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In three articles, this was particularly conspicuous. The purchase of the plantation Appendix. tools, the purchase of the falt provisions, and the chartering of ships, the carrying out women and children, was, though it may not appear so at first sight, a great cause of expense, and a principal one of failure. I have now enumerated what appears to me, to have been among the principal causes of our miscarriage; if they appear not in the same light to others, I could wish that they would reconsider them. They are almost all of them demonstrably true; but, as I before observed, I shall only assert, and leave others to trace, how and in what manner, they operated perniciously towards our enterprize. We come now to the other question.
Secondly. Of the Probability of future Success. 910.“ Our first failure will here be of great service to us, if we consider our former Probability of errors as so many beacons, put up to warn us of danger. The three first which I future succets. have enumerated, seem to have been the most effential, and, except the first, are eafily avoided, as well as all the rest. May I be permitted, without the imputation of vanity, to say, that after all our former difficulties, my having been able with only four Europeans, and without the smallest succour or assistance, to keep possession of the island for the last year, to cut down 50 acres of timber, 16 of which were inclosed, and the roots taken up, to erect three large buildings, and to raise with ease, vegetables enough for more than 50 times our number, afford a sufficient proof of the certainty of future success. But as it may here be expected, that I should enter a little into particulars, I shall more fully state the grounds of my opinion. 911.“ The end, I believe, proposed by the major part of the subscribers, was the
Reasons for cultivation of cotton, others proposed growing sugars, coffee, tobacco, and indigo, this opinion. while a few hoped to drive on an advantageous commerce with the natives, for ivory, wax, and other productions of that part of Africa. The prospect of those, whose views are confined to cultivation, must depend entirely upon soil; and this, I am warranted to say, from the universal concurrence of those who have seen it, whether natives or Europeans, is remarkably fertile. It is deep, that is from one A foil capable foot and a half to two feet. I never saw a rock or stone upon the island. Except on of producing one small space close under the block house, I never saw a foot of bad soil. Every article.
every tropical thing which I planted, throve admirably, and among those plants, 300 were cotton. They were only in blossom when I came away: I therefore had no opportunity of bringing home a specimen. But, supposing the cotton on that part of the coast, to be of the very worst quality, it could not at all affect the value of the island, or the probability of its success in its cultivation, as nothing can be more easy, than to carry thither the seeds of either the Bourbon or Pernambuco cotton. The former I be. lieve is reckoned the best in the world, and the latter the next to it. The first place is about 20, and the latter about 9 degrees south of the equator. Bulama is 11 de. grees distant from it, on the north; so that there cannot be any great difference, in the climates of these three places, but more particularly the two laft; from which I Rr2
Appendix. should infer, that equally cotton, planted in equally good soil, either at Bulama or
Parnambuco, would be of equal value ; supposing the Bulama soil to be equally good with that of other countries, in the same climate, whether north or south of the equator, I see no reason why, with equal cultivation, equally good sugar, coffee, and tobacco, might not be produced on that island, as that which we know is produced,
in the same degree of both north and south latitude. and an excel 912." An advantageous commerce, I know may be carried on with the natives, lent lituation
in the two articles of ivory and wax. The central situation of Bulama, it's harbour tor trade.
being a great thoroughfare for the Portuguese trade, it's proximity to the three great rivers of Gambia, Grande, and Nunez, and the innumerable inlets, or small branches of the sea, navigable far inland with small vessels, between the first and last of those rivers, render it a moft eligible situation for such trade. Its distance from Europe, is not so great as that of the W. Indies; the navigation to it is safe and secure; it contains one of the finest harbours I ever saw; the sea abounds with fish; and the number of animals, but more particularly elephants, buffaloes, and deer, on the island, is almost incredible. The teeth of the former, and the hides, I should suppose, of the latter, are articles of commercial consideration. With such advan. tages of soil and situation, a trifling sum, expended in a judicious manner, for the equipment of a small number of men, embarked on board two or three little vessels, and directed by a man of common sense and great power would, in my opinion, preclude a doubt of success. It might be commanded; but, when I say it might be commanded, I presuppose a greater firmness in those who go out, and more zeal and activity in those who remain at home, than has hitherto been evinced by either.
