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APPENDIX. ground allotted for lugar, to provifions; as these feed his negroes better than anya
dry or other provilions imported: but in illands subject to droughts, I do not think the planter can, without materially lessening his crop of sugar, give up any
portion of ground to provisions.”—Thus far Mr. Botham. A modificari. 773. The grand principle of the foregoing plan, is the direct and immediate inon of Mr. B's terest with which it animates every individual, concerned in it's execution. This plan.
principle being friály adhered to, the adaptation of the plan itself to local circumstances, indeed, must be left to those who are best acquainted with those circumpances. This supposes some little modifications which will always be found necessary in reducing to practice any general syfem. It is with great diffidence, that I would venture to mention any specific deviation, from a plan proposed by a gentleman who has so fully experienced it's practical utility. But it seems worthy of consideration, Whether the colonists and the natives, at S. Leona, might not be still more interested in the produce, if they were encouraged to cultivate the sugar-cane on their own lands; and, as their property may not at first be very adequate to the erection of such expensive buildings as mills, boiling-houses, curing-houses and fillhouses; Whether the Company might not build those works in convenient situations, to take off the crops of all the little surrounding planters, they paying the Company a certain proportion of the produce*. This mode is now occasionally practised in Barbadoes, by a few of the small proprietors, whose places, as they are called, are sufficiently near to sugar-works. I am aware, however, of some objections to the general adoption of this modification of the Batavian plan. The first is, The difficulty of settling, among several independent proprietors, the quantity of canes to be planted by each; so that the whole shall not exceed that quantity which the works are calculated to take off and manufacture, in due time; for canes are always damaged, and sometimes almost wholly lost, being left too long standing in the field.—But the quantity of canes to be planted, might be previously agreed upon by the planters themselves, in proportion to the cane-land possessed by each. The second objection is, that, as each of the planters will have a series of cane-fields, of the same ages respectively, and which ought to be cut at or near the same time, some differences might arise as to their turns at the mill, &ct. But all such equal pretensions are very easily determined by lot. The Third, is the difficulty or
trouble, • Whether cattle-mills, wind-mills, or water-mills fhall be used, will of course, depend on fituation, and other circumstances.
+ The canes in the same tract, are planted at or about the falling of good showers of rain, which, in most of the sugar islands, are very unequal and partial. But many estates in St. Domingo and some in Jamaica have been watered, with very great advantage, from the neighbouring rivers'; and such estates may thus be said, in some measure, to have the seasons at their command. Long's Hift. Vol. I. p. 454 and Vol. II. p. 156.-A gentleman lately sent out a fire-engine to his estate, with a great length of leathern pipe, to be used in watering the cane-fields from an adjoining brook. I have not
trouble, of keeping the produce of three, four or more planters diftin&t and sepa. APPENDIX. rate. But this might, perhaps, be obviated, by marking the pots, jars and hogsheads of each individual, as the sacks are at many corn-mills in Europe. If these objections, however, and others which may occur, should prove too strong for this modification of the plan described by Mr. Botham, I shall readily give it up. My only view in propofing it is to increase the labourer's interest in the quantity and quality of the produce, the true principle of all natural and useful cultivation in every part of the world,
774. The gradual and cautious introduction of the sugar-cane, above recom- French and mended, was suggested by the success with which that mode was actually attended British modles
of establishing in the French sugar islands, and the evil consequences of the contrary practice in fugar plantathe British. The sugar colonies of the latter were in general established by large tions. capitals, abstracted from the agriculture, manufactures and commerce of the mother country; and thus the growth of the sugar-cane in the British islands was forced, like that of exotics in a hot-bed. The French planters, on the other hand, whose merchants could not, or, under their old Government, would not, furnish their planters with extensive credit, were obliged to depend for success, ina great measure, on their own industry and frugality. The consequences were precisely such as might have been expected. The English planter was a great mari, distinguished by the splendor of his living, and the magnitude of his debts, as much as by the extent of his apparent property. The French planter was more like an economical husbandman, whose savings in good years not only enabled him to keep his ground in bad years, without running into debt, but also to make gradual additions to his produ&tive property. He began with the assistance of his wife and children, and perhaps one or two negroes, to plant provisions with his own hands. He proceeded next to coffee, cotton, &c. and, taking the utmost care of his negroes and cattle, in process of time, he found himself able to erect a small sugar-work and to plant a few.canes; and such has been the foundation of very many of the most flourishing estates in the French islands, and even of some in the British. It may be said, that their Government gave them their lands gratis, and favoured them in other respects; whereas the English planters generally bought their lands, in one shapeor another, and in some instances at a considerable price, and were not so much indulged by their Go. vernment. But the compleat monopoly of the British market is alone to be considered as an advantage more than equivalent to all the indulgences enjoyed by the French*.
