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tant from navigation, that it appears to me very inconvenient for commerce *. APPENDIX. But, for the reft, I have good reason to think, that the soil, air and water are all very good. There are but few Europeans; but they were in the best state of health, during my hay among them. Mr. Flint, who till the arrival of Lieut. Col. von Rohrs, takes care of this infant colony, has established another similar one at the foot of the mountains, nearer to Acra; and I saw growing at both places, a considerable quantity of cotton-trees and maize, all of which flourished and throve very well. The dry and wet seasons are not so distinct at Aquapim, as near the coast; for rains fall there in all the other months of the year, as well as in the rainy season.
942. “ I observed that, near the Danish forts at Rio Volta, Printzenstein and Quitta, the commanders of those places and a certain merchant have begun to plant cotton, sugar-canes, different kinds of garden stuffs, such as greens, sweat
943. " In the the neighbourhood of Christiansburg, at Acra, an old, respectable negro, a native of Dunco, at a considerable distance up in the interior part, has established himself on a solitary spot, and has planted large fields with cotton, maize and various kinds of provisions and garden stuffs. By his intelligent and laborious cultivation, he has distinguished himself so much, that he is now come into great repute. He raises such quantities of provisions, that he supplies not only Christiansburg, but also most of the neighbouring negro villages.
944. “ The ship, in which my worthy colleague and myself returned to Europe,
* I am,
945. I have only to add a circumstance, which M. Moe told me, but which he has forgotten to mention in the above letter, namely, That Mr. Flint's fifter, with the same zeal for the civilization of Africa, by which Mrs. Dubois has done so much honour to the sex ($ 782,) has accompanied her brother to Aquapim, with a view to inftru& the negro women in needle-work, spinning cotton and other parts of fe. male industry; and that she has already made very confiderable progress in this laudable and benevolent undertaking.
* The reader may suppose that I am not very much concerned at this circumstance, which I think rather in favour of a new and innocent colony.
Documents, &c. respecting the Swedish colonial Design.
No. 1. See § 605. Description of Cape Mesurado.
Abridgment of the Chevalier Des Marchais' Description of Cape Mesurado, from
the Account of his Voyages to Guinea and Cayenne, A. D. 1725, 1726, and 1727, by Order of the French Government. See Labat's Collection, Vol. I. page 93,
et Jeq. Paris, 1746. C. Mesurado
9.6. Almost every vessel, after leaving Cape Mount, touches at Cape Mesurado. affords good Supplies for They are obliged to call at this last Cape, for wood and water, to serve them while Thipping. they remain at the factory at Whidah, where the water is indifferent, and difficult
of access. Another reason is, that the natives at Whidah, looking upon trees of every kind, as a fpecies of divinities, will neither cut them down themselves, nor allow other people to do it. In the third place, rice, maize, or Indian corn, fowls,
Theep, goats, and even oxen, are in greater plenty at Mesurado, than at Whidah. Anchorage 947. The course from C. Mount to C. Mesurado, is S. E, and, when the wind is good,
unfavourable, E. & S. the distance 18 leagues. The coast is clear, and the anchorage every where good. If the wind be contrary, it will be proper to anchor : if there be a calm, for security against the currents, you must also come to, and wait for the land breezes in the night, which are generally fair. The author had his
pa. tience exercised in this short passage, which, though often made in 6 hours, cost him 6 days; and, unless he had anchored, the contrary winds and currents would have carried him back. On the 9th Dec. 1724, he anchored half a league from C. Me
surado, in 11 fathoms, muddy bottom, mixed with sand and broken shells. The king's 948. A canoe immediately came off to him. He was heartily welcomed by the reception of Shev. Des natives, who had long known and esteemed him. The king being informed of his Marchais. arrival, sent the Grand Marabou to invite him on shore, and accordingly he landed
the next morning. The king, who was waiting at the river side, embraced him very cordially, and gave him the best reception, of which the princes in that country are capable. The king ordered water, wood and provisions to be carried on board.
