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C HA P. preters and guides at Kocundy, a considerable way up that

river, and then set out on foot, in a party of about twenty
persons. They mention, with much thankfulness, their
obligations to some, slave-traders, especially to a mulatto
trader near Kocundy. Shortly after leaving Rio Nunez,
they found that a considerable intercourse subsisted between
the interior country, and the upper parts of the river; for
or 600 Foulahs were often seen in a day, carrying on their
backs great loads of rice and ivory, to be exchanged for salt.
In the numerous successive towns, generally distant 6, 8 or
10 miles, the travellers were always most hospitably re-
ceived; the inhabitants having been agreeably surprized at
the light of white men, of whom none had ever been seen
even a few day's journey from the coast. After travelling
16 days, through a country barren in many parts, but fruit-
ful in others, and remarkably full of cattle, and after passing
2 or 3 small rivers, one of them said to empty itself into the
Gambia, they arrived at Laby, a town about 200 miles, al.
most due east, from Kocundy. Here they spent 3 or 4
days, being most cordially received by the chief who is fub-
ordinate to the king of the Foulahs. Laby is about 2 miles
in circumference, and is supposed to contain not less than
5000 people. From Laby, they proceeded, in another week,
72 miles farther inland, to Teembo, the capital of the Foulah
kingdom, experiencing every where the same hospitality.

501. During 14 days which they passed in Teembo, they ment, itute of often conversed; through their interpreters, with the king, civilization,

with a person who acts as deputy in his absence, and with many other principal persons. This kingdom is about 350 miles long, from E. to W. and about 200 miles broad, from N. to S. The king is very arbitrary, in many points, and he up the markets, and channels of trade, just as



&c. &c.

opens or shuts






he pleases. Teembo may contain about 7000 inhabitants;
and the fuperiority of all these interior people, to those on s
the coast, is great, in most branches of civilization. The
houses here, at Laby and some other places, are occasionally
spoken of in the journals as very good. The silver orna-
ments, worn by some of the chief women, are said to be
equal in value to £ 20. At Laby and Teembo, they work
in iron, silver, wood and leather, and weave narrow cloths.
The chief men have books, generally on divinity or law;
and reading is common, there being schools in almost every

Horses are commonly used by the chief people, who
often ride out for amusement; and the king invited the two
strangers to see a species of horse-race. The foil is

generally stony; much of it is pafture: in fome parts, rice is cultivated, chiefly by the women, the men, many of whom are slaves, carrying away the produce on their backs. The soil is dry; about one third of it is said to be extremely fertile, and the climate is thought very good. The nights and mornings were sometimes cold, and the thermometer * was once as low as 51°, at į past 5 in the morning; but it rose to near 90° at noon. The religion is Mahometanism, and there are many mosques; but neither priests nor people seem to have much bigotry, though they fail not to observe the Mahometan rites, praying five times a day. The king's punishments are arbitrary and fevere, especially for disrespect to his own authority; but it appears that no Foulahs are ever sold as slaves, for debts or crimes, and kidnapping seldom occurs. Till lately, however, the Foulahs dealt very considerably in flaves, to procure whom they avowedly go to war. Their religion affords them an apology for this horrible injustice, by permitting them to destroy all infidels,

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* Farenheit's

a term


a term which seems to include all their neighbours. Our II.

~ travellers loft no opportunity of reprobating these wars, SIERRA LE

and of inculcating the principles of the Company, as appears

from the following extract from one of the journals. Foulahs (1.) In the morning, I had a visit from the deputy king, who told me with a make war to locking degree of openness, that the fole object of their wars was to procure slaves, get llares.

as they could not obtain European goods without flaves, and they could get Naves without fighting for them. I mentioned rice, ivory and cattle; but he faid, the factories would not furnish them with guns, powder and cloth, which he considered as the chief articles, for any thing except flaves. I told him that, by a trade in produce, they might become rich, without going to war for llaves, which must certainly offend that God, to whom they prayed five times a day. “But the people on whom we make war, returned he, never pray to God: we do not go to war with people who give God Almighty service."

In an interview with the king himself, the following con

versation occurred. King dispor (2.) After stating the views of the Company, I took the liberty of remarking, ed to abandon the flave

how wicked it was for one nation to destroy another. If these people, said I, have trade. not so much knowledge as you, you should instruct them. There were present, the

king, the head priest and the chief minister, and they still suffered me to proceed without interruption; I was surprized at their attention. They all acknowledged the truth of what I said, and the king observed, that, if he could get guns, powder and every thing else he wanted, for ivory, rice and cattle, he would soon have done with the flave-trade. I told him, that, if once the Africans knew the S. Leona Company perfe&tly, I was sure wars would cease. They all said, they believed so too.

