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different parts. But this is not a very safe pilgrimage; for Capt. N. added, that Appendix. many of those visitants are at laft kidnapped and sold.

See 4.444

Note Z. 1. 780. If the S. Leona Company had heen instituted merely for the sake of com. Conmpany's merce, every one must allow that 10 per cent. would be a very moderate profit. But,

profits. had that been the case, and the circumstances of the colony had been in other respects the fame, would not the 10 per cent. if raised on articles of the first necessity, have been repaid to the colonists, in the higher wages which the Company would.of course have been obliged to give them for their labour, the only commodity which they have hitherto had an opportunity of offering for sale?

781. In conformity with the Company's grand object, the civilization of Africa, I have reason to believe, that no profit has been demanded on articles of primary necessity, exported for the support of this new colony ; for, as the colonists have not received their lands, they are not in a condition to provide for themselves. The world will always expect to find this S. Leona business unadulterated with any commercial pursuits, which have not a direct tendency to promote the interests and the prosperity of the colony, and consequently the grand end of it's establish. ment, the CIVILIZATION OF AFRICA

Note Z. 2. See 519, 618. 782. The Directors appear to have drawn the character of the late John Henry Na. Additional imbanna with great candour; for it corresponds exactly with every account I have of J. H. Niheard of that intelligent and amiable African. I had several opportunities of convers. ambanna., ing with him, during his stay in London; and was much struck with his acuteness and good sense. When I was first introduced to him, I could not help expressing my astonishment at finding, that he could already read a little English. “ It is that lady,said he, pointing to Mrs. Falconbridge*, " to whom I owe this improvement; for she


The resolution of Mrs. Falconbridge, (now Mrs. Dubois,) in accompanying her former husband twice to S. Leona, and the hardships Mhe fuffered at the unpromising commencement or the colony, def. titute as it then was of every thing necessary to the comfort of a well educated European lady, prove that even the tender sex, under the influence of conjugal attachment, may be so much interested in a great undertaking, as to forget the delicacy of their frame, and to face danger and distress in every terrifying shape. That this lady possesses not only patience and fortitude to endure difficulties, but ability to describe them, will not be doubted by those who have read her interesting account of Sierra Leona, which the published after her second return from that colony. If any excess of warmth should be observed in some parts of this Spirited little work, it will be remembered that the writer is a woman,

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was kind enough to teach me in the passage from S. Leona."—Being at Portsmouth or
Plymouth, foon after his arrival in England, he was carried to see one of the arsenals.
After a silent and attentive survey of the place, he at last exclaimed, “ Me no love
for see so many gun,” an expression, which, from his manner and emphasis, was
evidently dictated by a patriotic jealousy, left those formidable engines, should one
day come to be directed against his defenceless country. On many other occasions,
that patriotism, which very commonly acuates African bosoms +, distinctly appeared
in his conversation; and, from the excellent direction which was given to that and
the other energies of his mind, there can be no doubt, that if Providence had spared
his life, his country would have derived many advantages. --Being one day at
dinner, by invitation, before his character was thoroughly known, the clergyman
who had the care of his education, beckoned, by way of caution, to a gentleman who
was presling him to drink. He observed it, and immediately withdrew. On en-
quiring why he so suddenly left the table, he asked, “Whether Mr. G. really
thought, that he could not have wine before him, without making a beast of him.
self." -Talking of the distinguished member of parliament who proposed the gra-
dual abolition of the flave-trade, he said, “ Mr. should have his carriage
drawn by asses, for they go very gradually.”—His application to study was, as the
Directors state, indefatigable; and so strong was his wish to understand the Scriptures
thoroughly, and to be able to read them in the original languages, that, to his other
acquisitions, during his short stay in England, he added, in his private hours, no in-

considerable proficiency in the Hebrew.
and of Job 783. Mr. Ramsay, Mr. Clarkson, Mr. Dickson and others, have published ac-
Ben Solomon. counts of negroes eminent for their virtues and abilities. But I do not know that

any of them are more worthy of attention, on many important accounts, than the
biographical sketches which Moore has given us of Job Ben Solomon, in his Tra-
vels into the interior parts of Africa, printed in 1735, to which I must refer the
reader, who will also find some account of Job, in the Annual Register, I think,
for 1767. The only piece of information, respecting Job Ben Solomon, that I can
add to Moore's is, that W. Smith, Esq. M. P. (who, by the way, in his excellent
speeches, in support of the abolition of the slave trade, has discovered an intimate
knowledge, and a deep sense, of the wrongs of Africa,) has in his possession a MS.
copy of the Koran, in Arabic, written by that extraordinary negro, when in England,
purely from memory; as appears from a Latin certificate, at the end, signed by the