The cattle, sheep, goats, and fowls, are abundant, C. Mesurado
949. C. Mesurado is a detached mountain, steep and high towards the fea; but described,
less so on the land side. The summit forms a level plain, the soil of which is better than what is generally found in such situations. On the east is an extensive bay, bordered by a good and uniform soil, which is bounded by hills of a moderate elevation, covered with large trees. On the west is another great bay, which receives
the river Mesurado. also the river.
950. The Cape points to the S. E. It's lat. is 6° 34' N. long. 5° 37' from the meridian of Tenerife. On the east, a long spit of land separates the sea from a ba
Documents, Co. respecting the Swedish colonial Design.--No.I. 319 son, (flaque d'eau,) formed by the R. Mesurado, and a smaller one which joins it. Appendix. They navigate this last in their canoes, 6 or 7 leagues at low water, and double the distance at high water. The water is always salt, or at least brackish; but it is full of fish. The course of the great River (Mesurado) is N. W. for 17 or 18 leagues, afterwards N. E. but it's length is unknown. They called for one of his subjects, who assured the Chev. Des Marchais, that he had gone up this river in his canoe, for 3 moons, when he came to a great river, whence it proceeded, which runs from E. to W. on which there are rich and powerful nations, who drive a great trade in gold, ivory, and slaves. The Mesurado runs through fine countries ; but is so rapid, that those who have laboured 3 months in ascending it, may return in 18 days. The negroes call the rich country, where their river originates, Alam, that is, the country of gold.
951. In the great bason (flaque d'eau) just mentioned, are two islands, a small The king one at the mouth of the little river, and a larger at that of the great river. This last gives the is called the king's island, though he never resides there ; but some of his slaves raise land, and cattle and poultry on it, for his use. The king gave this island to the Chev. and ve- Pettle on it.
prenes him to ry much pressed him to settle on it. It is never overflowed, even by the great annual inundations, which, as in the Niger, take place in July, Aug. and Sep. This iland is a leagues long, and of a league broad. It's foil is excellent, as appears from the size and height of the trees, which also evince it's depth. The winds which blow without intermiffion, from the N. the E. and N. E. render it's air very temperate. The only inconvenience it labours under, is the want of fresh water, which must be brought from the springs on the continent. But these are at no great distance, and are very abundant.
952. The tide flows 20 leagues up the Mesurado, at the equinoxes, and 8 or 9, Tide and during the rest of the year. In July, Aug. and Sep. the water is brackish only 3 leagues up, owing to the rapidity of the stream in these months; but 4, or 5 leagues up, the water is perfectly sweet.
953. The king who reigned in 1724, was called Captain Peter, a name which has Theking calllong been common to the kings of Melurado. When dealing with the Dutch ed Capt. Peter. and English, both parties take every precaution against roguery. They are armed, Dutch and hostages are exchanged, and mutual caution is observed. The French, on the con. English dis
trusted, French trary,
trade there, without the least suspicion. They put themselves in their power, beloved. go on board their ships without fear, and, on all occasions, manifest the most friendly dispositions towards them. The French deal with them as with old and faithful friends, go on shore unarmed, commit their persons and effects to their discretion, and never had any reason to repent of this confidence.
954. The religion of the natives of Mesurado is a kind of idolatry, ill understood, Natives not and blended with a number of superstitions, to which, however few of them are bi- bigoted. goted. They easily change the object of their worship, and consider their Fetishes
APPENDIX. only as a kind of household furniture. The sun is the most general object of their
adoration; but it is a voluntary worship, and attended with no magnificent ceremonies.
955. In the space of a few leagues, are many large villages, swarming with child. pulous, because there is
ren. They pra&lise polygamy, and their wonen are very prolific. Besides, as those little flave people deal no farther in flaves, than by selling their convicted criminals to the
Europeans, the country is not depopulated like those in which the princes contia nually traffic in their subjects. The purity of the air, the goodness of the water,
and the abundance of every necessary of life, all contribute to people this country. Character of 956. The natives are of a large size, strong and well proportioned. Their mien the natives.