The next day, a conversation occurred to this effect. Religious

(3.) I waited on a head man, by his desire. I found him writing, but he quickly Jaid aside his work. I had much conversation with him, similar to what I held with the king the night before. He defended for some time, their religious wars, but at last admitted that they must be displcaling to God. He still said, however, that their bouk desired them to make war on nations that would not do God service. I replied, that there might be many good things in their book; but that I was sure the devil had

put in that passage: God was so good and merciful that he must hate'mon who de Troyed their fellow creatures. He scrupled not to say, that if the Foulahs could get the goods they wanted without war, he would then believe that going to war offended God: but, said he, if we cannot get these things without war, God cannot be angry with us for going to war, especially as it is so in our book.




that they

Another circumstance, more lamentable than any of the C HA P. preceding, must be added here.

SIERRA LE(4.) The king's deputy, after stating that the Foulahs made war, solely to get Aaves, said also, that the old men, and old women, who were captured in these wars, and who were known to be unsaleable, were put to death.These are the words in Mr. Unsaleable Watt's journal: that of Mr. Winterbottom represents the king's deputy as saying

slaves, killed

by the Fou“ cut the throatsof the elder captives; and mentions, that when this lahs. cruelty was condemned, he replied, that it was not so cruel as letting them starve to death, adding, that their enemies would not scruple to do the same. See $ 509.

502. That this additional and enormous evil is directly but faleabile chargeable on the flave-trade, these quotations seem to not be killed, evince: and that no similar effusion of blood can be supposed market were to happen, even among the same people, in the case of able- stopped. bodied slaves, returned or withheld for want of a market, the following circumstances clearly prove.--It has been stated, that the war with France suddenly checked the slave-trade on the coast. It appears, from the journals of this expedition, that

The influence of the European war was as strong in the interior. The wars of European Teembo ceased about this period: slaves at the sea-side fell from 160 to 120 bars. war checks The king of the Foulahs, to bring the slave-traders to terms, forbade his subjects to carry flaves down till 160 bars should be again offered ; and the consequence of the flaves being thus withheld (except a few smuggled ones) was that the Foulah country had become full of them *.

503. It has been stated ( $ 456.) that the Foulahs were often seized by freebooters, in returning from the factories to which they had been carrying the captives, taken in their predatory wars. This fact is confirmed by the following incident, among others of the kind that occurred in this journey.

An old man called on the travellers at Teembo, and begged them to enquire after Kidnapping his son, who with six others, some of them related to the king, had been seized, in in the intereturning from Rio Pongos, about four years ago. They had been sold to the Bri

rior. tish flave-factor at the Illes de Los, and, immediately shipped off to the W. Indies,

inland save. trade.

The journal intimates, though not very diftin&tly, that they were put to work.



CHA P. except one, who was recovered by the Foulah king. The old man said, he would

willingly pay any ransom for his son *. I assured him, the writer of the journal SIERRA LE- adds, that the governor of S. Leona would feel almost as much pleasure in reftoring

his fon, as he could in receiving him, and that we should spare no pains in the enquiry. At hearing this, the old man's eye's glifened, and he left me, blessing both

the governor and myself, and afsuring me that he should pray for me. Foulah king 504. The Directors have the satisfaction of observing, that favours the plough, tic. the two travellers appear, by the propriety of their conduct,

and by their declarations of the principles of the Company, to have ingratiated themselves much with the natives, efpecially the chief people. The king, being asked, Whether he would encourage any European to settle near him, with a view to cultivation, readily answered, that he would furnish him with land, and cattle and men, for the purpose. Much conversation passed at different times, concerning the introduction of the plough, of which no one had ever heard in the Foulah country. The king of Laby offered to send a son to England for education, and a principal priest seemed willing to do the same. Diligent enquiry was made at Laby and Teembo, concerning the road to Tombuctoo, an interior town, supposed of the first magnitude, to which some adventurers from the African Association have attempted to penetrate, (See § 327.) It was said, at Laby, that a free communication subsisted with Tombuctoo, though distant no less than a four month's journey; fix kingdoms intervening between the Foulah country and that of the king of Tombu&too, namely Belia, Bouriah, Manda, Segoo, Soofundoo, and Genah. This last, the nearest kingdom to Tombućtoo, and that of Tombuctoo itself, were spoken of as richer than any of the rest. The city of Cashna seemed to be

Route to
and Calhna.

Two of the persons fold bore the name of Omar, another is called Hamadoo, and another Bubarsarrit. Two others are mentioned under the name of Hamadoo, one of whom was the son of this old man. The Directors have introduced their names, to promote their redemption,


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