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who generously sacrificed her eafe and comfort, to a principle of duty to her husband, and enlightened
zeal in a great cause; that the certainly suffered many fevere trials; and that, she might think, fome
of them might have been prevented by human prudence and foresight.

+ See Dickson's Letters on Slavery, p. 75, 94,

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APPENDIX. Rev. Dr. Chandler, and some other reputable persons, competent to judge of the merit and authenticity of this curious performance. It would appear, that the Duke of Montagu, mentioned by Job, with so much gratitude, (Moore, p. 147.) was a great patron of African merit; for to his Grace's liberality, the negro poet and mathematician, Francis Williams, owed his education at school, and afterwards at the University of Cambridge*. I have been told that, when Job was at the Duke's house, the servants used to complain that he sometimes foiled the stairs, when he retired to his chamber to pray, which he regularly did several times a day.

784. I shall close this note with some account of another African, who, though Account of a he was not endowed with any superiority of intellect, possessed, in an eminent degree, African that goodness of heart, which so honourably characterizes the African genius.—In prince, who

lätely died in April, 1781, I was informed, that a young African was going to be conveyed on England. board a vessel bound for Sierra Leona. Curiosity induced me to enquire in what capacity he was to be sent there; as the grand question, respecting the abolition of the Slave-trade, had then become a merited object of universal investigation, particularly in this Island—I soon discovered that the master of this poor negro had no other intention in conveying him out of this country, than to dispose of him after. wards with the greater facility, for the Welt-India market, in order to reinftate his expences with profit.-On closer enquiry, I found that this youth, whose name was Peter Panah, was really a son of the present Peter, King of Mesurado, who had

himself been educated at Liverpool, by the slave-traders. I discovered farther, that • he had been basely kidnapped from his father, conveyed to a Mr. Hammer at Sierra

Leona, by an English flave.vessel, (Capt. Fraser) and fold there to a Capt. Cambeby,
who carried him to the W. Indies, where he met with other flaves from his own
country, who immediately recognized him to be their king's son.—This fact was
moreover proved by the mark he bore on his breast, which is inscribed on all the
king's children, to distinguish them from others.
785. One Johnson, a mulatto dealer at Grenada, being acquainted with this circum-

A mercantile stance, conceived that such a deed committed against the King of Mesurado, in the fpeculation in

his person person of one of his children, could not but injure the commerce carried on by the English in that country. Making this therefore his plea, le combined it with his own interest, and supposed that if he brought this young prince to England, it might turn out greatly to his advantage, provided the public could be interested in his redemption. But this mere mercantile speculation failing, Johnson resolved to return with him to the West-Indies, to sell him there for the 60l. he had paid for him. Some papers, which I received from Johnson himfelf, clearly prove these facts: but as his return directly to the W. Indies was likely to be expensive, he was

* Lung, Vol. II. p. 476.


APPENDIX. cunning enough to obtain permission of Mr. Sharp, under pretence of establishing

himself at the new colony, to get a free passage for himself and his negro to S.

Leona, whence his passage to the West Indies was easy. The author 786. The compassion I felt for the situation of this unfortunate youth, and the frets him from his bondage. prospect, by restoring him to his father, of furthering my favourite plan of civilizing

