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XI.

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arduous.

OCH A P. things, had they been more experienced, might have been

conducted more frugally and advantageously. But many

of the occurrences, no human wisdom could have foreseen Colonization or controlled; and they attribute many deliverances of the có

lony, not to the care of those whom the Proprietors have set over it, but to that Providence alone, which has protected it. From past experience, they may look forward to farther difficulties, impossible to be provided against; fór colonization has, in general, been far more arduous, hazardous and expensive, than the undertakers at first believed. (See § 276 et feq. and 303 et seq.). The Directors, therefore, indulge no expectations of rapid, uninterrupted success; yet, from the gradual advances of the colony, in the midst of difficulties, they are not without such hopes of it's establishment, and future prosperity, as encourage them steadily and chearfully to persevere ; but they are conscious, that, after all possible attention, the event is at the supreme disposal of Him who can suspend, obstruct or frustrate the best schemes of men, or can crown them with the most signal success.

Mortality ftated.

415. The causes of the mortality at S. Leona have been already mentioned. (See $ 384, 389.) The following are. some of the particulars respecting it.—The Company's upper servants, who went out the first year, were 26, including eight counsellors, a chaplain, several medical men, a secretary, (Mr. J. Strand *) an accountant and others, all well accommodated. Of this class, only four have died, and the deaths of only two can be properly charged to the climate. -Of lower servants, such as clerks, overseers, artificers,

* See in the Append. Notes, &c. respecting S. Leona and Bulama, NOTE S.

&c.

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ONA.

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&c. there went out 59, including their families. Many of C HA P.
them were often exposed to the rains; several were intem-
perate; they were in general ill lodged; and, from the sick, SIERRA LE.
ness of the surgeons, they could have but little medical at-
tendance: hence no less than 29 died. Of settlers, including
their families, there went out 18, and no fewer than 13 died.
Some of them were very intemperate, and their situation
was, in all respects, worse than the last class.-Of soldiers
16 went out, almost all intemperate, and, circumstanced as
they were, in other respects, it is not surprizing that 11
should have died. In all, i 19 persons went out, the first
year, of whom 57 died.—The soldiers and white colonists,
with their families, having either died or returned home,
the whites, in the second year, were reduced to about 40,
of whom only 4 or 5 have died.-The deaths in the Compa-
ny's ships are not here included; for they were not always
at S. Leona; nor has any compleat return on this subject
been made. But, from information received from most of
the ships, between 20 and 30 may have died, on board them
all. The feamen employed have seldom exceeded 140 or
150;

so that their mortality may have been 7 or 8 per cent

per annum*.

N. Scotians.

416. The N. Scotians, who arrived at S. Leona in 1792, That of the were 1131, many of them lingering under the remains of a fever, which had carried off a few of their original number in N. Scotia, and 65 more on the passage. Of 1131 landed, 40 died in a few weeks after, from the same fever. The rest then became very healthy, and so continued till the almost

* From evidence of the substance of the muser-rolls of the Liverpool and Bristol slave-ships, inserted in the Report of His Majesty's Privy Council, it appears that of 4080 seamen, who formed the crews of 112 ships, 858, or 21 per cent, died in one voyage.--See in the Append. Notes, &c. respecting S. Leona and Bulama, Note T.

H 2

aniversal

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тeport. .

C HA P. universal sickness of the first rains, when 98 of them died. L-In the three most unhealthful months of the second rainy

feason, for the account extends not to the whole year, their

deaths did not exceed five. Physician's 417. The Company's physician states, in his report of the

14th Oct. 1793, That though the sickness and mortality this year have been comparatively small; yet that the rainy months have been, as usual, more sickly.than all the precedo ing ; that the N. Scotians have experienced, in the rains, considerable indisposition, but generally with trifting complaints; that they now seem so accustomed to the climate, that there is little reason to fear any great mortality among them; that there are not many whose health is precarious; that few villages, perhaps in England, can show more fine children; that, in this period, fevers have been pretty frequent among the whites; but that the sick list is on the de. crease, and it is hoped they will all recover; and that the want of flour has, this year, been seriously felt by the healthy, much more by the sick.-The difpatches of the 26th Dec. give a much more favourable bill of health, and

Nate the mortality to be as before-mentioned. Mortality

418. The greatest mortality having been among the white not charge settlers, the foldiers, and the lower fervants and artificers,

the Directors reflect with fatisfaction, that, instead of urging any of these to go out, they refused many of each class, whom they were importuned to send, and were scarcely prevailed on to carry out those who went-a reluctance which gave umbrage to several who were eager to become African colonists, and partly, perhaps, gave rise to the Bulama Company.—Their indisposition to enlarge the number of soldiers, whose mortality was next in magnitude to that of the settlers, caused the resignation of one or two chief

servants

able on the Directors.

1

XI.

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fervants, and drew à remonftrance from several gentle- CH A P.
men who' purposed adventuring out. Aware also of the
probable evils even of their fmall military establishment, SIERRA LE-
they recalled the soldiers, when assured of the peaceableness
of the natives; but the order arrived too late. So fenfible
were the Directors of the dangers to which the artificers
were exposed (most of whom, from an accident at sea, were
not likely to arrive, till the eve of the rains) that they offered
to discharge many of them in England, to indemnify them
for loss of time, and to add some gratuity. Of this offer, a
few accepted, but many, including all who had families,
were determined to make the voyage. This detail will not
only show that the Directors were far from pressing those to
go out, who have run the great risk of their lives; but will
also point out the extreme danger, to which persons are ex-
posed on arriving in a tropical climate, unprovided with
proper lodging and subfiftence, or who are likely to fall into
intemperance.

419. The Dire&ors, having thus endeavoured to give an Nor the Clie
impartial account of the health of the colony, leave it's cha-
racter, in this respect, to rest on the simple evidence of the
above 'facts. They know of no reason why the climate of
S. Leona should prove eventually worse, than those of other
tropical colonies, of which the healthfulness is now undir-
puted; for fome of these were more fatal to the first colo-
nists, than S. Leona has yet proved. It feems therefore very
probable, that, as cultivation and accommodation improve,
the health of the colony, will gradually amend, as has been
always experienced in similar cases *.

mate.

* See in the Append. Notes, &c. respecting S. Leona and Bulama, Note U.

420. On

c H A P.

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TRADE.

420. On the subject of trade, the Directors have rather to w mention the orders given, and the steps taken, than to re

port much actual progress. Though an assortment of goods for trade was sent out, in the first ships, by advice of the commercial agent, who knew the coast well; and who took charge of them; yet he made no effort to dispose of them. Many of them remained on board, during the rains. Even many goods intended for immediate use, were not delivered Qut of the ships, till after this period. And it is feared, that, from this person's misconduct, added to the inefficiency of the Council, and the consequent confusion, while many were losing their lives, the Company's property was dislipated. This irregularity was aggravated, by the illness of almost every person employed in the commercial department. The chief store-keeper was obliged, by sickness, to return home; the chief accountant died, as did the chief commercial agent, already mentioned, without rendering up any regular accounts: several inferior store-keepers sunk under severe duty; and their successors, the present bookkeeper excepted, were little acquainted with mercantile business.

421. Thus the Directors, who did every thing that depended on them to secure punctuality, from the tution of the colony, are deprived of the means 'of examining into the application of all the first cargoes; and, although one of the Counsellors laboured to establish proper bookkeeping, his efforts were frustrated by the burning of all the most material books of the colony, on board the York. It will not excite surprize, that the Directors were Now. in sending out goods for trade, when confusion was known to prevail in the colony, and when the commercial servants, who had died or returned, were not replaced. The present

commercial

very insti

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