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Ionists should be encouraged, $126, 127.-Choice of colonists, $ 128, 129.-Native chiefs to
be conciliated, $ 130.--Use of the Plough recommended, § 132.-Objections answered, $ 133.
-Plough has been used successfully in the W. Indies, § 136.-Why not universally used
there, $137.-Remarkable instance of it's success in the W: Indies, ib.-Commonly used in
the E. Indies, 5 139.-Moft tropical articles may be raised with it, $ 140.-LI. queries con-
cerning the inverted state of agriculture, finance, and commerce in European communities,
and hinting at 3 specific regulations in qu. XLIV. and LI.) $ 142.
CH A P. VIII.
Hints on the Essentials of a colonial Government.
Education, $ 143.-Colonists should instruct natives by schools and apprenticeships, $ 144,
et seq. 16i, note.—Ridiculous education of two O’Taheiteans in Europe, § 146, note.-Afr.
idea of God, $ 149.-Toleration recommended, $ 150.—Employments, $ 151.-Contracts maa
trimonial, social, and civil, $152, et seq.-Political balance, $ 155.—Laws, judicial, political,
and economical, $ 157, et seq.-External worship, $161.—Health, 162.-Cultivation of raw
materials, $ 163.-Manufactures, § 164.-Commerce, $ 165.- Internal polity and defence, by
frank pledge, $ 166, et seq.-Finances, $ 170.--Political arrangements, $ 171.
CH A P. IX.
Specific Propositions applied to the Cafe of a new Colony.
System recommended, $ 172.-Reasons for selecting a particular part of Afr. § 173, note.
Prop. I. Directors of two classes, and their departments, $ 174, et seq.-Organization of go-
vernment, 179.-Prop. II. That the Directors sell the lands to proper persons, to be cultivated
in a limited time, $ 180, 181.-Excellent W. Indian regulations to this effect, $ 180, note.-
Cleared islands dry, but healthful, ib.- Prop. III. Rights of colonists and subscribers, $ 182.-
Prop. IV. Two courts of directors ; deliberative in Europe, and executive in the colony, § 183.
-Prop. V. Directors must have visited the colony, 5 184.-British colonies make their own
laws, § 184, note.-Jamaica absentees heavily taxed, ibid.- Prop. VI. That oaths be disal-
lowed, because abused, § 185, and it's note.- Prop. VII. That commerce be free, and that
flave-traders be expelled, $ 186.- Prop. VIII. That subscriptions, in money or goods, be
opened, at £60 for 500 acres of land (in Bulama,) $ 187,188.- Prop. IX. That all African
affociations act harmoniously, $189.- Prop. X. That the current medium be founded on la-
bour, 190.- Prop. XI. That frankpledge be introduced, $ 191.-P. op. XII. That a store
and discounting accounts be kept, § 192.- Prop. XIII. That the colonists be taxed in 3
$ 194. (See § 606, No. 3.) — Prop. XIV. That the purchase of land be limited, $ 195.-
Prop. XV. That onmarried colonists be taxed, and married ones partly exempted, § 196.-
Prop. XVI. That arrests for debt be disallowed, because of their deplorable effects, $ 197,
and it's note.-Prop. XVII. That mechanical inventions be encouraged, $198.
CH A P. X.
Colonies formed or attempted in Africa on the Principles of
Commerce by the Portuguese, Spaniards, French, Dutch, &c.
PORTUGUESE first explored the African Coaft; but their communications sparing, and
their orthography unsettled s 200.— This sketch of Portug. Afri. reviewed by Col. Bolts ib.
note.- Awerri § 202.--- Angola § 203.-Congo $ 204.- Langa and Benguela ( 205.- Religious
fociety at Loando have 12,000 flaves $206.-Missionaries ý 207.-Portug. flave-trade 9 203
and 239 note. - Sofala produces yearly £1,666,666 in gold § 212.—Mount Ophir Ý 213.—
Mozambique, governor's duties above £60,000 fter. yearly ý 215.—Melinda city contains
30,000 Portug. &c. $ 217.- Madeira described § 221 et seq.-Yilds 30,000 pipes of wine
yearly $ 224.-It's animals, &c. $ 224, 225.— Imports fish from Sweden and America $ 225.