“ I am Sir, &c.
“ P. BEAVER."
Mr. Hood's Letter of the fame Dale.
Sir, Soilof Bulama 913. (17).“ AS I am lately returned with Mr. Beaver from Bulama, and excellent,
not being personally known to the gentlemen who have the direction of the business, I therefore think it my duty, to give you my opinion of the island. It is a fine,
light, sandy loam, of considerable depth, and free from stones, and appears to be as and yields well fine land as any in England. But we do not go from appearances only, but proofs.
Mr. Beaver laid out a garden, and fenced it in, and prepared the ground against the last season, in order to fow the seeds brought out from England; but they being at least two years old, and damaged so much, few of them came up. Not being able to get any more, we were obliged to apply to the Portuguese at Bilao. Besides, Mr. Beaver being desirous to make trial of all that could be got, agreed with all the commanders of the canoes, that came to Bulama, to bring all the seeds and plants they could, by which means he got as follows, viz. plantains, bananas, papaws,
goavas, oranges, limes, cotton, pepper, callavaces, pine apples, yams, caflada Appendix. pumpkins, water mellons, cucumbers, ground nuts, mint, parsley, &c. All those throve in a surprising manner, and I make no doubt, but European seeds would
914. “ In general, the island is well covered with useful timber, both for house Fine timber, and ship building ; besides fome close hard-grained woods, that would make good furniture, and I think, would make excellent wood for turning. I never have been able to learn the names of any of the woods, though I never missed asking every one who I thought knew any thing of it. We have plenty of elephants, buffaloes, deer, Guinea-fowls, monkeys, &c. The only beast of prey I have seen, was a wolf, 'There are plenty of fish, all round the island, and at low water you may get plenty of oysters, which are excellent. And, since we have have got a large spot of land cleared, and all the rubbish burnt, the place is not only healthier, but more beautiful than any other place I have seen in Africa. The land is good, , and capable of bringing forth any thing that wants deep root, as well as richness of soil. Although I never worked so hard in my life, I have enjoyed, the latter part of my time, as good health as in all my life.
“ I am, &c.
Extract of Letter, containing an Account of the Island of Bulama, by 7. Young,
Esq. a Member of the Council. 915." The atmosphere of the island is remarkably falubrious, as we all can teftifs, Climate. particularly a large party, who having lost themselves in the woods, by indiscreetly venturing too far without a compass, passed 5 days and as many night, in open air, without any sickness having resulted from it. The utmoft heat, while we were there, by Farenheit's thermometer, being 84, tempered by a pleasant sea breeze, which enabled our people to work during the whole day without inconvenience.
916. “ The soil is exuberantly fertile, as is evident from the spontaneous vegeta- soil. tion that every where appears, and from the aspect of the garden which we made, wherein all the esculent vegetables of the European gardens, as well as sugar-canes, plantains, bananas, pine apples, the lime, the orange, the guaya, the olive, and the vine of several species, which the Hankey brought from Teneriffe, throve with a luxuriance that seemed marvellous to Englishmen, who were unacquainted with the combined effects of heat and moisture, upon rich and new land. The soil of the margin of the island, appears to be a red fand, mixed with loam; that of the interior savannahs, or natural mcadows, a black mould. The country is agreeably diverfi. fied with undulating grounds, but poffesses no land of such elevation, as to merit the denomination of a hill. Yet it contains many springs and brooks, according to the united testimony of several gentlemen who have traversed it. There are a few iron
Appendix. fones between high and low water mark; but we did not discover any of those beds
of oyster.Shells, and quarries of freestone, which, according to La Brue, it contains. Animals, 917.“ The shores abound with filh of many species, and of which, with a seine to fruits,
each ship, we took daily, in a few hours, as much as we could consume. The woods abound with a delicious species of deer, of a mouse colour, and about the size of large greyhounds, called by the natives of Sierra Leona (where the same species is found) Fillimtomto; also with buffaloes, elephants, monkeys, Guinea-fowls, partridges, pheasants, Muscovy ducks, and pigeons. There are also some ferocious animals. These devoured a pair of oxen, 4 asses, and upwards of 40 goats and sheep, which were landed from the Hankey, before an inclosure could be prepared for them ; but when the country comes to a be little cleared, those implacable savages will retire, as is their custom, from the habitations of men. Its spontaneous fruits are plums of various species, some of them of an agreeable flavour; a fruit of about the size of an ostrich's egg, with a yellow pulp of a sharp acid, like a tamarind, and a species of well tafted grape, whose stock or vine resembles that of a kidney bean, climbing up
the slender trees. roots, &c.
