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Sharp was not only particularly instrumental in bringing this CH A P. important cause to a decision; but took care that every op- s presled negro, whose cafe came to his knowledge, should enjoy the benefit of it; 'for 'many negroes, illegally confined, in MARKS, order to be clandestinely conveyed to the West Indies and America, have fince owed their deliverance to Mr. Sharp's active and spirited interposition. In short, many years before Dr. Smeathman proposed, or probably conceived, his plan, Mr. Sharp's exertions and writings, had distinguished him as the steady affertor of the ancient, noble, unsophisticated principles of the constitution of his country, and the indefatigable benefactor of the Africans, and of the poor and those who had none to help them.”
331. These observations are not the vile flourishes of a sycophant's pen. By every friend to the cause I have the honour to support, they will readily be allowed to contain nothing but literal truth; and Mr. Sharp ought not to be surprised, that merit like his has become known, notwithstanding his ingenuous endeavours to conceal it; for, I am persuaded, he looks not for his reward from men. Neither are
cation with the mother country was comparatively infrequent—as would appear from this remarkable circumstance alone, That no law explicitly enacting Navery is to be found in any of the colonial statute-books. Even the West Indian law-makers never ventured on so flagrant a violation of their charters, which expressly stipulate that their internal laws “ shall not be repugnant, but as near as may be, to the laws of England.” Hence all their flave-laws suppose the existence of slavery, and are confined merely to it's regulation. Thus slavery, which is repugnant to natural law, has, in the British dominions, no shadow of foundation even in positive law, the only foundation it can have in any civilized country. In other words, it is in every respect, an illegal, unwarrantable, and indefensible abuse.-See Mr. Sharp's “ Representation of the injustice and danger of tolerating slavery," and his “ Law of Retribution;" also the Efsays signed Common Sense in the Morning Chronicle, the Sta and the Diary of Dec. 1791.--So much for West Indian Navery. Another species of mercantile flavery I have touched on in § 121, 197, note.
CHA P. these observations made with a view to detract from the re
spect due to the memory of Dr. Smeathman, who will ever be gratefully remembered by the friends of Africa, as the man who first laid down a specific plan for it's civilization, and supported it with exertions which, in 1787, caufed, or accelerated, his dissolution*, For, on his return from Sierra Leona, finding the “ Committee for relieving the black poort,” already formed, he appears to have most zealously co-operated with them, as well as with Mr. Sharp, and to have laboured to derive from their benevolence, support to his grand design of civilizing Africa I.
Mr. Heathcote, a gentleman who was well acquainted with the late Dr. Sineathman, has been so obliging as to promise me a series of observations on the thermometer made by Dr. S. while on the Coaft, and which, if I receive them in time, Niall be inserted in the Appendix, after the names of the Subscribers to the Bulama undertaking.
+ That 'committee consisted of the following gentleman, viz, Jonas Hanway, Esq. Chairman ; Mon. tague Burgoyne, Esq. Harley ft. B. Johnson, Esq. Lisson Green; Sir Joseph Andrews, Bart. Knightsbridge; George Peters, Esq. Old Bethlem; John Osborne, Esq. New Norfolk ft. J. J. An. gerstein, Esq. Albemarle ft. J. P. Andrews, Elq. Brompton ; S. Hoare, Esq. Lombard A. G. Drake, Elq. Bedford Sq. F. Matthews, Esq, Bridge ft. Weltininkter; W. Ward, Esq. Fenchurch ft. Richard Shaw, Esq. London Bridge; J. Cornwall, Esq. Portland Place; S. Thornton, Esq. M. P.. King's Arm's Yard; H. Thornton, Eiq. M.P. Bartholomew lane ; T. Boddington, Esq. Mark lane ; General Melville, Brewer ft.
1 In 1771, that able geographer, Alexander Dalrymple, Esq. drew up a plan for promoting civil. ization, by fitting out Mips to convey useful animals and vegetables to New Zealand and other remote regions, which are till destitute of many important productions, to which their respective Toils and climates are undoubtedly congenial. The proposer generously offered to take upon himself the command of the firft tip which should be equipped for such an expedition, the whole expense of which he estimated, at £15,000,-a small demand from humanity on the wealth accumulated by com. merce! The celebrated Dr. Franklin, being informed of this benevolent scheme, wrote a paper to recommend it, which was printed and circulated with Mr. D's plan and estimate. It is mortifying to add, that this proposal, so respectable in it's origin, so moderate in it's means and so beneficent in it's end, did not receive the support it merited. But the difcerning editors of the Annual Register saw it's value, and inferted it among the “ Useful Projeets," in their volume for 3779, under the title of “ Plan by Dr. Franklin and Mr. Dalrymple for benefiting distant, unprovided countries." This philanthropic hint seeins, however, to have had some weight with Dr. F's own countrymen, for in the year 1789, an expedition was fitted out at the expense of several gentlemen in Bolton, in North Ame. rica, for the laudable purpose of discovering channels of liberal commerce, and conciliating civil intercourse with the natives of the great fouth western coast of that continent, of which the medal, at the end of this work, is a memorial, and was distributed, in filver and copper, among the natives for that purpose.