-Swedish commerce and board of commerce § 225 note.- Inhabitants § 226, 227.-Go-
vernment and revenue ( 228.–Swarm of prielts $ 230.-- Population, births, deaths Ø 231.-
C. de Verd Islands described ( 232, 233.-Inhabitants oppreff d by monopoly $ 234, and by del-
pots and priests 235.-Cloathed from Rag-fair in London, ib. note.-Complexion depends
chiefly on climate and mode of life Çib.- Agriculture bad © 236.- Dreadful famine in 1773,
ió. note, also $ 241.-- Exports St. Jaga cloths, cattle to the West Indies, &c. Ø 237:
bours $ 239.-Curious stones ( 2 40.- People ensaved by the Duque D'Aveiro $ 241.-10,000
of them sent to Bisao, where they mostly died 242.–Sugar mills $ 243.-Whale fishery,
orchella, manufactures 5 244.–St. Thomas, it's produce, trade and manufactures 245 et fen:-
Produces the true cinnamon 5 246 note.-Prince's Island, &c. eligible for colonies $249.
SPANISJA. CANARY ISLANDS 251.–Tenerife it's productions 253.— Pike ib. -
Population, manufactures, &c. § 254.-Gran Canaria it's produce, population, &c. sometimes
distrefied by locusts § 255, 256.–Palma it's produce, &c. fern-bread § 257.---Lancerota and
Fuerteventura inf. led by afses, abound with orchella; 1 ancerota fertilized by a volcano ý 258.
Swedish orch lla monopolized by means of corruption 258 note.-Wheat better than Euro-
pean 9 259.-G mera might fubfist independently of other countries 260.- Ferro 261.
Humane policy of pain, population, character of Canarians, inquisition, diseases, commerce,
$ 262 et seq.-Comparative humanity of European nations to flaves § 263 note.-Revenue
excee that of British America and W. Indiis Ģ 268.
FRENCH. ISLE DE BOURBON, exports § 270.–Bourbon and Surat cotton compared
$ 271.- Operations on cotton where it grows, healthful, in Europe unhealthful, and why
$ 271 note. - Ile de France, population of it and Bourbon $ 272.-Spices thrive there, and
the Dutch attempt to destroy them by corrupting the gardeners Ø 273.-Dutch profits on
spices 1,750,000 annually ib. - Madagascar's former flourishing establishments there 5 274.-
Colony attempied, in 1767, § 275.—Benyowsky's enterprize in 1772, § 276, is not properly
fitted out ý 227, opposed at the I. de France % 278, lands in Madagascar $ 279, builds a
fort and makes roads Ø 280, distributes lands and digs a canal § 281, some chiefs oppose,
others support him $282, cloaths his troops in the country cloth § 282, not supported by
the French ministry ib. reported to be the son of a native princess ( 284, acknowledged as
such by several chiefs § 285, interrogated by 2 French commissioners, receives their cirtificate
and resigns § 286, statement of his accounts ib. note, states to the commissioners some most
interesting particulars relative to the population and resources of Madagascar $ 287 ; his plan
for colonizing that isand ib. note; is declared Ampansacabe § 288; empowered to treat with
France, for which he embarks 289; inconsistency of the French ministry $ 291.-The
Count offers His Britannick Majesty 5000 soldiers and 2000 sailors § 292, fails from London
to Baltimore and thence to Madagascar, where he lands § 294; is killed by a party of French
$ 296, his character $ 298, insidious conduct of the French ministry 299, Madagascar cot-
ton equal to Bourbon ib. note.
DUTCH. CAPE OF Good Hope, Van Riebeck proposes a colony there $ 300.-Libe-
rality and prudence of the Dutch E. India Co. $ 301.--Obj. against colonizing in time of
war ib. note.-Expense 1,000,000 of guilders annually, for the first 20 years $ 302.--Difficul-
ties very great $ 303.-Soil, climate, animals, &c. $ 304.--Exports, farming, tenure of
lands $ 305, 306.-Dutch and Portug. policy contrasted § 307.-—Mortality of men kid-
napped by the Dutch Zeelvercoopers, or Soul-mongers, $ 307.—No toleration at the Cape
$ 308.-Government, revenue, military and population 9 309, et feq.
