patroness.
patronized by Margaret, Duchess of Burgundy, sister to
that king. Caxton having received a good education in his ANONYMOUS, 1766.
youth, had a taste for learning, and made himself master WILLIAM CAXTOX, who first introduced printing in En- ll of the art of printing. land, bas, no doubt, been instrumental in preserving many things that otherwise would have been lost, but the
JOHN MÓCREENY, 1803. misfortune was, that he was but an illiterate man, and of O Albion! still thy gratitude confess small judgment, by which means he printed none but To Caxton, founder of the British press : mean and frivolous things, as appears from the catalogue of Since first thy mountains rose-or rivers flow'd, his impressions, given us by Mr. Lewis and Mr. Ames. Who on thine isles so rich a boon bestow'd ? Whereas, had he been a scholar, and had made a better || Vide Johnson's Typographia, which we shall notice in our choice of the works that were to pass his press, it is proba
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Thebes, Mount Parnassus, Temple of Jupiter Panhellenius, the By PETER Smith, A. M. Teacher of English Coin positiou &c.
Acropolis, and Athens. Edinburgh.
London: printei foi Hurst, Robinson, and Co. 90, Cheapside, and As the volume comprebends a complete course of elementary in- || 8, Pall-Mall; and A. Constable and Co. Edinburgh. struction in philology, composition, and reasoning, it may be consi
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Printed for Harding, Trish yok, and Lepard, Finsbury-square. CARLISLE EXHIBITION. For the promotion of the FINE ARTS in the North of England.
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By the Rev. T. F. DIBDIN, F. R. 8. 8. A. Street, Carlise.
... In this work the Author has endeavoured to furnish bis Those Artists in the metropolis who may please to honor the Countrymen with a Manual towards the Acquisition of useful and Institution with their productions, are respectfully requested to valuable, as well as rare and curious Works in the several Depart. forward them to Messrs. Pickford and Co. Wood Street, Cheapside, inents of Divinity, History, Biography, Voyages and Travels, the on Monday and Tuesday the 23rd and 24th August, with whom Belles Letters, Poetry, and the English Drama. Prices of the more arrangements have been made for the conveyance of Pictures froni
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Museum: a Fac-simile of the Plan drawn bs Lord Burghley's own form Series of Views, which will comprise the principal Cities and
Hand, for the Arrangement of the Trial of Mary Queen of Scots : Towns of Scotland, sketched from the most picturesque and favorite
and a fac-simile of the Seal and Signature to the Carte-blanche which points of view, and coloured on the spot by the same eminent Artist,
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MEMOIRS of the COURT of HENRY tbe GREAT. Any single View may ne had at the above price, but those who order a complete set will be entitled to the Historical and Descriptive • No Epoch in the History of Europe is so pregnant with events Account of the whole Series, and of Scotland generally, now prepar of consequence to subsequent Relations of society, as the reigns of ing for this Work, and to be delivered with the last Engraving. Elizabeth of England and of Henry the Great of France, contempo.
The whole dedicated by permission to His Majesty, who has been raneons in Period and Rivals in the Spiendonr and Genius of their graciously pleased to honour this National Undertaking with his respective Courts, Miss Aikin's elegant rolumes have introduced patronage.
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The account of the massacre of St. Bartholomew is the fullest in THE CONCHOLOGIST'S COMPANION; comprising
our language, and so curious, that we have judged it proper to transfer 1 the instincts and constructions of Testaceous Animals; with a | the entire article for its own sake, as well as to exhibit the talents general sketch of those extraordinary productions which connect the ll of the Author," --Monthly Magazine. Vegetable and Animal Kingdoms.
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DICTIONARY OF THE FINE ARTS. composition of art, without being indispensably necessary,
is called an accessory. In an historical picture, the figures
which act are the principal objects: they give the idea of In a former number this work was noticed as in the action which the painter figures to himself; the rest are preparation. The first of the six parts which are to accessories. complete the Dictionary, has appeared, and it is in
The artist who aspires to rise above mediocrity, should,
above all things, be extremely reserved in the use and every respect equal to our anticipations in its favor.
choice of accessories in his picture; he should use and The author, Mr. Elmes, observes, “ such a work has place them in such a manner as not to hinder or spoil the never yet appeared in the English language; and effect of the principal group, with which they should always although there are treatises in the French, Italian, and
agree, and at the same time assist the general effect.