332. Respect and gratitude are also justly due to those c H A Pa worthy persons who, before Dr. Smeathman proposed his plan, had formed themselves into the Committee SIERRA LBjust mentioned. But the design of sending them to Sierra, , Leona appears to have been the suggestion of Dr. S. The Comm. for memory of the chairman of that Committee will long be re- black poor.
relieving the vered; and some of the other members (for I have not the honour of knowing them all) have since invariably acted the part
generous, enlightened and conscientious promoters of the abolition of the flave-trade, and the civilization of Africa. I allude particularly to the Mess. Thorntons and Mr. Samuel Hoare.
The following is an Abridgment of the Report of the Court of
Directors of the Sierra Leona Company to the General Court, held at London, on the 19th of Cetober, 1791, Edit. 2*.
333. In pursuance of the Act of Parliament incorporating the SIERRA LEONA COMPANYt, the following thirteen gentlemen have been chosen Directors for the present year. (viz. the year commencing on the 19th of October, 1791.)
HENRY THORNTON, Efq. M. P. Chairman.
GRANVILLE SHARP, Esq.
Vickeris TAYLOR, Esq. JOSEPH HARDCASTLE, Esq.
GEORGE WOLFF, Esq.
The next General Court, held on the 30th of Nov. 1791, resolved that £50,000 should be added to the £100,000 capital already fub cribed for, (see $ 354, note.) At the same time, several Resolu. tions were paffed to regulate the recominendations of, and the ballots for, the new subscribers. An Abridgment of those Resolutions will be inserted in the Appendix, after the lift of the original subfcribers to the S. Leona Company, with which it is connected. + An Abridgment of this act will be inserted at the end of the Appendix,
334. In 1786, the humanity of some gentlemen was excited towards the distressed blacks, who then swarmed in London *
Above 400 of them, along with 60 whites, mostly women of bad character and in ill health, (see § 301) were accordingly sent out, at the charge of government, to Sierra Leona. Necessity, it was hoped, would make them industrious and orderly; and Capt. Thompson of the navy, who conducted them, obtained, for their use, a grant of land to His Majesty, from King Tom, the neighbouring chief, and afterwards, from Naimbanna, the king of the country. This land, being about 20 miles square, His Majesty was en-, abled to grant by Act of Parliament (1791) to the Sierra Leona Company; and it was confirmed by a direct grant from King Naimbanna.
335. From the disorders they brought on board with them, aggravated by debauchery and confinement, these people became 'very sickly, during their long detention in the British Channel, as well as during their passage, and after their arrival. They were landed in the wet season, unprovided with proper shelter, without order and without industry. From these causes 50 died before they left Plymouth, and 34 at sea; 15 ran away and 86 died on the coast, in the first four months after their arrival. After the first year, however, there was no great mortality t. It was
* Respecting the first rudiments of the colony, the distinguished support it received from Mr. Sharp, the character of the original colonists, &c. I have been fortunate enough to collect several authentic circumstances, which, being too long for a foot-note, I intend to insert in the Appendix, together with some other particulars, marking them Note A, Note B, &c. For, I f. ar, that, if placed at the foot of the page, careless readers might mistake them for noies of the Directors. See, in the Appendix, “ Notes, &c. respecting S. Leona and Bulama." Note B.
+ Inmodiately after the present S. Leona Company was formed, Dr. J. Bell, at the request of Mr. H. Thornton, the Chairman of the Court of Directors, drew up a tract entitled « General Di.. reflions for tbe Preservation of Health, &c. for the benefit of the settlers at Sierra Leona, printed by J. Phillips, 1791." and which was very properly diftributed among the colonists.
even said by one Green, who was in England in 1791, and CH A P. who always lived with them, that in the two succeeding years, he did not think above five or six died, out of near 200, living in the same town. By very slight tillage, and a vast increase of poultry, these settlers, though far from being industrious, maintained themselves, and possessed a small and increasing property, when a circumstance, not necessary to be detailed, entirely dispersed them, to the number of their disper. 180 or 200, who left their plantations and a great quantity of poultry *.
336. Mr. Falconbridge, who arrived about a year after, found 48 of them living together. But some had gone to the W. Indies, others to England, and the rest feared they would all be made flaves. Mr. F. brought them to Fora Bay, about a mile and a half from their former townt. Sixteen soon joined them from other parts.-Before Mr. F. left them, (in June 1791) they had cleared and planted about four English acres of land ; and, on the whole, he thought they would support themselves, as before their dis. persion, with very little labour. Of those 64 settlers, 39 were black men, 19 black women, and 6 white women. The men seemed determined to defend themselves, were warmly attached to the society who sent them out, but still in general turbulent and disorderly.
337. The climate is much the same, in point of heat, as Climate. that of the West Indies; but there is a very cool sea-breeze
* See in the Append. Notes, &c. respeting S. Leona and Bulama, Note C.
+ See in the Append. Notes, &c. respeting S. Leona and Bulama, NOTE D.