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melancholy instances might be given, were this a proper e H A P.
place. Suffice it to observe, what will scarcely be denied,
that the object of the European traders in America (as
traders) was not to civilize the natives; but, like the white
Nave dealers in Africa, to turn their rude propensities for
European liquors, gunpowder and baubles, to their own
immediate profit, without looking forward to the advantages,
to legitimate commerce, which, sooner or later, would have
resulted from their civilization. Nor have governments
seemed to be sufficiently sensible of those advantages; for
while they strictly regulated the commerce of their subjects
with civilized nations, they left them to push their trade
with the uncivilized in any direction, and by any means,
their own blind avarice suggested. Hence followed
“ deeds unjust-even to the full swing of their lust." In
the Portuguese colonies, indeed, of Grand Para and Maran-
hao, a Directorio was established in 1758, for regulating the
dealings of the whites with the native Indians, who are there
described as “ uncivilized and ignorant,” and “ universally
addicted to debauch in liquors, furnished them by the
whites.” It does not appear what effect these regulations
have had in eradicating the evil habits which had been pre-
vioufly fostered in the Indians by the Portuguese pedlars.
But they have, in some degree, civilized the native Africans
in their settlements on the coast; and the progress of the
Jesuits in Paraguay clearly proves that uncivilized nations
may be improved, instead of being debauched, as hath too
often happened, by an intercourse with the Europeans.

8. Secondly. It is objected, that “ Colonies in Africa
would prove the means of perpetuating, and not of destroy-
ing the slave-trade.” This objection would no doubt have
some force, if commerce, and not cultivation, were to be


C HA P. the primary object of such establishments; or even if culti

vation were to be carried on by human labour only, unal, fisted by the labour of cattle. But commerce and human labour are both very capable of limitation and regulation; and in this work I hope to prove that it is very practicable fo to limit and regulate them in Africa, as to check the hurtful predominancy of the one, and to prevent the oppresfive tendency of the other.

9. Another objection is “ That the defence of colonies in Africa would, like that of most of the American colonies, be burdensome to the European governments, which should favour their establishment.” To this it may be answered, that, if according to the plan I mean to propose, the colonists cultivate, from the beginning, an amicable-coalition with the natives, they will, like the above-mentioned establishment of the Jesuits in Paraguay, soon acquire such a degree of strength as to secure them from all wanton aggression.

10. It seems unnecessary to say more in this place, to satisfy objectors who, upon the whole, wish to promote the civi . lization of Africa, if they clearly saw how it could be effected: for one great end of this work is, to remove their conscientious scruples; most of which, however, appear to me to deserve attention, more on account of their motives, than of their strength.







VIVIL and religious government is allowed to be the Govern-

principal cause which affects (and even forms) the form national chara&ters of nations. Climate, diet, occupation, and a vari- character. ety of other less considerable causes contribute their share to the general effect. It is not, however, by abstract reasonings alone, on the separate or combined influence of those causes that the character of a nation can be ascertained; but actual observations on their genius and conduct must also be attended to. Such observations cannot be too numerous; nor can general conclusions be too cautiously drawn from them.

12. That. this important moral balance may be struck Misrepresen:ewith perfect impartiality, the observer ought to dismiss character of every prejudice, and to leave his mind open to a full and the Africans. fair impression of all the circumstances. Every well disposed man will allow the necessity of such procedure, who knows how grossly, the very people of whom we are treating, have been misrepresented by those who first made merchandize of their perfons, and then endeavoured, by calumny, to justify theirown conduct towards them. The accounts of African governors and other flave merchants, have been but too implicity followed by authors of no small note, who never were in Africa, and who did not suspect that the writers they quoted were interested in misleading


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tions governo

CHA P. them. Hence it is to be feared, that many well meaning

persons have been led to believe that the Africans are so
insensible as not to feel their ill treatment, or so wicked as
not to deserve better; and have therefore, without farther
examination, left them to what they think a merited fate.

13. The author, aware of the difficulty of this part of his
subject, has all along laboured to observe as minutely and
extensively, and to judge as impartially, as he could. But,
after all his diligence, he is only able to offer some short
and imperfect sketches. Imperfect, however, as they are,

he is conscious they are faithfully copied from the original.
Civilized na 14. He believes every man, who has made it his business
cd by reason, to compare the conduct of civilized and uncivilized nations,
by paflions.

will admit that the former are governed by reason, and the
latter by their will and affections, or what are commonly
called their passions-or at least that; upon the whole, rea-
son influences mankind in proportion as they are civilized.

15. This observation may be applied very appositely to
the Africans. Their understandings have not been nearly
so much cultivated as those of the Europeans; but their
passions, both defensive and social, are much stronger. No
people are more sensible of disrespect, contempt, or injury,
or more prompt and violent in resenting them. They are
also apt to retain a sense of injury, till they obtain satisfac-
tion, or gratify revenge. In this they resemble other im-
perfectly civilized tribes, and even the more refined
Europeans, in whom that benevolent religion, which teaches
forgiveness of enemies, has not yet produced it's full effect.
For was not satisfaction to offended honour; that is, was
not a certain mode of revenge a distinguishing part of the
system of chivalry? And do not our modern duelists, the
polite successors of the ancient knights, still cherish a prin-


ple which they will not allow to be called revenge; but for C HA P. which sober people cannot find a better name? Revenge causes wars in Africa: and are there no symptoms of its producing wars in Europe?' But African wars are never protracted, with cold blooded perseverance, to the length of the siege of Troy; nor is peace ever negociated with a view to future wars.

The Africans have no particular tortures in reserve for their prisoners, like the North American Indians; nor do they ever devour them, like the natives of New Zealand.

16. But if they be charged with hatred to their enemies, kindness to their friends ought, in candour, to be stated to their credit; and their hofpitality to unprotected strangers is liberal, disinterested, and free from oftentation; as I myself and many others have experienced. Their kindness, and respectful attention to white persons, with whose characters they are fatisfied, arises to a degree of partiality which, all things considered, is perfectly surprising. Persons of this description may, and often do, reside among them in perfect security, receiving the best possible proofs of their good will, namely the most pressing solicitations to fettle among them. This partiality to well dispofed Europeans extends also to their dress, manners, and commodities; in short, to every thing that is European-a disposition which might long ago have been improved to the best purposes.

17. On those parts of the coast and country, where the save-trade prevails, the inhabitants are shy and reserved, as well they may! and on all occasions go armed, left they fhould be way-laid and carried off.

18. In maternal, filial, and fraternal affection, I scruple not to pronounce them superior to any Europeans I ever was


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