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Capt. T.

Appendix. huts of the colonists were neither wind nor water-tight, which increased the mor

tality so much that, though in June only 9 died, no fewer than 42 were carried off
in July. Such was the general distress and indolence, that the remaining tranfport,
which had in the greatest quantity of stores, was not cleared and ready to sail till the

2ift of August.
Necesity o 682. Her departure brought the colonists to some sense of their condition ; for
bliges the co-
lonilts to

they then plainly saw that, without exertion, they must inevitably perish, when plant, their present stock of provisions should be exhausted. In the intervals of fair

weather, therefore, they began to plant rice, Indian corn, &c. which throve very
well. Stock was very scarce and dear; yet some of them had poultry in their
yards, which they had brought with their spare cloaths, &c. and others had saved a
a part of their weekly allowance of provisions; for several individuais had all along

been industrious and temperate.
Provisions &c. 683. By the13th of Sep. the provisions, the clothing, tools, &c. were entirely
finally served

served out to the colonists, and, on that day, the arms and ammunition were sent on
shore. From the mortality which had taken place, there remained several surplus
articles which Capt. Thompson stored on shore as public property, for the benefit
of the community.

684. On the 16th of Sep. (1787) Capt. Thompson, in the Nautilus, failed from leaves S: Les the colony, which mortality and desertion, chiefly the former, had reduced to 276 reduced to 276 persons, namely 2 12 black men, 30 black women, 5 white men and

29 white wo men. Capt. Thompson having witnessed the reformation which the failing of the transports and the approach of his own departure had wrought in the poor people, was not without hopes of their final success; for he considered that the survivors were then seasoned to the climate, and that necessity would oblige them to plant

the ground and to build comfortable houses in the approaching dry feason. But, by Capt. 685. Most of the above particulars are extracted from the journal of Mr. T. D. T's care,

Woodin, kept on board the Nautilus; and some of the most material of them were
Nip loft but

confirmed by Capt. Thompson, in his evidence before the H. of Commons
(Minutes of Evidence on the slave-trade 1790, p. 171.) It is a remarkable fact,
that the Nautilus, surrounded as she was by the ravages of death, for above 4
months, loft only one man, the rest of the ship’s company enjoying perfect health,
though confined entirely to falt provisions, and on a station where a flave-ship would
most probably have lost the greater part of her crew. This circumstance muft fure-
ly be admitted as a proof, not only of Capt. T's prudent care, but that the mortality
on shore was not so much owing to the climate, as to want of shelter, and to intem-
perance which had debilitated many of the poor wretches, long before they saw S.

Leona. This, however, is far from being the only instance of King's fhips being
Bad water.

perfectly healthy on the coast of Africa (see $78.)--Mr. Woodin mentions bad water
as a frequent cause of disease on the coast, and affirms that, in two former voyages he


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one man.


The healthy, but

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made, “ the water lower down the coast, gave the people Guinea-worms, some of Appendix. which did not appear out of the flesh for 8 months after leaving Africa. These, continues he, “ the company of the Nautilus were not troubled with, and is a con. vincing proof that S. Leona is the most eligible situation on the coast for a setile. ment, having plenty of wood and excellent water." (See $ 52.)

686. In March, 1788, the Rev. Mr. Frazer returned, on account of ill health. Be. In Mar. 1788, fore his departure, many of the colonists had sold their muskets, &c. for rum, fickness had entirely ceased: but so many had emigrated to the slave-factories, &c, many hademin

grated. as to reduce the number of the colonists to 130, whom he left in perfect health, he himself having been then, the only fick person among them. The emigration he attributed partly to the fickleness of the people, and partly to the trant of live fock, which even the more industrigus, who remained, were too poor to purchase.

687. In May 1788, Mr. Granville Sharp chartered a veisel of 160 tons, at liis own Mr. Sharp expense, in which he shipped two months provisions for 50 persons who had en

to relicve the gaged to go out, with cloathing, arms, tools, &c, and a sum of money to buy live colony; stock on the coast. On Mr. Sharp's application, Government furnished £ 200 Ner. more, for the purchase of hock. On the 6th of June, the vessels failed with 29 persons on board, the rest having deserted. The vessel touched at St. Jago, one of the Cape de Verd Islands, and did not arrive at S. Leona till the 6th of Aug. But the captain, who was also the owner of the vessel, took in no live stock at Saint Jago, or any where else; but, contrary to his own express contract, he delivered to the colo. nists goods to the value of a certain number of cattle. Those goods he doubtless car- but the capried out with hïm from England, in the way of a job, a species of frugality which the

tain deceives

him. captain certainly had as good a right to practise as any other man. He appears indeed to have made a profitable job of this whole business. My reasons for saying so are, ift, His being owner, as well as captain, of this chartered vessel. 2dly, The unconscionable length of his voyage outwards. 3dly, His having goods ready, cut and dry, to deliver in lieu of cattle ; for it is not likely that he carried those goods from England for any other purpose, as he well knew the poor colonists were unable

for them. 4thly, Part of the money intrusted to him was Government-money, which was alone a strong temptation to a job. 5thly, I have heard persons of strict veracity, well acquainted with this whole business, declare that Capt. T-l.r acted as

