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ation, mentions C. Mesurado, C. Monte, Rio Sherbro and Bance Island, in Sierra APPENDIX. · Leona river. “ Treatise on the Utility of Commerce and Colonization in both the
Indies and in Africa, Stockholm, 1776."-Sir Geo. Young of the Navy has a good opinion of the climate of S. Leona, especially (like Dr. Lind) of the higher grounds; and, before the black poor failed in 1787, he gave Capt. Thompson, of His Majesty's floop Nautilus, particular directions where to place the town.-That excellent man, Mr. Harry Gandy of Bristol, who made two voyages to S. Leona, where he re. mained a considerable time, writes thus: “Gambia is a much deeper river, yet for want of a harbour near the sea and good water, it is, on these accounts, rather inconvenient; and, though fome other parts of the coast may justly boaft of their several beauties; richness and fertility, yet, for want of a good river, a safe harbour and fine water, they can, for colonies, by no means stand in competition with Sierra Leona ; which has also this concomitant advantage, beyond a leeward situation, or any near the line, that being so far to windward, a passage from thence, (viz. S. Leona,) to England, might be made in half the time that is commonly done from the Gold and Slave Coafts.” See his letter of the 3d Dec. 1788, in the N. Jerusalem Mag. No. IV.
- See also the opinion of Mr. Woodin in Note B.-Thus it appears, that the gentlemen concerned had very good reasons for chusing S. Leona as a proper place for a new colony; for it is natural to suppose, they consulted most of the above authorities, and perhaps others which I may not have seen. But unfortunately, the intem. perance of many of the first colonists, and the hardships suffered by them all, froin the want of proper shelter and food, were such as no human constitutions could with. ftand, in any climate whatsoever.
NOTE F. See 343. 694. The most useful products of that portion of Africa which I have included in the map, as the best adapted for colonization, have been already enumerated. S. Leona is a part of that tract of country; and an abridgement of those paragraphs of the report which describe it's productions, would be little else than a repetition of all or most of the contents of the fifth chapter, to which, therefore, I beg leave to refer the reader - also to Note B B.
NOTE G. See § 33'5. 695. The blacks living in London are generally profligate, because uninstructed, Causes of the and vitiated by slavery: for many of them were once llaves of the most worthless profligacy of description, namely the idle and superfluous domestic, and the gamblers and thieves London. who infeft the towns in the W. Indies. There are severe laws against carrying, or enticing, slaves from the Islands, without the knowledge of their owners. Yet some of those fellows contrive to conceal themselves, or are concealed by others on board ships on the point of failing; a better sort come to attend children and fick
persons on board, and others are brought by their masters, in the way of parade. Many of
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APPENDIX. them, naturally enough, but perhaps without fufficient reflection, prefer “a cruft of
bread and liberty," in Old England, to ease, plenty and Navery in the W. Indies, For, excepting the too frequent excelles of capricious, tyrannical, or drunken owners, the treatment of such saves is as good as that of the truly useful field-negroes is bad. In London, being friendless and despised, on account of their complexion, and too many of them being really incapable of any useful occupation, they sink into abject poverty, and soon become St. Giles's black-birds. Unhappily most of the first colonists of S. Leona, complearly answered this description, before they embarked; though their original circumstances were different. (See note A.) The Directors, therefore, did right in rejecting a new embarkation of such London blacks; and it is to be hoped, they will always adhere to their resolution of ftri&tly examining the characters of those, of whatever complexion, whom they send out as colonists. See | 127, et seq. and, above all, I 301.
Note H. See ( 362. First terms
696. The Directors also published a paper entitled “Terms of the Sierra Leona offered to co- Company, to all such Settlers as shall fail from England, within three months from S. Leona Co. the date hereof, in order to go to Sierra Leona." Of this paper, which is dated
Nov. 3d, 1791, it does not seem necessary to give more than an abridgment, which
(1.) “ Each settler to have twenty acres of land for himself, ten for his wife, and five for every child.” Mines, &c. reserved for the Company.
(2.) * No rent on the land to be charged till midsummer 1792. A quit-rent of one shilling per acre to be then paid for two years. A tax, not exceeding two per cent on the produce, to be chargeable for the next three years, and afterwards a tax of four per cent." (See Ø 193.)