" The most skilful painters and sculptors of antiquity other modern languages, yet they are inapplicable in
I have avoided accessories in their designs, that the eye many requisites to the English student, professor, and might not be diverted by them from the principal figure or patron of the British school of art."
group; and a modern artist would do much better to omit That a work like this has long been a desideratum, them altogether than to introduce them improperly. No
thing is more insupportable to the true connoisseur than to with artists and amateurs, has been generally admitted.
see designs crowded with accessories, which have no conIts utility, however, is not confined to these. In an
nexion with the principal object, or where they are introage like this, where society in general may be said to duced only to fill up and hide the vacuity and emptiness of be thirsting for science, the fountain should be free.
the principal subject: they disgrace the name of accessories,
and should only be regarded as useless supernumeraries, This publication is offered in a shape comprehensible
pressed into a service (they seriously injure) without judgto all, who may desire to enrich their minds, who even ment or discretion. can read only in the vernacular tongue. Many would 6 Action. (actio, Lat. action, Fr.] In painting. The have created themselves a name in arts and sciences,
series of events represented in a fable. (See SUBJECT.)
Action, in painting and sculpture, is that which gives had the fountain of instruction not been locked by the
reality to description; it is the embodying of that moment key of pedantry, and opened rarely but to the disci. of time which the author chooses to represent. Action is ples of the schools.
sometimes confounded with motion (see Motion), in say
ing a " figure has action, meaning " motion.' In the arts An epoch more fitting could not have been chosen
as well as in literature, an action should be true, connected, for ushering this Dictionary before the public. It
natural, and simple. Any thing that disturbs the unity of abounds with information no less generally interesting, the action always weakens the interest. than universally useful, and will make a volume that “ AFFECTATION. (affectatio, Lat.] The art of making an no one, with the least pretension to intellectual enjoy.
artificial or deceitful appearance. This fault in art, a
species of which is sometimes called by the French conment, can take up, and lay down again without plea
tourne, and relates to outline only, is equally to be avoided sure and improvement.
by the painter, the sculptor, and the architect. AffectaAs a book of reference it will be useful to the scho tion is the certain result of an abandonment of the simplilar, to the artist, and to the connoisseur, and of impor
city of nature, in colouring, in drawing, or in action; or
where either is overcharged and false; or where artificial tance to the rising generation, as it will contain much
colouring, drapery, outline, or appearance is given to any information directly tending to elucidate a thousand one of the branches of the plastic arts, instead of a more objects alluded to in their classic studies, which even natural arrangement. in the best schools, are too frequently only known by |
" AMATEUR. (Fr.) In all the arts. A French term much
applied in this country to persons who are attached to any | their names.
of the arts, but who do not practise them: but in France it The present number extends no further than the is granted by academies to such as associate with them with letter A. under which we select the following as speci similar qualities. Although we have no such description mens of the character of the work, by which, limited
of members in our Royal Academy of the Fine Arts, the
annual exhibition generally produces a considerable number as must be our extracts, our readers may perceive its
of amateur artists of much talent, who are honoured by an general utility, in furnishing the mind with a know exclusive catalogue of their names under the appellation or ledge of the true import of the nomenclature of art, | title of “• Honorary Exhibiters,' and are admitted to all the and of enabling the admirers of architecture, sculpture,
public lectures given in the academy, in the same manner
as the members, students, and professional exhibitors. painting, engraving, and other elegant and noble arts
“ To be a genuine amateur, it is necessary that the perand sciences, to converse upon such subjects, with that | son so called should possess, besides a sufficiency of critical propriety and good taste, which becomes the people of knowledge, some practice, and an allowed good taste, or he
will fall under Milizia's censure of. Amatori senza amore, coan enlightened age:
noscitori senza conizitioni,' which is similar to that of the " ACCESSORIES. (accessorius, Lat. accessoire, Fr.) In Russian Count Stroganoff in the preface to the Catalogue painting. Additionals. Every thing that enters into a || Raisonne of his fine collection of pictures, Delivre nous,
LONDON, AUGUST 21, 1824.
grand Dieu, de ces connoisseurs sans connoissance et ces || bers of the profession, under like circumstances, before amateurs sans amour.' The French phrase “Il ne sait pas l he demolished these venerable remains, made accurate peindre, mais il est amateur,' well expresses the character of the critical amateur.
| drawings of the various parts, and has given to the “ ANATOMY. (anatomia, Lat. deya touia, Gr. from dive and world this work, which will perpetuate the memory of Touw, I cut.) In painting and sculpture. The doctrine | Mickleham, and with it his own reputation, to the of the structure of the animal body, particularly that of ll esteem of future generations of antiquaries. man. By this science an artist can alone obtain the know
To the lithographic art must be ascribed the preserledge of the bones, or osteology, and of the structure of those external layers of muscles, on which depend, in a
| vation of this relic, for it could not be supposed that great measure, a just ponderation, motion, and expression | the author would have attempted this publication, in of his figures,
line engraving, or other expensive modes of calco" For this reason anatomy is one of the principal ele
graphy, which would have demanded a sum, almost ments of art; and the study of it should not solely be confined to proper anatomy, but should also, if the artist would l equal to that for whic
equal to that for which he conditioned to complete attain eminence, be extended to comparative anatony. The the restoration and enlargement of the structure. best course of study, for a student in the arts, is to obtain Hence, we owe to the discovery of drawing on stone, a general knowledge of the principal bones and external
this very interesting book, which will add to the stock muscles, their names and uses, to accustom himself to draw often, both from the skeleton and occasional dissections.