Thus did an unprincipled fellow dare to frustrate the benevolent intentions, not only of Mr. Sharp, but of the British Government itself.— I have been well informed that this expedition alone coft Mr. Sharp between 5 and £600 ster. exclusive of the £ 200 given by Government, and of 150 guineas, sent him by a worthy person whose name, if I could discover it, should accompany that of his friend; for, I think, all such examples ought to be made public, for the imitation of the rich, and the consequent comfort of the poor. Mr. Sharp, I know, is of a different opinion; but, from the nature of the transactions, his generofuy, on this and similar


to pay


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APPENDIX. occasions, could not be concealed: and, indeed, I knew most of the circumstances of

this expedition, at the time, having been often on board the vessel, while the lay in

the Thames, and having taken care to inform myself of the result of this business. Many colo

688. By a letter from Mr. Weaver, the Chief Magistrate, dated S, Leona April 23d, niftsemigrate, 1788, which arrived after Capt. T—-r had failed, it appeared that most of the colo2 fold as llaves. Man nists had then emigrated, some to the slave-factories, and others on board llave-lhips; of war ordered to call at S.

also that King Tom, presuming on the weakness of the remainder (whose numbers Mr. Leona.

Weaver did not specify) had sold two of them for slaves, and threatened to sell more. The surgeons and other whites, tempted by large salaries, had entered into the ser. vice of the slave-merchants, at the neighbouring factories. This disagreeable intel. ligence, Mr. Sharp immediately communicated, by letter, to Mr. Pitt, requesting that directions might be given to the captain of the ship of war, then under orders for the coast, to represent to King Tom the impropriety of his behaviour, and to secure the people from farther injury. Orders to this effe & were accordingly given to the captain.—But I am sorry that the want of materials prevents me from pur

suing this narrative. St. George's 689. I think, however, I ought not to omit that, previous to the incorporation of the berwards in present S. Leona Company of A&t of Parliament, in 1791, a number of gentlemen, corporated in- anxious to promote the civilization of Africa, which, from the Report of the British

Privy Council, seemed very practicable, and to collect the surviving, and really most Co.

deserving colonists, had associated, under the name of “the St. George's Bay Company.” Of the minute made at their first meeting, the following is a copy.

690." At a meeting of the Gentlemen disposed to encourage a free trade to St. George's Harbour, on the coast of Africa, held this 17th of Feb. 1790.

Mr. Alderman Clark, in the chair, Mr. Pritzler,
Mr. Granville Sharp,

Mr. R. Hunter, (per proxy,)
Mr. Hardcastle,

Mr. Rayner,
Mr. H. Thornton,

Mr. Ludlam,
Mr. W. Sharp,

Mr. Whitbread,
Mr. Corsbie,

Mr. Sansom,
Mr. Geo. Sharp,

Mr. W. Moore.

Members absent,
Mr. Heyman,

Mr. Shaw,
Mr. Wilberforce,

Mr. J. Philips,
Mr. Alderman Le Mesurier,

Mr. Vickeris Taylor*.
Mr. Morland,

to S. Leona

* Several of the above gentlemen were chosen Directors of the S. Leona Company, ok. 19th 1791. (See 333.) Indeed the S. Leona Co. was formed out of the St. George's Bay Co, or rather, it is the same association, incorporated (for 31 years) under a different name.


( 1.) “ RESOLVED, That the erection of a Company, for the purpose of opening APPENDIX.

and establishing a trade in the natural productions of Africa, to the Free Settle; ment in St. George's Harbour, is a measure highly proper." (2.) “ RESOLVED, that the thanks of the Meeting be given to Mr. Sharp, for the

pains he has taken in the business: and he is hereby requested to take to his assiste Resolutionş.

ance, such professional and other advice, as he may find necessary to the project.”
“ In case the proposed establishment should take place, we agree to take the shares of
£ 50 each, set down against our respective names.

Granville Sharp

Philip Şansom
W. Sharp

William Moore
R. Clark

.. 2 Jos. Reyner
W. Wilberforce, Esq. (by letter, W. Long, for Robert Hunter
shares not specified.)