is bold and martial; and their neighbours have often experienced their intrepidity, as well as those Europeans who attempted to injure them. They possess genius, think justly, speak correctly, perfe&tly know their own interests, and, like their ancient friends the Normans, recommend themselves with address, and even with po. liteness. Their lands are carefully cultivated, they do every thing with order and regularity, and they labour vigorously when they chuse, which, unfortunately, is not so often as could be wished. Interest stimulates them strongly; and they are fond of gain, without appearing so. Their friendship is constant; yet their friends mul beware of making free with their wives, of whom they are very jealous. But they are not so delicate with respect to their daughters, who have an unbounded li. berty, which is so far from impeding their marriage, that a man is pleased at finding that a woman has given proofs of fertility, especially as the presents of her lovers make some amends for that which he is obliged to give her parents, when he marries her. They tenderly love their children; and a sure and quick way to gain their
friendship, is to caress their little ones, and to make them trifling presents. Their houses. 957. Their houses are very neat. Their kitchens are somewhat elevated above
the ground, and of a square or oblong figure; three sides are walled up, and the fourth side is left open, being that from which the wind does not commonly blow. They place their pots in a row, and cement them together with a kind of fat, red clay, which, without any mixture of lime, makes a strong and durable morter. Their bed.chambers are raised three feet above the ground. This would seem to indicate that the country is marshy, or sometimes inundated. But this is by no means the case. The soil is dry, and they take care to build their houses beyond the reach of the greatest floods. But experience hath taught them, that this elevation contributes to health, by securing them from the damps caused by the copious dews, in
houses not so elevated. Their women,
958. The women work in the fields, and kindly afsift one another. They bring good wives
up their children with great care, and have no other object than to please their hus. and mothers.
bands. What a noble example to those who are inclined to followit.—Why shall we be obliged to contemplate this at such a distance? Why traverse'the ocean to find it?
959. The extent of King Peter's dominions, towards the N. and N. E. is not Appendix. well known; but, from the number of his troops, there is reason to believe it con
Extent of the fiderable. The eastern boundary is the river Junco, about 20 leagues from Cape king's terriMesurado, and the western is a little river about half way from Cape Mount. tory: 960. The whole country is extremely fertile. The natives have gold among Produce
abundant. them; but whether found in this country, or brought thither in the course of trade, is not precisely known. The country produces fine red wood, and a variety of other beautiful and valuable woods. Sugar-canes, indigo, and cotton, grow without cultivation. The tobacco would be excellent, if the negroes were skilful in curing it. Elephants, and consequently ivory, are more numerous than the natives wilh; for those cumbrous animals very much injure their corn fields, notwithstanding the hedges and ditches with which they so carefully fence them. The frequent attacks of lions and tigers, hinder not their cattle from multiplying rapidly; and their trees are laden with fruit, in spite of the mischief done to them by the monkey tribes. In a word, it is a rich and plentiful country, and well fituated for commerce, which might be carried on here to any extent, by a nation beloved like the French; for no nation must think of establishing themselves here by force. The Chev. Des Marchais has proposed a plan for forming a colony at C. Mesurado, which (says his able editor, Father Labat) appears to me so promising and advantageous, that I think it my duty to lay it before the public.
Plan of a Colony at Cape Mesurado. 961. It has already been remarked, that King Peter gave to the Chev. Des Mar. Ch. Des Marchais, the largest of the little Islands at the mouth of the river Mesurado, and had chais declines very much urged him to settle upon it. That gentleman had it not in his power to itland offered
him by the accept this offer, not knowing whether it would be agreeable to the Company. He
king. therefore declined it, giving the king such reasons as he could prudently communicate; for an entire disclosure of his sentiments on the matter, might have raised fufpicions in the mind of that Prince, who is extremely jealous of his liberty, and of that of his people.
962. It is certain that this little island is well situated, and might easily be put Advantages into a state of defence; that the soil is excellent; that the want of fresh water might be supplied by cisterns; that it lies in the very centre of all the trade, that can be carried on by the river Mesurado; that the provisions produced on it, and the fish which surround it, would maintain the European inhabitants a considerable time, even supposing the negroes should take it into their heads to besiege it, or to reduce it by famine.
963. But it must be owned, that this little island is a great way from the entrance It's disadof the bason, (flaque d'eau) by which alone a communication can be kept up with vantages.
of this ifland.