of antiquarian research, and contribute another pleas. To compare his drawings and his observations with the ing volume to the graphic library. most perfect and beautiful specimens of ancient and modern “ The chuch of Mickleham claims very high antistatues, and the living model. To do the same with those ll quity (savs the author). The form of the circular masters whose paintings are most celebrated for anatomical expression and correctness. As Raffaele, Michael Angiolo, I headed windows in the chancel, the arch dividing the the Carracci, &c. and observe the defects of others. He the chancel from the nave, and the western door-way," will finally, by this means, obtain a confidence and cor to which there are references in the plates, “ indicate rectness of delineating the wonderful human machine. The
the Anglo-Norman period; but as the records have best books for study would be pointed out by any medical friend; but he must not omit consulting that admirable
been unfortunately lost or destroyed, the exact date of work, Bell's Anatomy of Expression in Painting, in which its erection can only be judged of by analogy. As the autbor bas treated the science both as an artist, and as | much elegance of form is displayed in the original an anatoniist.”
building, a little time may not be altogether misapplied in endeavouring to ascertain this period, by com
paring its general outline and the figure of its mouldWORKS ON THE FINE ARTS.
ings, with those of other churches, where the age is decided."
To elucidate by this test, the author has not been Nlustrations of Mickleham Church, Surry, with Remarks I wanting in diligence or intelligent research. The
on the Architecture of that Building. By P. F. Robin- l illustrations are selected from remaining specimens in son, Architect. London: Carpenter and Son, 1824. our oldest sacred structures, and drawn on stone; these
Two architectural works, illustrated by prints from I are printed on slips, and accompanied by letter-press stone, from the lithographic press of Mr. Hullmandel, observations, a feature of the work, which is addressed claim the notice of our pages this week. We take up
to the general reader, as well as to the amateur of the subject with pleasure, as they come fairly under
| architecture, and which cannot fail to excite a correthe class of publications for which we consider draw
sponding interest. It is indeed by the judicions intro. ing on stone particularly applicable. One is a hand
duction of these simple examples of art, that the mind some quarto volume on Rural Architecture, the other, is imperceptibly wrought upon, and seduced, as it were, that before us, which per eminence, we shall notice
into a love of science.
The architectural scraps herein introduced are :Mickleham Church has long been known, to the 1. A window in the Chancel of Barleston, to compar topographical enquirer, as one of the most picturesque with the windows in the Chancel of Micklehain. remains of old English ecclesiastical architecture, and ||
| 2. Enrichment round the great western entrance of the
architecture, and || Church at Bieville, near Caen in Normandy, supposed to has often been the subject for pictorial imitation, ll have been erected about the year 1080). This venerable pile, one of the few existing records of 3. Interior of the Window of the North Transept of the the taste and skill of the monkish days of old, remain. || conventual Church of St. Cross, Hampshire, ing near the metropolis, had gone to decay, and the
14. Archivolt of the Chancel Arch at Barfreston Church,
exhibiting the double billet enrichment, and the zigzay author, in his professional capacity was employed to llornament of chevron work, to which are added Capital of repair it.
Ancient Columns in various buildings about the same To effect this, it was necessary to pull down a great || period. part of the old structure, which, with our devotion to The advantages of a work like this, are likely to be every scrap of architectural antiquity, we could not more extensive to the arts, than one indifferent to but regret. The architect however, with that good these pursuits may suppose, for in this age so zealous taste, which we hope will be followed by other mem- || for the general improvement of the rising generation,
such publications may be regarded as stepping-stones || forms to which the devotion of early ages and pure taste to knowledge. The ardent minds of well-educated || gave birth. A better feeling, however, has of late years
displayed itself; and the care and attention which has been youth, of each sex, after looking upon the illustrations
exerted in restoring our cathedrals to their ancient purity of this church, will, when making a tour in company and magnificence, will, it may be hoped, soon extend itself with their parents or preceptors, bear the recollection to our churches. The science of architecture has become on their travels, and discover the same features in the
a favourite study with many of our nobility, and the time
may be at hand when our village churches will be rescued ancient buildings which they view, and thereby acquire
from the control of the spoiler. a practical system of judging on a science, not only “ Previous to the Reformation, every attention was paid delightful in itself, but interwoven with the most in to our sacred edifices, and wealth was lavished in creating teresting associations of our domestic history.