(3.) “ A settler, by depofiting fifty pounds for each ten acres, may have, besides his own proper lot, as far as forty additional acres, and shall have stores from the Company to the amount of his deposit."
(4.) “ Every such settler to be carried out at the Company's expense. To have three months allowance of provisions, and three month's half allowance, and baggage, if less than one ton, to be carried free of freight."
(5.) “ Lots to be forfeited, except those of women and children, if one-third is not cleared in two years, and two-thirds in three years. The clearing of lots of women and children, must, after three years, be proceeded upon, according to the same rate of progress.”
(6.) “ No one to buy more than 20 acres, in the town diftri&t, till three-fourths of his land is cleared."
(7.) - Settlers to give £ 50 security for their passage, and to be allowed there. upon, to borrow £ 30 worth of goods, from the Company's stores."
(8.) “ Passage-money out never to be called for, if the settler stays 12 months, Appendix. nor palTage money home, if the settler or his wife is obliged to return on account of health."
(9.) “ The settler may pay £ 50 in money, if he pleases, instead of giving a joint bond for it: the £ 50 so paid, to be returned him at the end of one year.”
(10.) “ Bond, or payment of £ 50 to be dispensed with in the case of artificers and husbandmen well recommended, and in similar cases, at the discretion of the Di. rectors."
(11.) “ Houses to be built by the Company, each settler paying ten per cent tent, or purchafing his house at prime coit.”
(12.) “ Settlers to assist jointly in clearing the ground for the town, or to pay a commutation in money."
(13.) “ The Company to sell goods to the settlers at a profit of 10 per cent."
(14.) “ The Company to buy the produce of the settlers, or to convey it for them at 21 per cent commission, and customary charges, giving them a credit for twothirds of the value."
(15.) “ No duty on articles imported or exported, ever to exceed 21 per cent.”
NOTE I. See 369 697. It gives me no small fatisfaction to find that some attention has been paid to these my very able and worthy countrymen; especially as I had the honour to intro. duce them both, as well as the late Mr. Strand, another Swede, to the acquaintance of some of the Directors; and this I did at their own particular desire. Mr. Nor. denskiold and Mr. Strand, while they lived, did the credit I expected, to the chara&ter given of them, a character which Mr. Afzelius still supports, with honour to himself and satisfa&tion to the Company.
NOTE K. See $ 370. 698. In the very outset, the whole undertaking at Sierra Leona was in great Danger of danger of being ruined by the secret efforts of llave-merchants, and slave-hold- enemies to the ers, to get their friends into the Direction. Had they succeeded, they would ing Directors, doubtless have proceeded in a manner very analogous to the too common practice of Mortgagees-in-possession of West Indian estates, and who frequently reside in England. Such a gentleman, by means of a proper agent, has perhaps buildings erected which are not immediately necessary, and, in short, increasing expense by various methods which I have not room to detail, at the same time, neglecting the crops, he, in a few years, makes an estate his own; while the unfortunate owner, in an island perhaps where few of the residing planters can help one another, hath not the means of contending at law with his powerful oppressor, nor even dares to mur. mur, for fear of exasperating him and making things worse. By such arts, are most
APPENDIX. of the suddenly overgrown West Indian fortunes accumulated. By similar means,
would W. Indian Directors have conducted the affairs of the S. Leona Company. They would have appointed proper agents, to make a feint of cultivation and com
These agents would have designedly failed'; and yet would have made it appear, perhaps by witnesses examined on oath, (lee 185,) that they had in vain
exhausted all their ingenuity and industry in the service. to be avoided 699. In order, therefore, to exclude for ever all sorts of enemies to this establishby giving the colonists a
ment, enlightened and industrious colonists should be encouraged to go out, and be Thare in the allowed to take part in their government, and to give their votes at the election of government.
