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37, 670.) New articles of cultivation, or a more vigorous prosecution of the old, Appendix. Should, at the same time, be encouraged ; so that they may always have objects on which to exert their activity, in order to procure the offered luxury.

759. The first thing, therefore, to be encouraged in a new African colony, (and through the colony among the surrounding natives,) is the raising of an abundance of provisions, provender, and cattle. This point being gained, which, upon every system, must be the foundation of all solid improvement, some new luxury might be introduced, and the cultivation of cotton, ginger, coffee, or other easily raised article for exportation, at the same time, encouraged by premiums (if necessary,) consisting of the new luxury.

760. I have already intimated the necessity of engaging the co-operation of the Native chiefs native chiefs, in the great work of civilization. Though the colony at S. Leona is to be concilinot so closely connected with those chiefs, as I think could be wished, I $ 130.) yet the Directors seem greatly and justly to value their friendship, and it is pleasing to observe their success in cultivating it. ( 495, et seq.) They appear indeed to be so ready to adopt the improvements they fee at Freetown, that, if they should not be, in the first instance, frightened or disgusted at observing the intolerable manual labour attending the W. INDIAN mode of cultivating the sugar-cane, there cannot be a doubt, that the S. Leona government, by encouraging cultivators and artists from the colony, to go and live with such chiefs as Cuddy, ( 499.) will succeed in gradually reconciling the natives to all sorts of regular industry.- Provisions of all Provisions, kinds, and also cotton and ginger, may be raised by any man of common sense, even

&c. eadily if he had never before seen them planted. That they require less labour than similar articles in Europe, has been already mentioned; and the bare sight of the plants will point out, how they are to be treated. Thus I think any man who has seen the po. tato planted in Britain, where it is exotic, may, if he please, raise yams, eddoes, sweet potatoes, ground nuts, ginger, &c. in Africa, where those roots are indigenous. The culture of Indian and Guinea corn, is as simple as that of peale and beans in England. Plantains and bananas, are certainly as easily raised in Africa, as cabbages and greens are in Europe. Oranges, limes, cocoa-nuts, &c. &c. require far Jess attention, than any kind of fruit in this part of the world. And, had there been any mystery in the cultivation of cotton, we should not have seen it fo fuddenly supplant sugar, as it lately did, in several W. Indian islands; especially in Barbadoes, where, after the sugar-works were destroyed by the hurricane in 1780, cotton was planted with great success, by many persons who had never before attempted it. Thus every

kind of provisions, and even some articles for exportation, may certainly be cultivated, without the tuition of W. Indian artists*: and their culture may be



If any man should doubt his ability to raise cotton, ginger, and even coffee, without any parti. cular course of instruction, he may look into Mr. Long's Hift. of Jamaica, and Edwards's Hilt, of

APPENDIX. carried on by manual labour, till the roots of the trees are removed, and till cattle

can be raised to draw the plough. also provender 761. If the natural grass !hould not afford sufficient or proper food for the cattle,

Guinea-grass, Scotch-grass, and other kinds, may be raised by hand, as in the West
Indies. These, with the blades of Indian and Guinea corn, potato vines, the leaves
and stocks, or trunks, of plantain and banana trees, not to mention cane-tops, support
carile so well, that were they cultivated with proper care, in the sugar-islands, the ne.
groes would not be much harrassed with grass-picking; especially as the artificial
gralles, and the blades of Indian and Guinea corn, may be converted into hay, as in
some parts of Jamaica, where they also cure the wite grass and the four grass, which

the cattle will not taste *. but not lugar, 762. Sugar, indigo, and one or two less considerable articles, are the only tropical indigo, &c.

productions that require any great art or experience, either in the cultivation or the manufacture. As to indigo, the manufacture of it is so destructive to human life, that I would as soon think of introducing the plague into any country. But when the sugar-cane comes to be cultivated, some instruction from a person well skilled in the boiling of sugar, and the distillation of rum, will be absolutely necessary. I should think that such instruction might be obtained from some person possessing the proper qualifications, of humble prospects and a manageable disposition, who might be sent out in a subordinate ftation. In order to prevent bribery, and to intereft him in the undertaking, he should have a liberal share of the neat produce. But by no means should he be intrusted with discretionary power, in any shape; for, however low his education and condition, and however submissive he may be to white superiors, he has most probably been habituated to despise every man with a black skin, and to abuse his authority, in some land of Navery, where authority, though frequently abused, must be supported; and where the superiors on estates, though ever so well disposed, have too much on their hands to attend minutely, to the complaints of every individual slave.