- From these facts it appears, that the returns of the British sugar colonies are to be viewed, in a great measure, as interest of the capitals which, as it has turned learnt that it was much used for the direct purpose for which it was sent ; but it was found so useful in watering the dung-heaps, on the fields, that, in one year, it more than saved it's price.
* It is computed that, in proportion to the population, thrice as much sugar is consumed in Great Britain and Ireland as in France. -See § 180, note.
APPENDIX. out, have been unprofitably vested in them *; and that a great part of the French re
turns are so much fair gain to that nation. From the same causes, the French planters were enabled to undersell the British), by no less than 25 per cent at the European market. Hence also tlie French ncgrocs were not so hard pushed, were more civilized, and in all respects better treated than the British; a circumstance, however, to be partly ascribed to the vigour and vigilance of the old French Government. But what I chiefly with the reader to observe, is the striking similiarity between the system unfortunately adopted by the English, in the establishment of their sugar colonies, and that which is now under trial (for I trust it will never be finally adopted) at S. Leona; and beiween the French system and the natural and humane one which I have ventured to recommend t.
*“ Very few sugar estates, when loaded with a very heavy debt, have been known to get rid of such debt, or to pay more than the interest of 6 per cent on the money lent them, and many do not pay 4 per cent, for the money laid out. Many proprietors have been obliged to abandon their estates, after having been at a great expense, in the purchase thereof, stocking it and erecting buildings thereon." Anf. to the 53d. qu. in the Privy Council's Report by Governor Matthew of Grenada. The Jamaica planters make not more, on an average, than 4 per cent on their capital, and of course many not so much. Id. Part V.
+ For the above facts, relative to the French and English sugar colonies, see the Ans. of Gov. Matthew of Grenada and Gov. Seton of St. Vincent to the 1, 2, 3 and 4. qu. in Part V. of the Privy Council's Report; t'ie Inspector General, Mr. Irving's Evid. before the Com. of the H. of Commons, and also that of Mr. Greg.
The above being merely an outline of tropical cultivation, it is hoped the reader will not pass fentence on it, till he has informed himfelf fully, and has carefully weighed all that he will find on the subject, in the P. Coun. Report, Min. of Evid. Le Poivre, D'Auberteuil, Long, Beckford, Edwards, &c.—To show that I am not unreasonably jealous of the introduction of W. Indians and their maxims, into any African colony, I must intreat the reader's attention, to the following propoled addition to the slave-law of Jamaica, published in the Cornwall Chronicle of that land, of Dec. 29th, 1787.“ Whereas the extreme cruelties and inhumanity of the MANAGERS, OVERSEERS and BOOK. KEEPERS of eltates, have frequently driven llaves into the woods, and occasioned rebellions, &:c. And whereas alto it frequently happens, that Naves come to their deaths by hafty and levere blows, and other improper treatment of overseers and BOOK-KEEPERS, in the heat of passion; and, when fuch accidents do happen, the victims are entered on the plantation-books, as having died of convulfions, fits, and other causes not to be accounted for; and to conceal the real truth of the cause of the death of such fiave or faves, he or they is or are immediately put under ground.. &c.- The humane and spirited Mr. Gray of Jamaica, who introduced this claule into the Assembly, premited that, to his own certain knowledge, very annatural punishments were often inflicted on negroes.” (S:e several funilar proofs in Preface to Abii. Min. Evid.) ---In St. Kitt's, when itarving lives are killed and put under ground, in stealing sugar canes and provisions, it is familiarly called " biling them. In Barbadoes “ an unlimited power of maiming or killing negroes, is frequently exercised by WHITE SERVANTS;" and the murder of a Hlave “is siarcely noticed any more than the death of a cozvor borse." Supp. to P. Coun. Rep. p. 24, 35. In Jamaica, Grenada, and Dominica, laws have been made to check luch enormities. But under all thote mock statutes, framed as they are by planters, against planters, and administered by planters, the evidence of negroes and their descendants, free or haves, is not, in any shape, admitted against wbite perfons, in criminal cases. -At S. Leona, the rights of witnesles and jurors are exerciled by biack men. ( $ 378.) But, even there, if W. Indians, inveterately prejudiced as they generally are, were to be allowed to preside as judges, I hould have very great doubts as to the impartial adininiftration of justice, between whites and blacks. In England itself, juries have formerly been sent to prilon, till shey brought in verdicts agreeable to the judges.
