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Appendix. hath pleased God to assign me, as well as with the King's revenues, Nor shall I
wholly, or fully, discover the vast proportion of gold I discovered there, being so
much, not fit to be communicated to paper, as not knowing to whose eyes, or The quantity through whose hands this may come. I shall only tell you, I was more troubled to of gold great. obscure its abundance from my fellows, than to bring down what I got; and I am con
fident, that if yourself go upon this design, and follow the directions of my journal, and attain your purpose, you yourself will be of my opinion; for, as it is said, “what will the whole world profit a man, if he lose his soul?" so I say, what will the riches of both the Indies advantage, if thereby you forfeit your security, life, and freedom ? And how will you be assured of any of these, if these things should come to knowledge of such as have power of you, and to command you in what they please: that I do truly tell you, did I not value my own peace and quiet at so high a rate as I do, I should come willingly, and manifest it to his Sacred Majesty; though I am not satisfied in that neither, as not knowing whether the information may prove good or bad to the public; however, I conjure you a-new, that, whatever
you attempt, you conceal me, so that directly or indirectly I be not discovered. Directions re 652. “ If you go on the business, let your boat be flat-bottomed, for mine being 1pecting the boat and
some seven tons, or thereabout, and made after the common fashion, was extremely apparatus. troublesome, both at fords and at falls, where we were forced to unlade her; and
having unladed her, to heave her, or launch her over land: you ought also to have a little boat for common use, which you will find extreme useful. You advised me to take 20 pounds of quicksilver, for trials; if you go, take at least 100 pounds, for some in working will be lost, as you know better than myself: your advice also, for 50 pounds of lead, is too little, take 150 pounds, much more you cannot well carry, for the peftering of your boat.
653. “ The Sal Armoniac I used little of, for it I can give you no advice : the Borax I used all, wished for more, if you go, carry 50 pounds; my fand ever did me rare service, I used it all, better have 10 pounds too much than too little, therefore take 40 pounds. I am confident, if I had carried the philosophers bellows, I had done very well; I was so troubled with fitting the other, though I confess them better when a-new placed. Antimonia Horn did me little service; I believe it rather from my ignorance, or wanting the perfect use and instruction you gave me, Ingots I would take two, I carried but one, I wanted another for expedition. Wedges 12, with a fledge or two, or beetle; for about 12 English miles from the first fall, or somewhat more to the southward, in the side of a barren rock, looking west. ward, there is a cliff in the rock, rather
most rich between the stones, almost half a handful thick in some places. Our pick-axes did here stand us in no great stead, but having with us some iron tools, that we could hardly spare, with much ado made a scurvy iron wedge, and presently we found the benefit of that, for some 12 or 14 days, till improvidently one of us driving the
wedge up to the head, and not having another to relieve it, we were forced to leave Appendix. it behind us, to our great loss and grief. Wooden bowls from England, six or eight, are very necessary, and will do better than gourds, that I was forced to make use of; you may take store of them, it is no sore.
654." “ For the crucibles I must inform, that four large melting pots, in our large work, will stead you much, and make better dispatch than six nefts of crucibles; though you cannot well spare those, I was forced to make use of a broken earthen pot, that I carried along with me; I made use of it till it broke, had I had crucibles, and pois enough, I had brought so much gold in sand or Tyber.
655." For the separating and dissolving waters, I used but little, because their use was troublesome, neither had I conveniencies to erect a ftill a-shore; but for the Aqua Regis I used it all, and could have done more, if I had had it; yet, in my opinion, the trials of quicksilver are better, had I had it. But I carry coals to Newcastle ; you know better the operation than myself. Let your mortar be of iron, and large ; I wish I had followed your directions in that, for my brass one put me to a double trouble, and I was enforced to leave the refining of much, till I came into England, for the Mercury got a spurca from thence, which is communicated to my gold, which no art, I understand, could free it from; in this particular you left me lame, or my memory much failed.