the Brit. Col. in the W. Indies, where, to gratify the curiosity of European readers, the cultivation of
these articles, among others which require a far more complex process, is described. Several other
books and pamphlets contain similar descriptions. But the culture of provisions of all kinds, is rec-
koned too plain a business to require particular explanation.-By Mr. Beaver's planting and gardening
journal now before me, it appears that he was very successful in raising Indian corn, yams, ground-nuts,
pine-apples, bananas, oranges, limes, goavas and pepper. He not only raised, but dressed and eat
caffada, which is rather a delicate process. Cotton also throve with him to admiration. Yet a know.
ledge of planting cannot be added to that gentleman's other excellent qualifications. In his journal he
not only declares his total ignorance of cultivation, but shows it, by lowing several European feeds,
which could never yet be brought to thrive within the tropics; but others failed from being musty.
• Some of the natural grass, in the Savannahs, yields 4 tons of hay annually.-Long, Vol. I. p. 453.

763. Thus

763. Thus I have endeavoured to clear the way for the introduction of the sugar. Appendix. cane, the successful cultivation of which, at S. Leona, I will venture to say, I am as anxious to promote as any one member of the Company. But, in order to insure When sugar the success of that important species of agriculture, I wish it to be introduced with should be

introduced. due precaution and preparation, and prosecuted in such a manner as may improve and preserve, instead of destroying, as it has uniformly done in the W. Indies, the morals, the happiness and the lives of the poor labourers. I must, therefore, repeat my opinion, that, after the cultivation of provisions, provender, cotton, ginger, cof. fee, and perhaps some other minor staples *, shall have taken firm root, after cattle shall abound-in short after the colony shall, by the blessing of Providence, have become populous, and, in all respects vigorous and flourishing-then, it appears to me, but not before, may the cultivation of the sugar cane be safely introduced, and prosecuted by the following method pra&tisęd near Batavia, and at Bencoolen (but not in Bengal, see ø 139.)

Mr. Botham on the cultivation of a Sugar Plantation at Batavia and Bencoolen.

From Abridg. Min. Evid. before the House of Commons, 1791, p. 133. See also
Privy Council's Report, Part III.

764. “ Having been two years in the English and French W. India islands, and Cultivation of since conducted sugar estates in the E. Indies; it may be desirable to know that Sugar eftates

at Batavia, sugar, better and cheaper than that in our islands, and also arrack, are produced in the E. Indies, by the labour of free people. China, Bengal, and the coast of Malabar, produce quantities of sugar and spirits; but, as the most considerable fu. gar eftates are near Batavia, I shall explain the improved mode of conducting those estates. The proprietor is generally a rich Dutchman, who has built on it sub. Itantial works. He rents the estate (say of 300 or more acres) to a Chinese, who lives on and superintends it, and who re-lets it to free men, in parcels of 50 or 60, on condition that they shall plant it in canes for so much for every pecul, (133{lb.) of sugar produced. The superintendant colleêts people from the adjacent villages to take off his crop. One set of task-men, with their carts and buffaloes, cut the canes, carry them to the mill and grind them. A second set boil them. A third clay and basket them for market, all at so much per pecul.

765. “Thus the renter knows with certainty what every pecul will cost him. He by free lahas no unnecessary expence, for when crop is over, the talk-men go home, and, for bourers, 7 months in the year, there only remain on the estate the cane planters, preparing the next crop. By dividing the labour, it is cheaper and better done. Only clayed sugars are made at Batavia, which are equal to the best from the W. Indies, and

. So called in the West Indies, in contradistinction to Sugar,



APPENDIX. fold at 18s. per pecul. The Shabander exa&ts a dollar per pecul on all sugar ex

ported. The price of common labour is from 9 to 1od per day. But the task-men gain confiderably more; not only from extra work, but from being confidered artists in their several branches. They do not make spirits on the sugar estates; the molasses and skimmings are sent for sale to Batavia, where one distillery may buy the produce of 100 estates. Here is a vast saving in making spirits; not as in the W. Indies, a distillery for each estate. Arrack is sold at Batavia at about 8d.

per gallon; the proof of the spirit is about 5 tenths. also at Ben


“ After spending two years in the West Indies, I returned to the East in coolen.