AUSTRIAN. DELAGOA Bay, Portug. settle there § 312, and Dutch 313.-Col.
Bolts undertakes to colonize it for Austria $ 315; fails in 1776, and is opposed by commer-
cial bodies $ 316; arrives, buys land, builds temporary houses, and begins trade 9 317, et seq.
goes to India, whence he sends a Mahommedan missionary $ 320.-Natives intelligent, &c.
§ 321.-Wild sugar canes, cotton, rice, gold, &c. ib.-The colony thrives, but Prince Kau-
nitz disavows it, and the Portug. break it up $ 322.-Col. Bolts the restorer of the Austrian E.
India trade 6 323.—Ridiculous claims of Spain and Portugal 9 324.-Ridiculous grant of
Cha. II. to the Eng. Afr. Co. § 325.--He and his brother, Ja. D. of York, were Nave
traders, ib.-Charles II. was also concerned in privateering, ib.
ADVERTISEMENT. The reader cautioned against misunderstanding the author's
meaning respecting colonization on commercial principles; which he entirely disapproves.-
Causes of the delay of this publication. The plan enlarged, which gave rise to its division in-
to two parts.
Consisting of CHAP. XI. Colonies attempted, or now forming, in Africa, on the
PRINCIPLES OF HUMANITY, by the British, the Danes and the Swedes.
Introduétion. Dr. Smeathman's plan of colonizing Africa, $ 330.—Mr. Sharp's exertions, ib.-Dr. Fothergill's suggestion, ib. note.—Dr. Lettsom liberates his slaves, ib.-Committee for relieving the black poor, $ 331.--Mr. A. Dalrymple's plan for benefiting remote and unprovided nations, $ 331 note.
British. Sierra Leona. First Directors of the Sierra Leona Company $ 333.— -Black poor first fent over, $ 334.Their mortality and it's causes, $ 335.—Their dispersion, ib.-Climate of S. Leona, population, government, religion, $ 338, 339.-Natives desirous of improvement,
339.—King Naimbanna sends his sons to Europe for education, $ 340.-Cultivation and trade, $ 343.–Europeans supply natives with powder and spirits, suicide, instances of kidnap. ping, $ 345, et seq. Respe&able eftablishment resolved on, and why, $ 354,- Capital £100,000 fter. ib.-extended to £150,000, ib. note.-Laudable caution in chusing colonists, $ 355.-Council to promote equal rights, &c. § 358-Health to be the first object, $ 359. - Difficulties to be expected, § 360.–Sources of profit, $363.-Company's object, $ 366.Benefits to Africa, $ 367.-Trade and a sugar plantation ordered to be begun, $ 368.—MineTalogist and botanist engaged, $ 369.-Shares, votes, &c. $ 370, et seg.-Nova Scotia blacks expected, $ 374.-Caution of the Directors in admitting subscribers, &c. $ 376.-Lieat. Clarkson offers to conduct the free blacks from N. Scotia to S. Leona, $ 377.-1196 N. Scotia blacks willing to embark, $ 379.-£235,280 to be raised, ib.-Whites from England, $380.–1131 N. Scotians arrive at S. Leona: mortality on board, $ 381.—They clear land, &c. $382.–Mortality. Bad accommodation, $384.-Land could not be allotted, § 385.Governor and council disagree, $ 386. -Disorder. Mr. Clarkson appointed sole Governor, 387.-Sickness, distress and confusion, $ 389. -Bulama colonifts arrive at S. Leona, $ 390.—Comp. will promote all attempts to civilize Africa, $ 391.—Difficulties in distributing land 392.-Lands on Bullom shore better than near town, $ 395:Colony improves, 397.-Suffers from the war, &c. $ 398.–And the Nave trade, § 399.Chiefs undeceived, ib.-Death of Mt. Nordenskiold, the mineralogist, $ 400.-And of K. Naimbanna's son, $401.—Ship York burnt, $ 403.—Colony healthy in second rains, ib.-N. Scotians petition, 9 404.-Directors resol, thereon, $ 405.--Advantages and disadvantages of