Africa, the most effectual means for abolishing the Slave-trade, made me the less hesitate to rescue hiin from his base shackles: I therefore redeemed him: this was done in presence of the Rev. Mr. Ramsay, Mr. T. CLARKSON, and Mr. R. PHILLIPS, on the 6th of May, 1788, for 20l. fter.-I then placed him at Mr. Dempster's academy, at Mitcham in Surry, to be instructed in the first rudiments of Christianity, into which he was regularly baptized on the 25th Dec. 1788. At this school he likewise had such education as his faculties were capable of receiving.– He indeed proved obedient and pliable, but he was not gifted by nature with any extraordinary parts. He made, however, a tolerable proficiency in reading and writing, and shewed a great desire for agriculture. Though pretty much accustomed to European manners, he seemed to retain an unconquerable propensity to return to his former habits of simplicity, in his native country, where he knew he would

find a mode of life more suitable to his taste. His death. 787. Mr. G. Sharp promised to use his endeavours to procure him a free passage

to his own country, but various incidents retarded and prevented this gentleman's kind intentions, till he was taken ill, at Mr. Dempster's school, by sleeping one evening on the damp grass. This indisposition soon ended in a gallopping consumption, which baffled the power of medicine, and he died, in O&t. 1790, in my own house, aged, as near as I could guess, about 18 or 20:

788. I cannot but mention the generosity of three gentlemen, who happened to hear of the case of this unfortunate youth, and sent me towards his support, the fol. lowing sums respectively : Mr. WILBER FORCE

£20 The Rev. Mr. GISBORNE

5 5 Mr. PENNANT so that his redemption, schooling, cloathing, medicine, &c. exclusive of these contributions, during the time he was under my care, (21 years) did not cost me more than £67 10s. 5d. But, though it pleased Providence to call him hence, I never shall regret this expenditure.

789. It may be said, that I need not have purchased the liberty of this unhappy youth, as he was free the instant he landed on the British shore. (See 5 330.) But it ought to be remembered, that the best laws are often rendered expensive, and even ultimately ineffectual, by the many arts which lawyers and other designing men practise, to elude them. Besides, though the law seems to be against personal or individu. al llavery in this country, the merchant who dares openly avow himself as a dealer in




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human flesh, is not only protected in his iniquity, but enjoys all the rights of honest Appendix. people, not excepting that of sitting upon a jury, even in the most serious criminal cases, from which, however, the dealers in the flesh of animals are excluded*. But put a despot into a free country, where there is a social check upon his actions, and he is no longer a despot: and put a save-merchant into a country where industry and abi. lity, and not money, are the standards of credit, and he is no longer a slave-merchant.

790. This leads me back to the principles advanced in several parts of this work, respecting personal flavery, in our present European communities, especially in those where commerce is carried on to any extent t.

791. I consider the abused power of governing to have generated that kind of Navery, which, for the sake of distinction, I call Political Slavery; and that which arises from the abused power of money, I think I may fairly call Mercantile Slavery. The first, which has reference to a person's situation with respect to the commu. nity, seems to be, in some degree, guarded against, in this Island, by the general principles of the British conftitution, as well as by particular statutes. But the second kind, which has reference to a person's situation, with respect to the interests of individuals, and which is also personal, inasmuch as an individual can not only be arrested for debt, but actually starved to death in a gaol, (see Ø 594, nole.) appears to me not to have been hitherto fully considered, at least not by the majority of those whose province it is to rectify the evil; for the humane exertions of Lord Moira, Mr. Grey and some other respectable members of both Houses of the British Parliament, have hitherto been unsuccessful. (See Ø 142, qu. LI.)

* To this comparison, between a butcher and a slave-merchant, it may be objected, that the former carries on his business within the reach, and very properly under the protection, of the English laws; whereas a part only of the business of the latter is confined to England, the rest being transacted partly in Africa, which is out of the reach of English laws, and partly in the W. Indian Islands, the laws of which, however, their charters ftipulate, shall not be repugnant to the laws of England, But the question is, Whether a fet of men, who by their mercantile operations, violate all laws, in any foreign part of the world, ought to be allowed to live among honest people, in a civilized community, calling itself free? To put the case in a more striking light, I would ask, Whether any legislature ought to give it's protection to a set of men, who should make it a trade to fit out ships, under it's jurisdiction, in order to catch and kill human beings, and falt up their flesh at O'Taheite, and carry it to NewZealand, to be sold to the Cannibals ?

+ I use the term personal slavery in a more extensive sense than ordinary, for the truth is, I am not satisfied with the distinction of slavery, as commonly divided into political and personal. They are both firi&tly personal; for persons alone can be llaves in any sense.


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