APPENDIX Note X. 2. See Ø 441 to 451 inclusive. 775. The statement of the original condition and subsequent vicissitudes of Character of
the N.Scotians the Nova Scotians, and the reasonings upon them, appear to me to place the can- fairly stated. dour and abilities of the Directors in a very amiable and respectable point of view. Several eminent philosophers have indeed reasoned admirably on the moral and social effects of slavery ; while others might be named, who, I will venture to say, have failed egregiously on that difficult subject*, But I know of no author who has had occasion to estimate the combined effects of Navery, irregular warfare, an emigration, scarcely distinguishable from exile, and a second emigration attended with great sickness and hardships, on the general character of a body of predial flaves, who had emancipated themselves, This fingular and complicated case was reserved for the Directors of the S. Leona Company; and, in my opinion, they have treated it in a manner which would do credit to the first philosophers of the age. 776. It appears to me, however, that the reports now in general circulation, re. But their
claims, &c. specting the dissatisfaction of the N. Scotians, from not having yet obtained those
thould be inlots of cultivable land which were promised them, and which would have changed vestigated. the principle of their exertions from lifeless, drowsy day-labour, to the improvement of their own property, in order to procure necessaries and luxuries-these reports, I say, appear, in my humble opinion, to deserve, in every point of view, a very fe. rious consideration. And, as the accounts of the local and actual condition of the colony, seem to have come to the knowledge of the Directors chiefly through the medium of servants appointed by themselves, and to the knowledge of the subscribers only through the medium of the Directors, it appears to me that this truly delicate subject should be investigated by a certain number of commissioners, one half chosen and sent out by the subscribers at large, to be joined on the spot, by the other half fairly chosen by the N. Scotians themselves. These commissioners hay. ing chosen a president and agreed upon their rules, should have power to enquire fully into the conduct of the Company's servants, on the one hand, and the con-. duct and claims of the N. Scotians, on the other, and to establish such temporary or permanent regulations, as they should find expedient.
777. The conveying a body of people to the colony, without having framed
In the Elem. of Moral Science, lately published, (in 2 large Vols. 8vo.) but which I have not yet had an opportunity of perusing, I am told, the worthy, ingenious and learned author, Dr. Beattie, hath obliged the world with a pretty full abstract of the doctrines respecting Navery and it's effects, which he has, for thirty years, been teaching in the class of Moral Philosophy, in the Marischal College of Aberdeen.
Mr. Dickson has given a few hints respecting the servitude of the Israelites in Egypt, and their glorious emancipation, which, on several important accounts, seem to deserve to be prosecuted by some person of learning and leisure. Letters on Slavery p. 139, 158, 178.
APPENDIX. houses on the spot, ready to be set up, the moment they landed, appears to me to
have been an error of the same kind, as sending out an apparatus for the manufacture of sugar before houses had been built, lands had been cleared, or provisions had been raised, either for man or beast.
merit and fer
Note Y. 1. See Ø 430. Canvas houses 778. Four patent houses, or rather tents, covered with oil-cloth, made at foon decayed.
Knightsbridge, were sent out to the colony. But, though well adapted for temporary
shelter in Europe, they neither stood the sun nor the rains at S. Leona; and went so soon to destruction, that the Directors very properly resolved to send out no more of those tabernacles.--The best house, hitherto erected in the colony, is, or rather was, that of the governor, the fru&ure of which, I have been told, approached nearly to that represented in Plate I. Fig. B. This and all the other
principal houses, the Company and the colony owed to the ingenuity and exertion Mr. Dubois's of Mr. Dubois.-Having mentioned this gentleman's name, I cannot but add, that vices,
this was far from being the only service which he rendered to the colony. He had spent the greater part of his life in hot and unhealthsul climates, and had acquired every
kind of knowledge and experience, necessary to preserve health and life in similar situations. In particular, such had been his attention to medicine, that he brought 500 of the colonists through the country fever, with the loss of only one patient-a degree of success which few professional men can boast, and which, I will venture to say, never distinguished the commencement of the practise of any European physician, in a tropical climate. Having been born and bred in the fame part of America with most of the Nova Scotians, and having personally known several of them from his infancy, having accompanied them in their warfare, and in their emigration to N. Scotia, and thence to S. Leona, it cannot appear wonderful that he should possess considerable influence among them. As he does not appear
to have used this influence with any private or personal views, it is to be re. gretted, that the colony has been deprived of the services of a man who so entirely poflefled the respect and confidence of the greater part of the inhabitants, and was so well qualified and disposed to promote their happiness.
Oracle near C. Palmas.
NOTE Y. 2. 9 510. 779. The late Capt. R. Norris, of Liverpool, among other curious particulars inserted in this Appendix, told me, that at Cavally, not far from C. Palmas, there is an oracle in which the superstitious natives implicitly confide. It returns answers in all the languages of the country, and attracts many negroes to the coast from