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go; for they have only to resort to the country law of pany- CH A P. aring. ( $ 469.) In the Mandingo country also, it has been shown, that debts cause kidnapping; for chiefs getting into debt to Europeans are put into confinement; and hence their people are obliged to kidnap, to redeem them ( 456.) In short, no proceeding of the S. Leona Company has so much offended the chiefs, as the refusal of the usual African credit.

480. War also might seem, on a superficial view, to rank with the least objectionable sources of the slave-trade. But, when viewed more closely, it is seen to involve the most horrible enormity. The Africans, afraid to live detached, , congregate into towns, under the protection of some chief, whom they commonly call their father. He, being corrupted by liquor, is largely credited by the slave-factor, who, on this ground makes war on the people. Some are killed, and many more taken and sold as slaves, and thus the chief's debt is paid. Such were precisely the numerous little wars of the great mulatto trader, against all the inferior chiefs around him. From these wars, others spring, and a long train of hostilities follows. A chief escapes from the .mulatto trader, with the residue of his people, to an island: thence he carries on a vindictive, predatory war; taking 40 prisoners at once, from the mulatto-trader, who would not be flow to retaliate; and the slave-trade gets farther victims .from each side ( 454.) Some of these petty wars seem emi.nently productive. The chief of Quiaport attacks the chief of Bowrah, and sends his prisoners to the flave-factory. The latter gathers all his strength, and seizes double the number from the former; for he is obliged to redeem his people by paying two for one ( $ 456.) Nor are these smaller wars the only productive ones. Every great nation near Sierra




CHA P. Leona, has been involved in war by the save-trade. The

female mulatto owns, that the Mandingoes have no wars, when slaves are not in demand, ( 456.) The Foulahs, says another evidence, are well known to go to war solely to get saves ( $ 456.) The people directly inland, adds another chief, go to war for slaves. Our country being very much depopulated, and the passage of Naves from remote parts being hindered by wars, the slave-faćtors have lately endeavoured to prevent them, and the adjacent country to S. Leona, begins to be at peace.” (

( $ 456.) Crimes, real 481. Crimes, real or imputed, are another chief cause of or imputed.

Navery: adultery is one of the highest. A native chief, in one case, ( $460.) and an European chief in another ( 9 460) sells an inferior African on such a charge; both by their own arbitrary will, and evidently for their own emolument. And here, let the drunkenness and depravity of the chiefs, who are thus judges in their own cause, be considered; let the African polygamy be added; nor let the remark of a native trader be forgotten, that it is common for chiefs, who want goods, to hint to their wives, to encourage adultery. Many of the other crimes have been so flight, and such the injustice of the judges, that the decisions aggravate the horror excited by this traffic. A whole town, the chief excepted, is enslaved, for letting some runaway slaves pass to the mountains, ( $ 458.) A woman from the next town, is torn from her unweaned child and sold, merely for impertinence, (§ 467.) Two men are sold by a chief, to compensate for his having, in his drunkenness, ordered a slavetrader to be flogged, ( $ 461.) A man is sold for having changed himself into a leopard, ( $ 465.) The whole family of another is sold for his supposed theft, after he had been poisoned with red water, ($ 464.) The mulatto




trader's setting up a slave as a judge, the growing power of C HA P. this judge, the court paid to him by the slave-traders, and the dread of coming near him, are also to be remembered.

