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Sierra Le

ONA.

tion and ci. vilization advarice.

CHA P. tended. Several towns near the Company's plantation XI. u

are very much increased, by the natives who work for the

company, and by many others. The natives are also more Yet popula- disposed than before, to settle on the sides of the river. A

sense of security gains ground, and they are less averse to the bush round their towns being cut down, which they always considered as affording a refuge against being surprized and made slaves. The difficulty indeed of landing on the Bullom shore, by lessening European intercourse, has rendered the natives less violent, and kept them more sober and industrious than their opposite neighbours. They are generally disposed to enter into the views of the government of Sierra Leona, and give little credit to the slave-traders, who tell them that the Company have injuri

ous designs. One of them makes it a principle neither to Natives de. sell, nor to keep a slave. They appear to desire a second plantation. plantation, for which their king has lately ceded another

square mile of land. In a small garden of experiment, near Freetown, many native plants and seeds are attentively cultivated, under the eye of an able botanist (See § 369) from whose labours some future benefits may be expected to the Company, or colony, as well as to the science he professes. The Directors, with His Majesty's permission, have obtained from the royal gardens at Kew, some valuable tropical plants, especially that important one, the bread-fruit tree.

430. They cannot yet report any considerable progress in cultivation, either by the Nova Scotians, or the natives on their own account. Much of the industry of the colonists has been applied to the building of the town, of which fome description may be proper. It is situated on a dry and rather elevated spot, on the south side of the river, and occupies between 70 and 80 acres, it's length being about

one

Freetown defcribcd.

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1

one third of a mile, and it's breath nearly the same. It C HA P.
contains near 400 houses, each having one twelfth of an
acre annexed, on which a few vegetables are raised. There
are nine streets, running from N. W. to S. E. and three
cross streets, and they are 80 feet wide, except one, which
runs within

50 feet of the river, and which is 160 feet wide.
(See the Plan Plate II.) In the broad street are almost
all the public buildings, consisting of a church, near the
middle, capable of containing 800 people; a governor's
house and offices; a large store-house, under which, and
the governor's house, there are brick store-cellars; a large
hospital, and 6 or 8 other wooden houses, offices and shops,
occupied by the Company's servants. The frames of all
these buildings went from England, as also four canvas
houses, or rather room's *. One public building is compof-
ed of the country materials; but this and the canvas houses
are decaying, while all the other buildings, being framed
of wood prepared in England, seem likely to last for some
years. The houses of the colonists were at first inferior,
but are now far superior, to those of the natives. A few
have been repaired and enlarged; but most of them have
been rebuilt, their general scite having been changed by
the government. Indeed the first huts of the Nova Sco- and houses.
tians were merely temporary, wattled, plaistered with clay,
and thatched with long grass. On an average, they might
be about 18 feet by 12, and the labour might be worth 40
shillings.—The sides and floors of the present houses (for
they are all floored) are of country timber; and, to exclude
damp, they are raised a foot or two from the ground. (See
$ 84.) Many are already roofed with boards or shingles,

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* See in the Append. Notes, &c, respecting S. Leona and Bulama, Note Y.

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ONA.

C H A P. as all of them are intended to be ; but most of them, for the XI.

present, are thatched. Only a few have chimneys; yet, SIERRA LE

during the rains, a fire is commonly used, the smoke iffuing through the thatch, or by the door and windows. They are generally from 20 to 30 feet long, from 12 to 15 wide ; are mostly divided into two rooms, and the average cost of each, for building and materials, may be

about £10. Town land. 431. Of the land immediately surrounding the town, a

portion has been reserved to the Company. This, exclusive of the remote parts directly south, where the reserved land has no boundary, but the distant one prescribed in the grant, may be about 200 acres. Part of it is the land before mentioned, that was intended for a cotton plantation, but now occupied by the N. Scotians. Only a small part of these 200 acres is cultivated; but the whole was early cleared, which * doubtless promoted the healthiness of the colony; and the prudent reservation of this land may hereafter be found of importance, especially in enlarging the town, if necessary.--The lots given to the Nova Scotians lie on the S. E. of Freetown, all the western district being pofsessed by the natives, and the southern being thought too mountainous for present cultivation. The nearest of these Jots is about of a mile from the town, and the most distant about 25 miles. They occupy in all, about 4 square miles, or 2560 acres, and are each of them accessible by a path 10 feet broad, cut with great labour and expense. Only a few of the lots nearest the town have been yet tolerably cleared and cultivated.

* with the elevation of the houses, mentioned in the preceding $ 340. C. B.W.

342. To

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for cultiva

432. To excite emulation in culture, the government CHA P. gave premiums, the first year, to those colonists who raised the most rice, yams, eddoes, cabbages, Indian corn and cotton, respectively. All the premiums amounted to about Premiums £100, and they appeared to have so good an effect, that tion. they are intended to be repeated in the second season, with a few variations, suggested by the first year's experience. (See § 301, 302.)

433. Of the progress of cultivation among the natives, it Cultivation tan hardly be expected that much can yet be said. Indeed Auctuating. the size of their plantations has varied so much annually, that any appearance of their increasing industry, in one season, should not be too confidently ascribed, either to the new demands of the colonists, or to the Company's example. Rice, the chief crop on the coast, has varied in price, from 40 shill. per ton, to no less than £ 25, or even £ 30. This is partly owing to the difference of seasons, but still more to the inability of the Africans to compute the probable demand; a plentiful year sometimes betraying them into neglect of cultivation, and a scarce one seldom failing to produce superfluous cultivation, the next year.

434. The establishment of a commercial factory on the Factory to coast, to form contracts with the natives, to observe the ex- plus produce tent of cultivation, and to buy up the surplus produce for of natives. exportation, will tend, as the Directors trust, to excite a more regular industry, and gradually to produce the most important consequences.

buy up fur

TION.

435

Under this head, the Directors will speak of the co- CIVILIZAlor government; of the character of the colonists; of ci lization, with the miferable fate to which the Africans have

been

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CHA P. been reduced by their intercourse with the Europeans;

concluding with an account of the steps taken to introduce Christianity and civilization among the natives, of whose capacity and docility some satisfactory information will be given.

436. The Directors have yet received no express powers from Parliament, for governing Sierra Leona. They have considered, as they were bound, that the British constitution, as far as it applies to the circumstances, is of course transferred thither, and equally to black and to white colo

nists. The Nova Scotia blacks, though possessing very little Blacks act as knowledge of the British laws, have acted as jurymen, one jurymen,

of the Company's chief servants always being the judge. The punishments have been mild, rather pecuniary than corporal: the verdicts have been generally very just, and, on the whole, the Nova Scotians, as jurymen, have proved the propriety and prudence of extending to them a privilege which they so much value. It may be presumed, that the acquaintance with British law gained by the Nova Scotians, in the periodical sessions of the peace, will improve their minds, and, in conjunction with other kinds of knowledge, operate as an auxiliary to civilization.

437. To introduce internal police, every ten househundredors, holders have been instructed to chuse annually a tithing

man, and every ten tithing-men a hundredor (see § 167, 191.) Of the last there are three, answering to about 300 householders in the colony. The hundredors are consulted by the government, in cases which concern the interests of the Nova Scotians.

438. The defence of the colony is necessarily entrusted to the Nova Scotians also. Their arms are always ready ; and, though their courage has not been actually tried, their

alacrity

and as tyth

and as militia,

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