918. “ It's roots are yams,'eddoes, cassada, and a kind of sweet potato. It has trees which exude gums of various species; and it is extremely probable, that it contains camwood and other dying woods, in common with the continent. It's trees are for the most part very large, with spreading branches, but not very lofty, like those in the forests of America. There is neither underwood nor brambles in these woods; but the wild grass grows under their shade as in a well-watered
919. “We saw no serpents, or other poisonous reptiles; but the white ants are said to be troublesome at some seasons. Communities of them which are very fre. quent, dwell in hillocks about ten feet in height, and which were at first taken for huts of the natives. These may easily be destroyed by building up wood about them and setting fire to it. Swarms of bees, that make honey of a delicious flavour, are very numerous in the woods, and which may easily be domesticated."
Lands purchaled, &c.
Extrałt of a Letter from Mr. 7. Munden, to Mr, Flynn dated Bulama. 920. “Our floop went up the Rio Grande to purchase a large tract of land, opposite our island, belonging to the Biafaras, and returned last night, having made the purchase of the wished-for land, which is larger than all Bulama. We have likewise the island of Arcas. Fowls are very plenty up the rivers. The land we have purchased is wonderfully fine, and easy of cultivation. The country near the rivers abounds with cattle of all forts, and a vast number of elephants. We have
ever met with beasts to annoy us, we have also cotton growing in our garden, and our peas and other vegetables flourish."
Exiract of a Letter from Charles Drake, Esq. to Mej. Jackson, Sykes and Rush
forth, at Manchester, dated S. Leona. 921, “ With respect to the Island of Bulama, I think it one of the most pleasant Soil, &c. of
Bulama. I ever saw, abounding in a variety of fowl, deer and game; the soil particularly rich and fertile, and vegetation remarkably quick, as was observed by some seeds we set, which came up almost instantaneously. It seems well adapted for sugar and every other W. Indian produce; and, on the whole, I am persuaded it will prove an important object to the subscribers, particularly when a charter or grant is obtained, and a permanent government established, also people endowed with zeal and activity sent out to conduct the enterprize.
922. “ We left the remains of several of our people at Bulama; but I know of Mortality not none whose decease might not be accounted for, by their being addicted to drink owing to clirum."-See 9 546, 572.
923.“ With respect to this place, I have not time to give you my opinion of it in which is betthe manner I could wish. If we may judge by its effects, it is not near so healthy for share ona. as Buiama. We are under much obligation to Mr. Clarkson's civility and attention. I wish some of his kind proposals had been accepted. He, however, positively refused allowing me to land my tobacco, which obliged me to send it to Bance Illand, with my hardwares, &c,
924." With respect to the general trade of this coast, I have formed the most flate Commercial tering expectations. I can plainly perceive a market for an immense quantity of prospects. British goods. The natives barter for our articles, with a great deal of avidity, and by them we can get a very considerable profit.
925. " I think there can be no difficulty in disposing of the remaining land, (of Important Bulama) on the arrival of the Calypso, even at a very considerable advance; as it particulars aswill then be known we have succeeded in many things that before were doubtful;
certained. namely,—That we have purchased and taken possession of the Island, with the full and entire approbation of every power who made any kind of claim to the island; that we find, what before we had many doubts about, viz, several rivulets and springs*, and plenty of fresh water on the island. The air, particularly the west point, which is open to the sea, is falubrious t, and the whole island infinitely more healthy, than either the Portuguese settlement of Bissao in it's neighbourhood, or the settlement of S. Leona.
926. “ Under these circumstances, nothing can possibly prevent the success of the Nothingwant. plan, but a want of zeal and activity in those who undertake the execution of it. ing but a char.
• It is to be observed that the rainy season was not over when Mr. D. left the island. See $ 529.