656." There is a tree much like our cornels in England, but very large, which we The writer felled, and made a shift to make charcoal of, which we did thus; we cut off the makes char
coal. boughs, for we wanted a saw, and therefore could not meddle with the body of the tree, and cut them into short pieces; then we digged a good large pit, or hole in the ground, about a yard wide, and so deep, or deeper; in the bottom we kindled a fire, and filled it with wood, and when it was well burned, threw earth upon it, and damped it; and when it was cold, we took out the coals: you will easily find the place, if you observe but the cautions; you will come to a broad gathering together of waters, not much inferior to Ronnander Meer, in the edge of Lancashire: here we spent a week in searching many creeks and in-falls of rivers; but we followed that which points
Marks to find south east and by eaft. My miserable ignorance, in the mathematics, cannot direct the place. you, neither for longitude or latitude. Up the buffing stream, with fad labour, we wrought, and sometimes could not go above two miles in a day. You must pass. the first fall; yet there my exceed of gold was 47 grains from 10 pounds of sand. When we, or you come to the upper fall, you will be much troubled, I believe, as well as I, to get your boat over land; but being up, proceed till you come to the infall of a small stream to the south, directly thence liften, and you shall hear a fall of waters; you cannot get your boat thither, by reason of the smallness of the brook; you will there find our reliques on the side of the rock, with many of our names, I mean, letters of our names, cut with our knives. Here, though the sand, by the wash, yield plentifully, yet do you ascend the top of the rock, and, pointing your
Appendix. face dire&tly west, you will observe a snug of rocks somewhat to the left hand of
you; and, under that, if the rains and force of weather have not washed away the earth and stones, you will discover (they being unmoved) the mouth of the mine itself; where being provided with materials fit for that work, you will not desire to proceed any further, or with a richer vein.
657.“ Take this, all along, for a constant rule, which I, in my search, observed up the river, that in the low, and woody and fertile country, I could never find either metal or rich mine, but always among barren rocks and mountainous countries, and commonly accompanied with a reddish kind of earth. Other instructions I shall not give you, being (as I conceive) a thing needless to you, unless I should return you your own principal, this being but only the interest of what is due, besides that obligation which tieth me unalterably to remain, &c.
Crew & cargo
658. “ I began my voyage up the river, December the 4th, about two hours before the sun set; in my company no more than seven men, besides myself, all English, and four blacks, whereof one was a Maribuck, who, being acquainted with the Portugal language, I intended for an interpreter, if I should stand in need; but the main was, to help us in our labour against the stream. My provisions were chiefly of two forts : for my voyage and for accommodation, three barrels of beef, ten gammons of bacon, two barrels of white salt, besides bay falt for trade; also two hogsheads of biscuit, besides rice; half a barrel of gunpowder, and shot proportion. able; strong-water, vinegar, paper, beads, looking-glasses, knives 18d. per dozen, some iron, little brass chains, pewter rings, and a deal of such like stuff, as occasion permitted: the other sort of provisions were a pair of goldsmith's bellows, crucibles four nests, scarnelles two nests, quicksilver, borax, sal-armoniac, aqua regis, aqua fortis, a mortar and pestle, and leather skins to strain, brass scoops and ladles with long handles, to take up fand, and other implements for my private design : all which had laden my boat far deeper than I desired; for thereby I drew much water, which, I was jealous, might hinder our progress over the flats, if we should meet with any.
659. “ December the 7th, we arrived near Settico, being 14 or 15 leagues above where our men staid; but passed one half league further up where we anchored, the river there being broad, we always chusing the middle, as being freest from dif
turbance, though it oft fell out otherwise; for our ugly neighbours, I mean the sea. Sea-horses and horses and crocodiles (it seems) ill pleased, or unacquainted with any co-partners crocodiles
in these watery regions, did often disturb us in the night, not only with their ugly, troublesome,
noiles, but their vicinity to our very boats, which caused us to keep watch.
660.“ December the 23d, we were much troubled that day with getting over a flat, under the wash of a steep and high mountain bearing south. Here I first put in practice my design, and took up some sand at the first trial of the ford, and out of
five pound weight of that fand, got three or four grains of gold. I tried also in Appendix. another place of the same ford, but did get
less. I saw neither town, nor houses, nor people, since we left Baracunda.
661.“ January the 14th, at a ford between two high mountains, I tried again; and out of ten pounds weight of sand, I washed 30 grains of gold. I made a trial likewise with mercury, and found out of five pounds, 47 grains. Here my hopes in- 47gr.gold creased, yet resolved to try higher.
from 5lb. sand 662. “ January the 27th, we were much troubled with great trees that lay in the water upon the side of a rock, on a craggy, barren mountain adjoining. I ascended, with three men with me, to make discovery; and carrying a pick-axe with me, which, as we were digging up a piece of ore, as I conceived, we were assaulted with an incredible number of monstrous great baboons; whom, no oratory, but our guns, could persuade to let us retreat to our boats; for, having killed two or three of them, so incensed the reft, that had not the report of our guns terrified them, I verily believe they would have torn us to pieces: having attained our boat, I fell to try my ore; which proved but a sparre.