Mr. Pritzler (per W. Ludlam)
S. Whitbread

.. 4

W. Ludlam
H. Thornton

Ab. Harman (per Mr. Whitbread) 2
Jos, Hardcastle

H. Heyman (by letter) Jof. Corbie

Geo. Sharp “ These undermentioned gentlemen were not present; but they have signified their desire to subscribe, viz. Mr. Alderman Le Mesurier, W. Morland, Esq. Mr. J. Phillips, Mr. Jo. Shaw, and Mr. Vickeris Taylor."










Note C. See 335, 473. 691. The circumstances attending the breaking up of the first colony at S. Leona, Situation of in Nov. 1789, are stated in the second report of the Directors, (see ) 473.)—The the colonifts, colonists having lost their houses and their little property, took immediate refuge in dispersion. Bob's Ifland, belonging to the factory at Bance Island, where, however, they do not appear to have remained long. Mr. Alex. Kennedy, in a letter" to the St. George's Bay Company,” dated Bance INand, Feb. gth, 1791, writes thus concerning them. “ Some settlers paid me a visit last week. When I gave them Mr. Granville Sharp's letter, they seemed very much overjoyed; and the thoughts of not being forgot in England seemed to give new life to them. About 50 of them live at Pa Boson's, about 12 miles above Bance Iland, and a few live and sometimes work on Bance Island. The others are scattered up and down the country. I cannot get any exact account how many

there are, &c. I have been up where they live, and I understand, the chief, Pa Bofon, expects a considerable present for the time they have been living with him. They bear a very bad character among the slave-mera chants here; but I am rather apt to believe it is not so bad as they say; for I saw, every thing very regular; and they have a kind of church where they say prayers every Sunday, and sing the psalms very well. . I attended, when there, personally, with such of my people as were with me, and they all seemed to pay great attention.'




APPENDIX. -Without obtruding my own reasonings concerning their character, I cannot help

observing, that such an account of them as the foregoing might naturally be expected, after repeated calamities had carried off the incorrigibly vicious and improvident, and doubtless had also improved the survivors. Besides, strong necessity would at length effe&tually recommend the examples of those who had all along been regular and induftrious.

Mr. Falcon bridge fixes them at Gran. ville town.

Note D. See 5 336. 692. At the palaver held on this occasion, Mr. Falconbridge, in behalf of the St. George's Bay Company, repurchased, from King Naimbanna, and the subordinate chiefs, for goods worth about £ 30 fter. all the land which had formerly been pur.

chased by Capt. Thompfon. But it was agreed that the colonists should not build on the former spot. Mr. F. therefore took possession of a village, consisting of 15 or 16 good huts, which the natives had recently abandoned, from a notion of it's being haunted;

; and he rightly thought that their superftitious fears would tend to prevent their hostile attempts, especially in the night. In about 4 weeks, he erected some additional huts, and a house in which he deposited the stores and ammunition he had brought out for the relief of the colonists. But, not trusting to the honour of the natives of the place, he regularly appointed a guard every night. This new village he named Granville Town, in honour of it's benefactor Granville Sharp, Esq.

Note E. See 5 337, 367. Accounts of 693. Lieut. Matthews is not the only author who has given a favourable opinion the climate of of the climate of S. Leona.--Old Purchas (Vol. I. p. 44.) gave a good account of that S. Leona.

place, from the observations of a Mr. Finch, made in 1607.-In Ogilby's Africa, printed in 1670, we read that “Serre Lions, according to Jarrick, many take for the healthfullest place in all Guinea,” and that “the air is better for a man's health, than, in many places of Europe, &c."" We shall only mention," says Dr. Lind, " the high hills of S. Leona, upon whose summits the air is clear and serene, while thick mists and noisome vapours overspread the lower grounds: yet, even at this place, the English inhabit a low valley, merely for the benefit of a spring of good water, the carriage of which, to any part of that hill, might be easily performed by Aaves," (Dif, of hot Clim. p. 198.)-And if by Naves, why not by freemen, espe. cially blacks ? for I do not believe that the Doctor would have recommended any labour that could injure either freemen or slaves. Is it not probable that the bene. fit of trade (which the Doctor alludes to as the cause of the unhealthful ftuations of " trading factories,” (see $ 75,) may have partly di&tated this most absurd and pernicious choice of the English residing, in his time, at Sierra Leona? And may we not bope that fuch preference of trade to health, is now at an end, in that river 1-But farther: Mr. U. Nordenskiold, brother of the gentleman of that name who latety died at S. Leona, among other places in Africa proper for coloniz

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