receiving the N. Scotians, § 408, 409.-Funds and expenses ftated, § 411.-Colonization arduous, $ 414.-Mortality stated, $ 415.-Not chargeable on the Directors, nor on the climate, $ 418, 419.-Trade, $ 420.—Company's shipping, factories, &c. $ 422, 423.-Dollars introduced instead of bars, $ 424.-W. Indin managers, &c. introduced, $425.-A plantation begun, $ 426. —Native labourers, their wages, hours of labour, &c. $426.-Their cloathing, &c. improved, 427.-Canes damaged by bug-a-bugs, $ 428.-Manager and labourers have little differences, $ 429.-Natives desire a second plantation, ib.-Freetown described, $ 430.- Premiums for cultivation, $ 432.—That of natives fluctuating, $ 433.—Factory to buy native produce, $ 434.-Blacks act as jurors, &c. $ 436, et seq.-Spirit of the government, $ 439.-Character of the Company's servants, $ 440.-And of the N. Scotians $441, which, in some respects, excells that of the lower English, § 442; their defects, 443; and unreasonable claims, $ 444; fufpicions of whites, and why, $ 446 ; their faults owing to Navery, § 447 ; this no argum. against prudent emancipation, $ 448 ; provision for their in. struction, &c. $ 452.—Slave. trade obstructs civilization, $ 453.–Recent instances of kidnapping, &c. 454, et feq.—A black from N. Scotia restored to his mother at S. Leona, § 457. Slave-trade drives the natives to the mountains, $ 458.–Free blacks, taken in French ships, sold for flaves, $ 463 -Scenes in flave-lhips, &c. $ 467:-Shocking excesses of Europeans to obtain money, 468.-Panyaring described, $ 469.-Bloody insurrections, $ 470, 471.-Ormand a murderous flave-factor, $ 472,—The dispersion of the first colonists, 5 473.-Slavetrade endangers every colony, $ 474.-Exemplary humanity of a chief, $ 475.—Some of the first colonists sold, ib.-One of them turns kidnapper, $ 476.–Slave-trade prevents inland intercourse, $ 477, as in Mr. Nordenskiold's case, $ 478.-It's sources recapitulated, debts, wars, kidnapping, &c. $ 479, et seq.-30,coo slaves annually dragged from Africa, $ 484.Sick Nave-traders relieved at S. Leona, $ 485, et seq.-Americans, clandestinely parsue the Nave-trade, though prohibited, $ 488; which the Directors are taking steps to prevent, $489. --Comp. resolve to redeem slaves, $ 490, and to conciliate chiefs, $ 491.-Slave-trade obstructs cultivation, by it's mercantile profits, &c. 492, et seq. has introduced a taste for European goods, $ 492.-Chiefs who may be expected to abandon it, and why $495.-Instances, $496, et seg.-Chiefs zealous for improvements, $ 499.-Meff. Wat and Winterbottom's expedition to the Foulah country, $ 500.-Government, state of civilization, wars, &c. of the Foulahs, Ø 501; kill unsaleable slaves. ib. but faleable ones would not be killed, were the market stopped, $ 502.-Foulah king favours the plough, &c. 504.-Route to Tombuctoo and Cashna, ib.-Incidents on the road back to S. Leona, $ 505.--Intended journey to Tombuctoo, $ 506.-Wars cease with the Nave-trade, $ 507.-Slave-trade diminished , near S. Leona, $ 508.-Refuse Naves put to work, $ 509.-General character of the Africans, $ 510. -Palaver on death of King Naimbanna's son, ib.-Popith black chief offers to promote christianity, $ 511.-_Mandingo lady shocked at an account of W. Indian slavery, $ 512.
-Above 40 native children at Freetown school, $ 513. -Natives turn out to defend the colony, $ 515.-J. H. Naimbanna's design in coming to England, $ 516,-his character, $517.-his improvement, morals, &c. $ 518,-circumstances of his death, ib.—Two chiefs sons now in England, $ 520.-Advantages expected from the abolition, $ 522.—The colony attacked by a French squadron, $ 527. Ms. Afzelius's account of the colony in May,