effects which certainly inspired religious awe. The very
reverse of this feeling is now unfortunately observable in Plate 1. of this work exhibits a Ground Plan of Mickle our country churches; and it is not surprising that the ham Church,
rustic enters the place of worship with little ceremony, Plate 2. Section from East to West of the Interior, as it when neglect is evident throughout, when its sacred walls was previous to the alteration.
are covered with dust and damp and cobweb; the very Plate 3. North West View of the Exterior.
altar more desolate than the rest. At a time when the Plate 4. South East View of the Exterior.
seceders from our national religion are daily increasing, it Plate 5. View looking East, taken within the Organ || is surely not impolitic to consider the causes which occasion Screen.
defection, and among many others, this want of attention Plate 6. View looking East, taken from the Organ Gal to the building dedicated to the service of the Deity may
be considered most important. Were the comforts of the Plates 7. Arch to the Norbury Pew.
poor attended to by affording them proper accommodation Plate 8. View of the Chancel.
in the parish church, numbers would be withheld from Plate 9. View looking West, taken from the Chancel. joining the Dissenters, and from becoming hostile to our
Plate 10. View from the South Gallery looking towards || venerable establishment." the Chancel.
Plate 11. The Organ Gallery, with the Ancient Font.
Plate 12. The West Door and Porch, with Ancient || The Art of Drawing on Stone, giving a full explanation of Tombs.
the Various Styles of the different methods to be employed Plate 13. The Sepulchral Chapel, or Oratory. With five additional plates of Elevations, Ornaments,
to ensure success, and of the Modes of Correcting, as &c., making together a most interesting series of illustra well as of the several causes of failure. By G. Hulltions of this truly picturesque church, thus perpetuated by MANDEL. London: Ackermann, 1824. the good feeling and real love of art, which does so much credit to the artist.
Our opinions upon the pretensions of this new disWe should not have dwelt so long on this thin
covery to the encouragement of the artist and amaquarto, the plates of which as works of art, are so
teur, its tendencies to spread more extensively the love
of art, its capacities, its limits, and peculiar properinferior to the exquisite line engravings by the Cooke's, the Le Keux's, Pye, Golding, and others of our inimi
· || ties, were briefly given in a late number. We intend table school of topographical engravers, but from the
to resume the subject, which we feel more competent conviction, that publications like this of Micklebam
to enlarge upon, being now in possession of this Church, by their comparative cheapness, their pic
ingenious and intelligent treatise. For the present, we turesqueness, and other recommendatory qualities, will
shall only say, that after much consideration upon the spread a love for art, promote enquiry on affairs of
question, we cannot bring our minds to agree with those, taste, and lead to that higher species of connoisseurship,
|| who are of opinion that drawing on stone and printing which will encrease the demand for that superior class
therefrom, will be injurious to those who profess the of publications, which will secure to the artist and to
higher and more elegant departments of engraving on the publisher, rewards commensurate with their en
copper and steel ; for, to repeat what we have said creasing talent and liberal spirit of enterprise.
|| before, in proportion as general taste is spread, so will We are not inclined to dismiss this subject, without
connoisseurship improve, and the surpassing excellence another extract from the book, as the thoughts of the
exhibited in the finished works of calcography, will author, not only coincide with our own, but are such
always be appreciated and patronized in the exact as we venture to assert, cannot be too generally made
ratio of their intrinsic worth, and superiority over the
works on stone. known.
The process for drawing on stone is thus explained “ It is much to be regretted that our country churches, Il by the author :many of which exhibit features of great architectural beauty, and which are valuable to the antiquary and man of taste,
"1. The lithographic stone the most in use, and which for the historic recollections they afford, are daily perishing answers the purposes of the art the best of any, is a calcafrom neglect, or mutilated and distorted by the hand of reous stone, obtained from the banks of the Danube, in ignorance, while no protecting care is exerted to save them Bavaria. It unites the qualities of purity, whiteness, and from destruction. The incumbent, for obvious reasons, is hardness, in a greater degree than any which bave been unwilling to involve himself in a dispute with his parish discovered in other countries; in common, with stones ioners, and the churchwardens are left at liberty to add ll of a similar nature, it imbibes both water and grease with thicker and thicker coats of whitewash, (if they do no || avidity, and it is solely on this last property that lithograworse,) aided by broad stripes of lamp black, concealing || phy is founded : for when a series of lines, of a greasy