663.“ February the 6th, I made a trial of a certain glittering sand, which I took up from the side of a rock, the river here inclining fouthward, with a sudden turning like an elbow. The wash of this, afforded 41 grains from 10 pounds weight of fand: 41gr. from by other trials, from five pounds weight of fand, 57 grains. Here I thought to make a stand; yet, upon more serious advice, had resolved to proceed.
664. “ February the 15th at night, a sea-horse ftruck our boat through with one of his teeth, which troubled us fore, being all bad carpenters; which caused us to unload her on a small pinnacle to mend her; and, to prevent the like mischief for the future, I invented this device, to hang a lanthorn at our ftern; and thereby we were freed from all after-troubles of that nature, they not daring to come within three or four boats length of light shining in the water.
665. “ February the 24th, I tried the use of Virga Divina, upon a high, barren and Virga Divina rocky mountain : but, whether it afforded no metal, or whether my rod, being cut in England, and being dried and carried far by fea, had lost it's virtue; or whether it hath no such quality (which I rather believe) I am not certain. However, my companions laughed me out of the conceit.
666.“ March the 16th, between two mountainous rocks issued a creek; and, putting up therein, discovered a fall of waters from the south of the river. Here, making trial by the way, I found 63 grains of gold from five pounds weight of sand. 63gr. from Other trials, more exact, afforded very large proportions; so that here we spent 20
slb. days; and, plying hard our work, in that time had gotten 12 pounds Troy, five 5 oz. gold got
in 20 days. ounces, two penny-weights, 15 grains, of good gold.
667. “ March the 31st, our materials waiting apace, I was willing to try further, here beginning our greatest toil; for, often in a day, we were constrained to strip our
10lb. from sib.
Appendix. felves, and leap into water, with main strength to force our boats and the flats.
Nor was this our greatest affliction; for the river water smells so sweet and musky, River shallow, that we could not drink of it, nor dress our meat with it; and, as we conceive, by water bad.
reason of the abundance of crocodiles, which have the same scent.
668. “ April the 7th, we perceived the in-fall of a small river south, the current quick, the land all rocky and mountainous, and, in the silence of the night, could hear the noise, perfectly, of a great fall of waters; and before the mouth of it, anchored that night.
669. “In the morning, into that we put, and came as near the fall as we well could. Our water failed; but our indefatigable industry overcame all difficulties; for, what I could not by water, I did attempt by land: where arriving, I found the long expected end of our most toilsome and long voyage; for, I believe, never any boat,
nor any Christians, have been so high in that river, as we. Here, upon the first Gold in an trial I made, the exceed of gold was so much, that I was surprised with joy and astonishing
admiration: however, here I was resolved to lay down my staff; and to that end, quantity. the firft thing I did, was to go
the boat; and, about a league and a half thence, I found wood. Here we practised to turn colliers, and laded our small boat with as much as she could well carry back; we went and fell to work, for which I hope (to God alone be praise) none of the company hath cause to repent, for the great pains and labour he took, though we chose the worst time of the year almost, the waters being then at the very loweft; but had we gone immediately after the rains, which is June, July and August, or before the waters were fallen so low, we had been free from much of that trouble, at fords and falls, by having water enough to carry us over.
“ At the end of the paper are these words. “ Transcribed verbatim from a paper manuscript, lent me by Mr. Fr. Lodwick, O&ob. 2, 1693, by
R. Hook." “ This paper (which I have here published exactly as I found it) I not long since lent to a person of great quality, for the service of the African Company (then setting out for an expedition into those parts) and I hope it hath, or will prove as much for their benefit, as my wishes are. seems to have been written by one that had gotten great riches, in King Charles the IId's time, by his progress up the river Gambay: and his descriptions of the openings, and turnings of the Gambay, the inlets of other rivers into it, the adjacent mountains, &c. may be a good guide to undertakers, how to find out the place, where our author met with gold, even to satiety. Who he was, can scarce be known, he conjuring his friend, Mr. Lodwick (to whom I conceive this letter was addressed) to the greatest secrecy, being, I suppose, afraid to be known, or talked of, left he should be commanded away, by the King and government, upon another expedition, from that peaceable and satisfactory retire. ment he enjoyed, after his acquisition of sufficient wealth.
W. DERHAM." The above curious paper is inserted in F. Moore's “ Travels into the inland Parts of Africa." But be does not say from whence he copied it; and has not mentioned the year, (1693) nor the names of Lodwick, Hook, or Derham, C. B.W.