the Directors. For annual elections, by the subscribers independent of the colonills, as practised at present, expose the undertaking more or less, at every new election, lo the machinations of it's enemies, who, in spite of every precaution, may fucceed at last, and then the ruin of the colony will be sealed. The present system lodges the whole power in the Directors, who reside in Europe, and whose orders the Governor and Council in the colony are bound to obey. The colonists can only petition of remonstrate; and remonftrances are commonly generated in, and seldom fail to in. crease, ill humour. Having no other means of defence against incroachment and oppression, it appears to me, that the colonists must inevitably be ruined or crushed, if ever a majority of the Directors, (which Heaven avert!) should be ignorant of, or adverse to, their real interests. But in my humble opinion, some such conftitution as I proposed at §. 181 et seq. would have greatly tended to secure the colony from such serious dangers. Indeed, when I consider, that, besides the dangers just mentioned, the present Directors may be removed by death and other causes, and that it is possible, they may be succeeded by persons less disposed, or less qualified, to watch over and promote the interests of the colony-I say, when I consider these circumstances, I certainly do wish, and even hope, that the colonists may obtain the exercise of the un. doubted right of every free community, to elect their own government; and that this government and the Court of Directors may be incorporated into one body. For, as the interests of the colonists and subscribers, are, or ought to be, the same, their representatives ought not to be separated. See § 181, 182, 183.
NOTE L. See & 374. Ull usage of 700. I have already mentioned that, at the peace of 1783, many white. and black Ameri- black American loyalists were conveyed to G. Britain, the Bahamas, and Nova can loyalists.
Scotia. A few also went to Jamaica and other W. Indian islands; and, I believe some to Canada, and other places. The fate of the blacks: who came to England, has been noticed, (Append. Note B.) Their brethren in the Bahamas fared far worse. The laws of those Islands, like the other slave-laws, presume all blacks to be flaves, unless they can prove the contrary, and admit not their evidence against white men. Hence free. blacks are very often reduced to slavery, especially in the
more extensive colonies, by unprincipled whites; for such have only to fwear to APPENDIX. their property
negro, who cannot produce formal proof of his freedom, and he becomes ipfo fa&to the slave of the swearer. Two very notorious instances of this practice, in Jamaica, one of them in the case of the wife and children of a Iniquitously free black loyalist, from Carolina, were stated in evidence to the House of Com- reduced to slamons, by Capt. Giles of the 19th regiment of foot, who humanely interfered, and succeeded in a public trial, attended with much trouble and expense, the greater part of which, by the way, I am well informed, he never was repaid. In the other case, Major Nesbit of the same regiment, after a similar trial, delivered a free woman from a white villain who had seized her as his slave. And, but for the interpofion of those worthy officers, these women and children, though really free; would, like many other free blacks, have been retained in slavery. (Min. Evid. 1791, p. 105.)
701. In Bahama this iniquity was practised by the white loyalists against the black ones, to such a degree, that the late worthy Governor Maxwell was obliged to take public notice of it, a lep which rendered him extremely unpopular, among the guilty, and was ultimately ineffe&tual. The white loyalists carried the same disposition with them to Nova Scotia ; but I have not specifically learnt that they proceeded to such flagrant excesses. The dispoption, however, they certainly showed, and even indulged, to a certain extent. In particular, they in several instances, deprived the blacks of the houses they had built, and the lands they had cleared; and, at last removed many of them to an inhospitable part of that inhospitable country, so very distant from any market, that it was impracticable for them to sell their produce, and to procure necessaries. In short, a Chief Justice declared publicly from the bench, That the climate of Nova Scotia was too cold for whites to subsist there without the help of slaves,-a very significant hint to the blacks, what they were to expect. The fact is, that men who have once been suffered to indulge in the practice of flavery, must still have slaves. The W. Indian islands are too hot, and Nova Scotia too cold, for them to do without auxiliaries, whom the pride and laziness. generated by flavery, have rendered necessary to their very existence.
702. Among other writers, Montesquieu, in his Spirit of Laws, and Dr. Franklin, Slavery everin his Thoughts on the peopling of Countries, have noticed the tendency of flavery to vates and corvitiate the minds of masters, as well as slaves. I have been seriously assured, that it is common in the W. Indies to describe the distrefs of a ruined planter by saying, " Poor man he has but one negro left to bring him a pail of water," an expression which, in the phraseology of that country, signifies the deepest distress. And in deed it must be no fmall hardship to be suddenly deprived of the attendance of 20 domestic llaves, or even double the number, who, Mr. Long assures us, are not un. ufual in a Jamaica family. Hift. of Jam. Vol. II. p. 281. By comparing account No. 3 in the Privy Council's Report, Part IV. with the Report or Answers of the Barbadoes Allembly, we find that on an average, every white man, woman and