482. The instances given of kidnapping are numerous. A Kid:apping. Nova Scotian, formerly kidnapped from S. Leona, on landing there is recognized by his mother, ( $ 457.). Relations of the king of S. Leona are carried off, at three different times, by kidnappers, ($ 351.) The Company's agent falls in with a party of natives, in the very act of kidnapping, ( 348.) A free colonist from England is kidnapped. Another turns kidnapper himself; but is detected and punished, by the governor and council, ( $ 476.) No less than three British commanders are infected with the contagion, and sell, without scruple, the free mariners found on board French prizes. In one of these instances, 19 freemen were sold, many of them sons of chiefs, ( 463.) In a second 3 or 4 others, in spite of the remonstrances of the Sierra Leona government. In a third 4 women left on board as pawns, ( s ibid.) The numbers in the Deserter's town are reduced, partly by kidnapping, ( $ 458 ) Free-booters infest the parts between the coast and the Foulah country; so that he who brings down slaves is often kid. napped on his return, and sold to the same factory where he had been selling others, ($ 456.) In the Susee country, kidnapping is frequent. In the Mandingo country, mothers dare not trust their children out of their sight, after sun-set, for fear of kidnappers, ( § 456.) The reasons of it's prevalence are debts; impunity, from the facility of selling the victims ; and wars, ( § 479 et feq.) A chief owns that in a 5 years war, he used to waylay and kidnap passengers; but says it was a bad thing, justified only by the necessity of having something to give to the slave-factories for ammuni






trade cannot

C HA P. tion, ( $ 456.) We may add the extraordinary ravages of

the proprietor of a neighbouring island, who swept away the people of whole towns, when he had intoxicated them, and of whose indiscriminate ravages even the slave-factor com

plained. This account 483. These are the four sources of the slave-trade near Jespects S. Leona ; but S. Leona; nor do the Directors conceive that


considerinland slave. able number have been obtained from these parts, by less be very dif. exceptionable means. Indeed it is reasonable to presume,

that at S. Leona, many atrocities have been perpetrated secretly, or at least concealed from the Company's servants. The preceding account, indeed, only respects the slaves from near $. Leona, not the general body sold in S. Leona river, most of whom are brought from the interior. But the Directors conceive that no one can fairly assume, that the case of inland slaves differs essentially from that of flaves from the coast: the injustice and treachery practised in taking them, and their consequent wretchedness, can hardly fail to be somewhat similar, in whatever part of Africa such

scenes take place * 80,000 llaves

484. Let then this aggregate of misery be contemplated;

let it be remembered, that the above is but a sample of the dragged from Africa, manner in which EIGHTY THOUSAND men are annually by the above

dragged from Africa by the civilized Europeans, especially by the British: let all the concomitant enormities, the blood spilt in wars, in cutting off Nave-ships, in acts of suicide on board, and in sanguinary vengeance on shore, be borne in mind: let the drunkenness, the treachery, the unnatural


nefarious means.

* That the slave-trade is carried on by similar means, and is attended with similar scenes, on the coast from Senegal to Gambia, and also about 800 miles up the former river, may be seen in my “ Observations on the Slave-trade, &c.” 8vo, London printed 1789. C. B. W.



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Tale of wives and children, før debt and for liquor, let the C HA P.
depravity communicated, as by contagion, to British captains, w
sailors and factors, and the atrocities to which fome of them SIERRA LE-
have been transported, be recollected; above all, let the stop
put to the civilization of one fourth of the globe, and the
guilt of hindering that light of revelation, which has so long
shone on Britain, from shining on the inhabitants of that vast
continent, be added to the account: let the miseries of Afri-
ca be contrafted with the blessings which might have resulted
from a contrary conduct in G. Britain, and from the intro-
duction of Christianity and European knowledge, and from
that promotion of industry which is the sure result of an
honest, «innocent and peaceful commerce.-Let all these
considerations be put together, and the evil of the slave-trade
will indeed appear enormous; it's hindrance to civilization,
and it's hostility to every principle professed by the S. Leona
Company, become abundantly evident; and the prospects
of civilization about to be stated will appear important, not
only from their immediate consequences, but from their
evincing the practicability of reversing the cruel system
which yet prevails in Africa.

485. The subversion of the slave-trade was one leading Sick lave-
motive in the institution of the Company; and it is one of ceived at S.
the objects to which those who manage it's affairs, profess Leona.
that their best endeavours shall be directed. But they trust
that they shall not allow their detestation of that trade, to de-
generate into ill-will to those engaged in it; and they feel pe-
culiar satisfaction in observing, that their government abroad,
however their zeal for it's abolition may have been excited
by the scenes they have witnessed, have never used either
violent or underhand means to promote this object; having
neither forcibly interrupted the slave-traders nor irritated the


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