1776, and in the last war conducted sugar works at Bencoolen, in Sumatra, on nearly the same principles as the Dutch; I confined my expences to what they had

done, allowing for the unavoidable charges, on a new and sole undertaking. Plough and o 767. “ The cane is cultivated to the utmost perfe&ion at Batavia. The hoe, almost ther imple

the sole implement of the West, is there scarcely used; the lands are well ploughed ments ulede

by a light plough with a single buffalo; a drill is then ploughed, and a person, with two baskets filled with cane plants, suspended to a stick across his shoulders, drops plants into the furrow alternately from each basket, covering them at the same time with earth with his feet. Young canes are kept often ploughed as a weeding, and, the hoc is used to weed round the plant when very young; but of this there is. little need, if the land has been sufficiently plougħed. When the cane is ready to: earth up, the space between the rows is ploughed deep, the cane-tops tied up, andi with an inftrument like a shovel, with teeth at the bottom, a spade.handle, and two cords fixed to the body of the shovel, ending by a wooden handle for a purchase, is. used by two persons to earth up the cane, the strongest holding the handle of the thovel, pressing it into the ploughed earth, while the other on the opposite side of the plant, by a jerk of the cord, draws up to the plant, all the earth that the ploughia had loosened. Two persons, with this instrument, will earth up more canes in the day than 10 negroes with hoes. The canes in India are much higher earthed than: in the West Indies; in moist foils, they, with little labour; earth them as high as,

the knee, at once making a dry bed for the cane, and a drain for the water. Nianufacture 768. “The improvement in making the cane into lugar, at Bataria, keeps pace of the Sugar, with that in its culture: evaporation being in proportion to the surface, their boilers

have as much of it as possible. The cane juice is tempered and boiled to a syrup;: it is then thrown into vats, which hold one boiling, there sprinkled with water, 10 subside its foul parts. After standing fix hours, it is let off by 3 pegs- of different heights, into a copper with one fire; it is tempered again, and reduced to sugar, by a gentle fire; it granulates, and the boiler dipping a wand into the copper, strikes it on the side, then drops the sugar remaining on it; into a cup of water, scrapes it up with his thumb nail, and can judge to a nicety of the sugar’s being properly boiled.. The vats I mentioned are placed all at the left end of a set of coppers.. After run

ning off, for boiling all that is clear, the rest is strained on the outside of the boil. Appendix. ing-house; what is fine is put into the copper for lugar, the lees kept for difilling.

769. “ Claying of sugar is as in the W. Indies. The cane trash is not, as in our islands, carried into fheds, where it loses much of its strength before it is used; but is laid out immediately to dry, then made into faggots, set up in cocks, and used. immediately when dry; hence its force of fire is much greater, and the carrying it to and from the trash-house is saved. 770

“ The culture of the cane in the West Indies is in it's infancy. Many altera- W. Indian tions are to be made, expenses, and human labour lessened; the hoe, now used to


in its infancy. turn up foils of different texture, is of one construction, cheap and very light; fo that the negro, without any help from its weight, digs up the carth, (and the cane roots, on replanting) by the severest exertion. In the East, we plough up the cane roots.Having experienced the difference of labourers for profit, and labourers from force, I can assert, that the savings by the former are very considerable.

771. “The West India planter, for his own interest, should give more labour to How to be beast, and less to man; a larger portion of his esate ought to be in pasture. When improved.. practicable, canes should be carried to the mill, and cane tops and grass to the stock, in waggons; the custom of making a hard-worked negro get a bundle of grass twico a day, abolished; and in short a total change take place of the miserable management in our West India illands. By this means following, as near as possible, the East India mode, consolidating the distilleries, I do suppose our sugar islands might be better worked than they now are, by two-thirds, or indeed one-half of the prefent force. Let it be considered, how much labour is lost by the persons overseeing the forced labourer, which is saved when he works for his own profit. I have itated, with the Arietest veracity, a plain matter of fact—that sugar estates can be worked cheaper by free persons than llaves.--Whether the slave-trade can be abolished, and the blacks freed, is for the consideration of Parliament. In my judgment, these desirable purposes, may be effected without materially injuring : the W.India planter. He has but to improve his culture, and leflen human labour, and the progeny of the prelent blacks will answer every purpose of working Welt: India estates.

772." The slaves in the French islands, appeared to be better cloathed, better fed, French neand better behaved, than in the British: and their being well fed is chiefly owing grocs better to the French planter putting a great proportion of his eltate in provisions. Whe- British, and

why. ther it might or might not be ultimately for the interest of the British planter, and the benefit of his flaves, if he were to allot to provisions, more of the land now destined to sugar, is a question that can only be decided by experiment in the diffe. rent islands, as the same answer to it would not suit each. In islands that seldom fail in rains, it is no doubt for the planter's intereft, to facrifice a part of the


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